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recess of the Senate. Nomination confirmed and appointed 15th December, 1817.

JOHN MACPHERSON BERRIEN, of Georgia. Appointed 9th March, 1829. Resigned.

ROGER B. TANEY, of Maryland. Appointed 20th July, 1831, in the recess of the Senate. Nomination confirmed and appointed 27th December, 1831.

BENJAMIN F. BUTLER, of New York. Appointed 15th November, 1833, in the recess of the Senate. Nomination confirmed and ap

pointed 24th June, 1834. Resigned.

Felix Grundy, of Tennessee. Appointed 7th July, 1838. Resigned. HENRY D. GILPIN, of Pennsylvania. Appointed 10th January, 1840. JOHN J. CRITTENDEN, of Kentucky. Appointed 5th March, 1841. Resigned.

HUGH S. LEGARE, of South Carolina. Appointed 13th September, 1841. JOHN NELSON, of Maryland. Appointed 1st July, 1843, in the recess of the Senate. Nomination confirmed and appointed 2d January, 1844.


JOHN Y. Mason, of Virginia. Appointed 5th March, 1845. Resigned Appointed Secretary of the Navy 9th September, 1846.

NATHAN CLIFFORD, of Maine. Appointed 17th October, 1846, in the recess of the Senate. Nomination confirmed and appointed 23d December, 1846.

ISAAC TOUCEY, of Connecticut.

JOHN J. CRITTENDEN, of Kentucky.
CALEB CUSHING, of Massachusetts.

Appointed 21st June, 1848.

Appointed 7th March, 1849.

Appointed 20th July, 1850.
Appointed March 7, 1853.

§ 500. These departments employ a large number of clerks. By an act of March 3, 1791, every clerk and other officer appointed in any of the departments, before entering on the duties of the appointment, must take an oath or affirmation before one of the justices of the Supreme Court, or one of the judges of a district court of the United States, to support the Constitution of the United States, and well and faithfully to execute the trust committed to him.

§ 501. By an act passed March 3, 1853, and its supplc

ments, the clerks in the Departments of the Treasury, War, Navy, the Interior, and the Post-Office, were arranged in four classes. The clerks in class number one receive an annual salary of $1200 each; those in class number two, $1400 each; those in class number three, $1600 each; those in class number four, $1800 each.

§ 502. No clerk can be appointed into either of the four classes until after he has been examined and found quali fied, by a board to consist of three examiners, one of them to be the chief of the bureau or office into which he is to be appointed, and the two others to be selected by the head of the department to which the clerk is to be assigned. The same act distributed a certain number of clerks, of the different classes, among the various departments, as the whole permanent clerical force of such departments.

§ 503. Various laws have been passed by Congress for the purpose of securing, as far as possible, honesty and integrity in the persons connected with these departments of the government. Any officer of the United States, or person holding any place of trust or profit under or in connection with any executive department of the government, or under the Senate or House of Representatives, or any senator or representative, who shall act as agent or attorney for prosecuting any claim against the United States, or aid or assist in the prosecution of any claim, or receive any share of a claim for having aided in its prosecution, is, by an act of February 26, 1853, made liable to indictment, and upon conviction may be sentenced to pay a fine not exceeding $5000, or suffer imprisonment in the penitentiary not exceeding one year, or both, as the court in its discretion shall adjudge.

§ 504. The same act prohibits bribery, or the undue influencing of members of Congress, or any person hold

ing any office of trust or profit in connection with any department of the government, or under the Senate and House of Representatives. The person giving and the person receiving the bribe, are each liable to indictment as for a high crime and misdemeanor, and upon conviction may be punished by fine or imprisonment; and the person receiving, if an officer, is also forever disqualified from holding any office of honour, trust, or profit under the United States.

§ 505. An act of Congress, passed August 23, 1842, declares that no officer in any branch of the public service, or any other person whose salary, pay, or emoluments is, or are, fixed by law or regulations, shall receive any additional pay or extra allowance or compensation whatever, for any other service or duty, unless the same shall be authorized by law, and the appropriation explicitly set forth that it is for such additional pay, extra allowance, or compen


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ARTICLE I. as we have seen, treats of the legislative department, and Article II. of the executive department. We now enter upon Article III., which treats of the judicial department.

"Article III. SECTION. 1. The judicial Power of the United States, shall be vested in one supreme Court, and in such inferior Courts as the Congress may from time to time ordain and establish. The Judges, both of the supreme and inferior Courts, shall hold their Offices during good Behavior, and shall, at stated Times, receive for their Services, a Compensation which shall not be diminished during their Continuance in Office."

§ 506. Prior to the adoption of the present constitution, the people of the United States, had not any national tribunal to which they could resort for justice. The adminis tration of justice was confined to the State courts, in which the people of other States had no participation, and over which they had no control. There was then no general court of appellate jurisdiction, by which the errors of State courts, affecting either the nation at large or the citizens of any other State, could be revised and cor rected.

§ 507. When laws became necessary to secure the interests of the confederacy, under the Articles of Confederation, and to exact obedience and punish disobedience by fines or otherwise, Congress was obliged to request the State legislatures to pass and enforce such laws. This was among the evils against which the people of the United States thought proper to provide by a national judiciary. Hence one of the objects of the new Constitution is stated in the preamble, to be "to establish justice."

§ 508. The Constitution itself establishes one Supreme. Court, but it leaves the establishment of inferior tribunals to Congress.

§ 509. By Art. II. sec. 2, clause 2, the President is authorized to nominate, and, by and with the consent of the Senate, appoint judges of the Supreme Court. The appointment of the judges of the inferior courts is also vested in the President by virtue of his authority to appoint all officers of the United States, whose appointments are not by the Constitution otherwise provided for.

§ 510. The judges, both of the supreme and inferior courts, hold their office, not necessarily for life, or for a definite term of years, but during good behaviour, and their compensation cannot be diminished during their continuance in office. The main object of these provisions ist to make the judiciary independent of the other departments of the government, in order to insure boldness and honesty in the discharge of their duties. Nor, for the same reason, can the judges be removed from office by Congress or the President, except upon impeachment and conviction for treason, bribery, and other high crimes and misdemeanors.

§ 511. Though the salary of the judges cannot be diminished, it may be increased, during their continuance in

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