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light in their homes—the importance of cleanliness, exercise, rest; of good food and proper clothing; how to avoid in particular, lung, throat and heart troubles. They would organize public baths and gymnasiums, and in every way, public and private, place the people under sanitary conditions. They would explain to women scientifically, philosophically, if need be, why they cannot with impunity, squeeze their lungs into half the space allotted them by nature, and their liver into the other half. They would explain to men why they cannot smoke eleven cigars a day and then sleep soundly at nightwhy they cannot eat highly spiced foods and drink many kinds of wine late into the night, and wake in the morning with a clear brain and a pure heart. They would educate-educate. I am convinced that it is not because of willful carelessness on the part of either men or women, that we are becoming practically a nation of invalids, but because of real ignorance of the laws of health, and of the means to be taken to insure a long life and a natural death.
A physician of large knowledge, once said: "In all my experience I have never known but one man who really died a natural death.” The fearful mortality among children should alone open the eyes of the people to the need of some more systematic effort for the promotion of sanitary conditions. Our latest statistics show that one third of the entire mortality occurs among children under five years of age. The little ones come already weak and tired—bearing on their innocent shoulders the sins of many ancestors—make a brief struggle against ail the adverse conditions which surround them, only to fall on the threshold of life, victims to heredity and ignorance. In the days when medicine was left to the schoolmen and the clergy, surely the people were excusable for dying off by the thousands from all sorts of diseases and plagues. But are they to-day, when medicine is becoming to a great extent a popular science? So long as every accident, every death was attributed to some power
outside of ourselves, and for which we could not be held responsible, progress in social and sanitary science was impossible. But science has taught us there can be no effect without a cause.
We see whole cities depopulated by some terrible diseasewe see crime running rampant in a land blest with an army of good and intelligent. men and women. We see starvation in the midst of plenty-sickness, misery and death in a world where there should be perfect health, happiness and life, and we no longer rest satisfied with the assurance that as an enlightened people we are in no way responsible. Surely these evils are no law of nature. There must be a cause, and we cannot shirk the responsibility. Reason tells us we are directly responsible, and the cause must be found.
If we aspire as we should to once more having upon the earth a race of healthy men and women, we must begin with the children. Teach them that it is their sacred duty to care for their bodies, that a sound mind in a sound body is the best gift of the gods, and that this is in their power to obtain. Teach them that death from disease is unnatural and the direct result of a broken law; that the young should never die; that only the old die well. Make the rules of hygiene and of right living part of the curriculum of every school and college in our land. Let physiology be taught on a scientific basis. Let the children learn the structure and functions of their own bodies, as openly and as plainly as they learn their problems in mathematics. Ignorance is not innocence, and knowledge is a powerful weapon against temptation. Let them know and realize the interdependence of mental, moral and physical health. Surround them with every hygienic condition and teach them the fear of nature's laws. Then and then only, may we hope for a race of beings who will one day be worthy to commune with nature, and who, after a wise and useful life spent in harmony with her laws, will deserve their long rest on her bosom.
REVENUE LAWS OF ILLINOIS.
The Revenue Reform League of this City, of which Francis B. Peabody is President, appointed à Committee on Measures, which, at the Annual Meeting of the League, held January 16, 1889, made a report, recommending “a limitation of the percentage of taxation allowed the different taxing bodies to about one-fourth the amount now allowed by law, with an additional limitation covering the total amount of taxes that can be levied for all purposes; also a limitation on the amount of corporate indebtedness, to 2 per cent. on the assessed value.
“This limitation of taxing power will necessitate raising the assessment rate, and will result in breaking up the present iniquitous system of assessing at a percentage ununiform and varying with the varying judgment and conscience of the different assessors, and will secure an assessment at a fair cash value as provided by law and as honesty requires.
"At the same time the assessment is increased it becomes necessary to correspondingly decrease the limit of power to create indebtedness."
The committee recommend, also, a reduction in the present exorbitant percentage allowed on tax sales.
The League passed a resolution, urging upon the General Assembly the calling of a convention for the revision of the Constitution of the State.
At an adjourned meeting of the League, on January 30, bills prepared by the Committee were adopted, making important changes in the revenue laws, especially in reference to tax liens, which, if the bills pass, are to be foreclosed in chancery.
WHERE WOMEN VOTE.
Hamilton Willcox of New York has recently published a pamphlet, showing the extent of woman suffrage at the present time. From this it appears that some form of suffrage for women prevails in 110 States, territories and provinces, with an extent of over 15,000,000 square miles and a population of nearly 300,000,000.
In the province of Ontario, women vote (unless married) for all elective officers save two. In the adjoining province of Quebec, women are voters in the cities of Quebec and Montreal, and in various other cities, by provincial law. In British Columbia, women' vote for all elective officers but member of Parliament. In England, Scotland and Wales, women (unless married) vote for all elective officers but members of Parliament. In Ireland, women vote every-where for poor-law guardians; in Dundalk and other seaports, for harbor boards; and in Belfast, for all municipal officers. In Sweden, their suffrage is about the same as in Britain, and they vote, too, indirectly for members of the House of Lords. In Russia, women, heads of households, vote for all elective officers and on all local questions.
In Austria-Hungary, they vote (by proxy) at all elections, including members of provincial and imperial parliaments. In Croatia and Dalmatia, they vote at local elections in person. In Italy, widows vote for members of Parliament. In Finland,
women vote for all elective officers. In Africa, in the colony of Good Hope, the women have municipal suffrage. In British Burma, women tax payers vote in the rural districts. In Madras Presidency, Hindostan, they can do so in all municipalities. In Bombay Presidency they likewise can. In all the countries of Russian Asia they can do so wherever a Russian colony settles. The Russians are colonizing the whole of their vast Asian possessions, and carry with them every-where the “mir," or self-governing village, wherein women, heads of households, vote. In New Zealand, municipal suffrage exists and the Legislature has resolved that women shall vote for members of Parliament. It also exists in Victoria, New South Wales, Queensland and South Australia. In a large number of islands also, some form of woman suffrage prevails.
In our own country we have municipal suffrage in Kansas, and in Wyoming Territory women vote for every office on the same terms with men. Indeed, some form of woman suffrage has been introduced in twenty-four of the forty-five States and Territories.
From every quarter comes the same report that women's partaking in elections brings purer politics, better government and fairer play for women. But this is under great disadvantages; for in large regions woman's political freedom is still limited to school or village elections; in many it is confined to mere municipal elections; only in Wyoming is it equal in extent to masculine suffrage. In many of these communities the mass of men are still disfranchised, as are the mass of women. In America alone has the grand idea of universal suffrage been put in full practice for men. But the idea that womanhood necessitates life-long, exceptionless disfranchisement has been abandoned. The day cannot be far distant when women will vote to the same extent as men.