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ing rupture of the meningo-rachidian veins, and bemorrhages may occur upon the membranes or in the substance of the cord. .- Traumatic meningitis of course exists and can be recognized

as a clinical entity. Traumatic myelitis is undoubtedly a condition which at certain levels of the cord can exist. Gower speaks of cases of traumatic myelitis in which a post mortem has revealed all the conditions from thickening of the membranes to complete softening and destruction. Slight injury to the bones is another surgical condition determinable from the symptoms and not to be confused with injury to the cord.

And so we may classify the actual states of the cord in injury, and in a very large number of cases specify accurately the lesion. As to pure concussion, assuming that there is such a lesion, it may be defined as a stunted condition of the cord, which is inferred to have undergone some form of molecular derangement by which its function is for the time being interfered with. Cases are doubtless on record in which post mortems after spinal injury have failed to reveal any lesion whatever in the tissue. I question, however, whether such cases have been subjected to complete microscopical examination such as is at the present day considered essential. Lidell has related a case in which a post mortem examination was held on a patient who had died as was supposed, from concussion of the cord. At first no sign revealed itself in the appearance of the cord, and yet a more careful subsequent examination showed in the interior of the cord itself, it globular clot which had produced compression and death.

The question of Dr. McArthur, “Does concussion exist?” it is, perhaps impossible to answer dogmatically. My present impression is that transiently it may. Nevertheless, I will add in closing that Sir Joseph Bryant, not a neurologist but as good surgical authority as we have to-day, has recently published a paper in which he claims that even concussion of the brain has no existence as a pathological state. Hilton many years ago denied that any case of death from concussion of the brain, when examined, had failed to reveal structural changes in the gross appearance. The tendency of the present time is to more minute and careful examination of these traumatic

troubles of the brain and cord. Much of the symptomatology of “concussion” is inferential, but from the investigations that are being carried on we will undoubtedly be able to define a structural condition corresponding to every symptom which injuries produce.

MEDICAL CHARITIES.

One of the most threatening abuses of medical charity is created by an association organized for charitable purposes, which advertises medical aid and hospital treatment for the payment of a weekly sum, in insurance for this purpose. Dr. L. L. McArthur recently brought this subject before the Chicago Medical Society in a very forcible manner, but no way of meeting the evil was devised by the Society. Judging from the position recently taken in the case of the National Mutual Indemnity Association by Insurance Commissioner Shandrew of Minnesota, the proper method to check this evil is to prevent the incorporation of these bodies. The National Mutual Indemnity Association was a society to provide suitable medical and surgical attendance for its members in case of sickness or disability.” Mr. Shandrew declined to register the certificate of its incorporation, on the ground that “such associations not only fail to protect those for whose benefit they are incorporated, but afford facilities for the organization of insurance .schemes whose primary object is profit, regardless of the interest or rights of members.”

The State Medical Society, at its coming meeting, should ascertain how far the principles laid down by Mr. Shandrew are legally applicable to Illinois, and then secure, if possible, the vacation of all charters already granted for alleged charitable purposes to bodies used for purposes of gain. It should also take steps to prevent the granting of future charters to such bodies. --Medical Standard.

NOTES OF TRAVEL.

CHRISTIANIA AND NORWAY-NORWEGIAN POLITICS AND LITERATUREVOYAGE ACROSS THE NORTJI SE1-PARIS.

Christiania, like all the pri al cities of Norway, is built among the hills; and from some of the summits of these hills, may be qlıtained magnificent views of the sea and of the country around.

On a side-hill, in the center of the City, is the castle, where the King resides occasionally, when he visits Norway; the most of his time being spent in Sweden. Near the castle is the University, a very important institution for the Norwegian. A university in Europe, as is well known, means something more than in America, and is always more or less under the control and patronage of the State. For several hundred years, while Norway was under the dominion of Denmark it had no university, and the Norwegian who would have a liberal education, must acquire it in Copenhagen or on the Continent.

In Christiania I formed the acquaintance of Professor Sars of the University, and often visited at the house of himself and his mother, a brilliant lady, seventy-three years of age.

Political excitement was at that time, (1884), running high. The hoiremand. (men of the right), constituted the King's party, while the opposition were the venstremand, (men of the left), who were in favor of a more liberal form of government. In fact, Norway seemed to me to be fast drifting into republicanism.

One of the most important questions under discussion, relates to the right of veto claimed by the King, over the Norwegian Legislature (The Storthing.) This right the left denies entirely. But Ilis Majesty had scored a point by obtaining the unanimous opinion of the Juridical Faculty in his favor. One could not but notice, however, the ingenious manner in which the question had been propounded to the Faculty. Not whether

any veto had been provided for in the Constitution, but “how far and to what extent," "hvorvidt og i hvilken Udstrækning,” according to their opinion, there pertained to the King the right of sanction in respect to changes of the Constitution? Thus assuming that the right of veto existed, and only submitting the question as to its extent—whether it was absolute or merely suspensive. It is easy to see that the form of the question might have much to do with the answer, especially under a monarchical form of government; since jurists who might doubt the right of the veto, not being called upon to decide upon the right itself, might give less attention to the grounds upon which it rested, and confine themselves principally to the question of its extent, assuming its existence.

Examining the Constitution carefully, it would be difficult for an outsider to see any veto right expressed with sufficient clearness, in it; but the history of the country showed that the right had been repeatedly exercised, and acquiesced in by the Storthing, and this was the argument upon which the royal party mainly depended. Another position taken by them was, that the Constitution of 1814 was in the nature of a contract between the King of Sweden and the people of Norway represented by the Storthing, and that it could not be changed without the consent of both contracting parties. This principle, if admitted, would support the veto power.

On the other hand it was claimed that the King in that very Constitution, acknowledged the independence of Norway, which could only be maintained by an iwtrammeled Storthing;-that Norway was attached to Sweden for certain purposes only, and not for the purpose of a consolidated goverament.

Those who wish to become more thoroughly acquainted with these questions, should read Professor Sars IIistorical Introduction to the Constitution :-(Historisk Indledning til Grundloven, tredje Oplag-Kristiania, 1884.)

The Norwegians are a leading and thinking people. The higher class are well educatel, often reading and speaking a number of languages. It is well kuown that there are more linguists among the educated classes of Europe than among those of this country. The reason is apparent; bec:use they so much more frequently come in contact with people speaking other languages.

The middling and lower classes also in Norway, are in intelligence and moral standing above the average of the same classes in other European countries, and perhaps in this country. In Christiania. There were ten

circulating loan libraries besides the large library in the University. These libraries are extensively patronized by all classes of the people.

The Norwegian literature partakes of the character of the land which has produced it. It is bold and romantic-full of the elements of wild passion, yet softened by the sun of modern civilization. In Holberg they had their Shakspeare-in Bjornson they have their Victor Hugo.—Ibsen, Jonas Lee aud others also are shedding brilliancy upon the pathway of Danish-Norwegian literature.

In Christiania, when the bells are heard tolling, it is not for a fire, but to signal the departure of some citizen for the far off country. On one occasion I heard them tolling steadily for nearly an hour. In case of a fire, no public alarm is given, unless the conflagration becomes extensive, in which case the people are notified by the firing of cannon.

The Norwegians, considering them as a whole, are an honest, industrious, intelligent people, and very hospitable to strangers. I was more favorably impressed with the Scandinavians and Russians, and less favorably impressed with some other peoples than I had expected to be.

In Christiania, I heard Miss Thursby, the American, who was singing in eleven languages in Europe, and who was exceedingly popular in Sweden and Norway. Strakosh was with her, and Wolff, the violinist. The son of Ole Bull was the Director.

October 3, 1884. Sailed for Havre, after a pleasant sojourn of two months in Christiania. The North Sea was very rough during most of the voyage. Arrived in Havre on the morning of the 6th, and the same day was in Paris.

Here I spent the months of October and November, months ever to be remembered. It is not my purpose to undertake to describe Paris or Paris life, which has been done so often and so much better than I could do it. My object will be to touch upon some phases of European life less familiar to American readers.

C. B. W.

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