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challenged Cupid at the flight and my uncle's fool, reading the challenge, subscribed for Cupid,
before the King's majestie (Edward VI.) at Westminster, by three maisters, Willyam Pascall, Robert Greene, and W. Browne, at seven kynde of weapons. That is to say, the axe, the pike, the rapier and target, the rapier and cloke, and with two swords, agaynst all alyens and strangers being borne without the King's dominions, of what countrie so ever he or they were, geving them warninge by theyr bills set up by the three maisters, the space of eight weeks before the sayd challenge was playde; and it was holden four severall Sundayes one after another." It appears from the same work, that all challenges "to any maister within the realme of Englande being an Englishe man," were against the statutes of the " Noble Science of Defence."
Beatrice means, that Benedick published a general challenge, like a prize-fighter. STEEVENS.
9challenged Cupid at the FLIGHT:] Flight (as Mr. Douce observes to me) does not here mean an arrow, but a sort of shooting called roving, or shooting at long lengths. The arrows used at this sport are called flight-arrows; as were those used in battle for great distances. So, in Beaumont and Fletcher's Bonduca : not the quick rack swifter;
"The virgin from the hated ravisher
"Not half so fearful: not a flight drawn home,
Again, in A Woman Kill'd with Kindness, 1617:
"We have tied our geldings to a tree, two flight-shot off." Again, in Middleton's Game of Chess :
"Who, as they say, discharg'd it like a flight."
Again, in The Entertainment at Causome House, &c. 1613:
it being from the park about two flight-shots in length." Again, in The Civil Wars of Daniel, b. viii. st. 15:
"The archers their flight-shafts to shoot away;
"Which th' adverse side (with sleet and dimness blind, "Mistaken in the distance of the way,)
"Answer with their sheaf-arrows, that came short
"Of their intended aim, and did no hurt."
Holinshed makes the same distinction in his account of the same occurrence, and adds, that these flights were provided on purpose. Again, in Holinshed, p. 649: He caused the soldiers to shoot their flights towards the lord Audlies company."
Mr. Tollet observes, that the length of a flight-shot seems ascertained by a passage in Leland's Itinerary, 1769, vol. iv p. 44: "The passage into it at ful se is a flite-shot over, as much as the Tamise is above the bridge." It were easy to know the length of
and challenged him at the bird-bolt 1.-I pray you, how many hath he killed and eaten in these wars?
* Old copies, burbolt.
London-bridge, and Stowe's Survey may inform the curious reader whether the river has been narrowed by embanking since the days of Leland.
Mr. Douce, however, observes, that as the length of the shot depended on the strength and skill of the archer, nothing can with certainty be determined by the passage quoted from Leland. STEEVENS.
The flight was an arrow of a particular kind. In the Harleian Catalogue of MS. vol. i. n. 69, is "a challenge of the lady Maiee's servants to all comers, to be performed at Greenwiche― to shoot standart arrow, or flight." I find the title-page of an old pamphlet still more explicit-"A new post-a marke exceeding necessary for all men's arrows: whether the great man's flight, the gallant's rover, the wise man's pricke-shaft, the poor man's but-shaft, or the fool's bird-bolt." FARMER.
These terms are thus explained by Mr. Gifford : "Flights were long and light-feathered-arrows that went directly to the mark; Tovers were arrows shot compass-wise, or with a certain degree of elevation; these were the all-dreaded war weapons of the English; but-shafts, as the name sufficiently intimates, were the strong unbarbed arrows used in the field exercises and amusements of the day." BOSWELL.
1 - at the BIRD-BOLT.] The bird-bolt is a short thick arrow without a point, and spreading at the extremity so much, as to leave a flat surface, about the breadth of a shilling. Such are to this day in use to kill rooks with, and are shot from a cross-bow. So, in Marston's What You Will, 1607:
– ignorance should shoot
"His gross-knobb'd bird-bolt.”
Again, in Love in a Maze, 1632:
"Pox of his bird-bolt! Venus,
"Speak to thy boy to fetch his arrow back,
"Or strike her with a sharp one!" STEEVENS.
The meaning of the whole is-Benedick, from a vain conceit of his influence over women, challenged Cupid at roving (a particular kind of archery, in which flight-arrows are used). In other words, he challenged him to shoot at hearts. The fool, to ridicule this piece of vanity, in his turn challenged Benedick to shoot at crows with the cross-bow and bird-bolt; an inferior kind of archery used by fools, who, for obvious reasons, were not per
But how many hath he killed? for, indeed, I promised to eat all of his killing'.
LEON. Faith, niece, you tax signior Benedick too much; but he'll be meet with you3, I doubt it
MESS. He hath done good service, lady, in these
BEAT. You had musty victual, and he hath holp to eat it: he is a very valiant trencher-man, he hath an excellent stomach.
MESS. And a good soldier too, lady.
BEAT. And a good soldier to a lady ;-But what is he to a lord?
MESS. A lord to a lord, a man to a man; stuffed with all honourable virtues 4.
BEAT. It is so, indeed; he is no less than a
mitted to shoot with pointed arrows: Whence the proverb—“ A fool's bolt is soon shot." DOUCE.
I promised to eat all of his killing.] So, in King Henry V.: "Ram. He longs to eat the English.
"Con. I think, he will eat all he kills."
he'll be MEET with you,] This is a very common expression in the midland counties, and signifies, he'll be your match, he'll be even with you.
So, in TEXNOTAMIA, by B. Holiday, 1618:
"Go meet her, or else she'll be meet with me.” Chapman has nearly the same phrase in his version of the 22d Iliad:
"Paris and Phoebus meet with thee-."
4 - STUFFED with all honourable virtues.] Stuffed, in this first instance, has no ridiculous meaning. Mr. Edwards observes, that Mede, in his Discourses on Scripture, speaking of Adam, says, "he whom God had stuffed with so many excellent qualities." Edwards's MS.
Again, in The Winter's Tale :
whom you know
"Of stuff'd sufficiency."
Un homme bien etoffé, signifies, in French, a man in good circumstances." STEEVENS.
stuffed man but for the stuffing,-Well, we are all mortal".
LEON. You must not, sir, mistake my niece: there is a kind of merry war betwixt signior Benedick and her: they never meet, but there is a skirmish of wit between them.
BEAT. Alas, he gets nothing by that. In our last conflict, four of his five wits went halting off, and now is the whole man governed with one so that if he have wit enough to keep himself warm,
5- he is no less than a STUFFED man: but for the STUFFING,Well, we are all mortal.] Mr. Theobald plumed himself much on the pointing of this passage; which, by the way, he might learn from D'Avenant [in his Law against Lovers]: but he says not a word, nor any one else that I know of, about the reason of this abruption. The truth is, Beatrice starts an idea at the words stuffed man; and prudently checks herself in the pursuit of it. A stuffed man was one of the many cant phrases for a cuckold. In Lyly's Midas, we have an inventory of Motto's moveables: “Item, says Petulus, one paire of hornes in the bride-chamber on the bed's head. The beast's head, observes Licio; for Motto is stuff'd in the head, and these are among unmoveable goods.” FARMER.
four of his five wITS] In our author's time wit was the general term for intellectual powers. So, Davies on the Soul: Wit, seeking truth, from cause to cause ascends, "And never rests till it the first attain;
Will, seeking good, finds many middle ends,
And, in another part :
"But if a phrenzy do possess the brain,
"It so disturbs and blots the forms of things, "As fantasy proves altogether vain,
"And to the wit no true relation brings.
"Then doth the wit, admitting all for true,
Build fond conclusions on those idle grounds.” The wits seem to have been reckoned five, by analogy to the five senses, or the five inlets of ideas. JOHNSON.
So, in a prayer by Sir Thomas More, which I do not find in his works, but which is preserved in A Manual of Praiers, printed at Calice, 1.599: "I pray thee, gratious Lorde, that thou forgive me all the sinnes that I have done, thought, or said, &c. in mispending of my five wittes." See the notes on King Lear, Bless thy five wits." BOSWELL.
Act III. Sc. IV. : 66
let him bear it for a difference between himself and his horse; for it is all the wealth that he hath left, to be known a reasonable creature.-Who is his companion now? He hath every month a new sworn brother ".
MESS. Is it possible?
BEAT. Very easily possible: he wears his faith but as the fashion of his hat, it ever changes with the next block 1.
MESS. I see, lady, the gentleman is not in your books 2.
7 if he have wIT ENOUGH TO KEEP HIMSELF WARM, let him bear it for a DIFFERENCE, &c.] Such a one has wit enough to keep himself warm, is a proverbial expression.
So, in Heywood's Epigrams on Proverbs:
"Wit kept by warmth."
"Thou art wise inough, if thou keepe thee warme,
"But the least colde that cumth, kilth thy wit by harme." Again, in The Wise Woman of Hogsden, 1638: "You are the wise woman, are you? and have wit to keep yourself warm enough, I warrant you." Again, in Cynthia's Revels, by Ben Jonson : - your whole self cannot but be perfectly wise; for your hands have wit enough to keep themselves warm.”
To bear any thing for a difference, is a term in heraldry. So, in Hamlet, Ophelia says:
you may wear your rue with a difference."
sworn brother.] i. e. one with whom he hath sworn (as was anciently the custom among adventurers) to share fortunes. See Mr. Whalley's note on-" we'll be all three sworn-brothers to France," in King Henry V. Act II. Sc. I. STEEVENS.
he wears his FAITH-] Not religious profession, but profession of friendship; for the speaker gives it as the reason of her asking, who was now his companion? that he had every month a new sworn brother. WARBURTON.
with the next BLOCK.] A block is the mould on which a hat is formed. So, in Decker's Satiromastix :
"Of what fashion is this knight's wit? of what block?" See a note on King Lear, Act IV. Sc. VI.
The old writers sometimes use the word block, for the hat
the gentleman is not IN YOUR BOOKS.] used, I believe, by more than understand it.
This is a phrase