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appeals were solemn, and the decision by the sword, was given by that God who, being the judge of the whole world, does right and cannot do otherwise. By occasion of these unhappy differences, most great and unusual changes, like an irresistible torrent did break in upon us, not only to the disjointing that parliamentary assembly among themselves, but to the creating such formed divisions among the people, and to producing such a general state of disorder, that hardly any were able to know their duty and with certainty to discern who were to command and who to obey. All things seemed to be reduced, and in a manner resolved into their first elements and principles."

This gives a very clear presentation of the condition of things at the time when Charles I. was called to account for his misdeeds. Vane shows distinctly that he never acted as one of the Judges of the High Court of Justice, and even disapproved many of the measures resorted to both before and after that time. He shows, further, that when he had voluntarily retired to private life, he was willfully and wickedly drawn forth from that retreat and put on trial for no crime whatever, either in thought or deed. His untimely end was indeed the work of fiends. Charles II. had not wit enough to discern or comprehend it.

On the 13th of June, he took leave of his children, but the parting scene is too painful to be narrated. On the 14th of June, 1662, in the full glory of ripened manhood, Vane was brought forth to die, on Tower Hill.

Of his associates who had striven with him for the rights of the people, many had passed peacefully from earth in the due course of nature, and many had suffered terrible deaths, as cruelly and unjustly as he was about to suffer, while others had bowed themselves ignobly before the monster that now occupied the throne, and had been left with life. Fairfax had thus bowed and retired to private life, and Lambert, who had been tried with him (Vane), had submitted and was then cultivating flowers and working embroidery. The heads of Cromwell, Ireton, and Bradshawe grinned from the gables of Westminster Hall. Pym and Hampden had died in the morning


of the strife, and Blake bad fallen somewhat later, but all of their bodies had been flung into dishonored graves. Harrison and Scot, and many others had been torn limb from limb. The immortal Milton, now old and blind, had been long in hiding, but was kept informed of all passing events, while Algernon Sidney was reserved for a later day, but for a like fate with himself.

Of those who are known as the regicides, four and twenty had died natural deaths. Ten had been banged, drawn and quartered. The prison walls had closed around twenty five more, some of whom were never to leave it alive-while twenty, who had made their escape to foreign lands, were followed by hue and cry. Some fell by the dagger of the assassin, and three, Goff, Whalley and Dixwell, had fled to the wilds of America. They roved the woods with the savage denizens of the forests, and slept in caves and amid the rocks, watched over, however by a kind Providence, and ministered to by sympathizing friends.

Downes, Garland, Harvey, Hevingham, Millington, Potter, Challaner; Harrington, Phelps, Smyth, James Temple, Peter Temple, Tichbourne, Wayte, Sir Hardress Waller, and Mayne and Haselrig all died in the Tower. Silburne perished in Jersey, and Henry Morten at Chepstow Castle, whither they had respectively been transferred, while Fleetwood and Helvlet were ultimately released, and died in America; at least Fleetwood did. Lambert died in Guernsey. Hutchinson perished after years of imprisonment in Deal Castle. They died in exile, in prison, by the hand of the assassin, on the battle field and on the scaffold. Their generation was not worthy of them; but no cause has ever been maintained by more steadfast striving, or possessed a nobler line of martyrs.

According to the custom of the times, Vane was expected to address the multitude who had assembled to see him die, but the King bad notified him in advance that he would not be permitted to say anything reflecting upon his majesty or the government.” His response to the message was made on the scaffold, where at the very opening of his address he said: “I shall do nothing but what becomes a good Christian and an

Englishman;" but he insisted that he had not had a fair and impartial trial, and then added: “When I was before them (the judges), I could not have the liberty and privilege of an Englishman, the grounds, reasons and causes of the actings I was charged with duly considered. I therefore desired the judges that they would set their seals to my bill of exceptions; I pressed hard for it again and again, as the right of myself and every free born Englishman by the law of the land, but was finally denied it”-Here Sir John Robinson, the lieutenant of the tower, interrupted him, told him it was a lie and commanded him to stop. Vane reiterated his statement, but Robinson commanded the trumpets to sound and a tumult was raised, so that he could not be heard. When silence was at length partially restored, he said: “God will judge between me and you in this matter.” He then undertook to go on, and after referring with some pathos to the rectitude of his life, lifted up his eyes to Heaven and spread out his hands and said: “I do here appeal to the Great God of Heaven and all this assembly, or any other persons to show wherein I have defiled my hands with any man's blood or estate, or that I have sought myself in any public capacity or place I have been in.” The effect upon the multitude was electric. His attitude was so dramatic that the sheriff and lieutenant of the tower became somewhat alarmed, and snatched a paper which he held in his hands, away from him. They commanded all those who were taking notes of his speech to deliver the same up, and when they remonstrated with the wretches, Vane said; “My usage from man is no harder than was my Lord and Master's;" but the noise and trumpets broke in again, and he was not permitted to finish what he had to say. Having anticipated this, he had carefully made a memoranda of his address and given it to a friend before he reached the place of execution, and it has come down to us in that shape. Having thus been roughly and brutally interfered with, he was then compelled to lay his head upon the block, and it was severed at a blow. The cry of anguish which went up was never forgotten, and resounded throughout the world.

He died a martyr for the cause of representative government

a “government of the people, by the people and for the people.”

We visited the spot but a few weeks ago, where this forerunner of American liberty laid down his life. There rise, as they have risen for almost a thousand years, the cold gray walls of the tower, with the clouds lowering dark and threatning above them—and there, shrouded in gloom are the grated windows that look forth on the narrow space 'which so many have trod never more to return—and there is the spot where the forlorn mother stood whom Shakspeare has immortalized in that touching apostrophe to her babes that were about to be smothered:

“Pity, you ancient stones, those tender babes,
Whom envy hath immured within your walls;
Rude cradle for such little pretty ones.
Rough rugged nurse, old sullen playfellow

For tender princes, use my babes well.” No one with the least sensibility can visit Tower Hill and study its surroundings, without being overwhelmed with sadness as he thinks of the bloody deeds that have here taken place. Harry Vane had in his youth, as we have shown, spent several years in America, and had become thoroughly imbued with the spirit of freedom. We look upon him as almost one

His name is the most appropriate link to bind us to the land of our fathers. It presents, more, perhaps, than any that could be mentioned in one character, those features and traits by which it is our pride to prove our lineage and descent from the British Isles."

Elliott Anthony.

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During the last few years, througla the public press, and in other ways, the attention of the public has been often called to the admitted evils prevalent in justice of the peace courts in Chicago. Frequent, and often well founded complaints are made both of the justices and of the constables.

The causes of the evils complained of, may be perhaps briefly summarized as follows:

1st:--The fee system under which both justices and constables are paid fees, and not salaries, for their services.

2nd:—The low grade of many justices and constables, both as regards ability and character.

3rd:—The system under which justices are appointed, and constables elected.

4th:—The extension of the jurisdiction of country justices over the City of Chicago, which leads to suits being brought against citizens of Chicago in remote and inaccessible portions of Cook County.

How best to remedy these evils is an open question, and one beset with many difficulties.

It has been proposed by some, to enact a law under the present constitution, by which justices in municipal corporations of a stated population, can be paid by salaries instead of by fees.

This plan is beset by constitutional difficulties, and at best is but a partial remedy. Sections 21 and 29, Article 6, of the Constitution of 1870, of

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