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Congress passed in September, 1888. It will be of stone, iron, and concrete, thoroughly fire-proof, and will accommodate nearly 4,000,000 books. And as in January, 1887, there were but 581,678 books and 193,000 pamphlets in the library, many years, it is thought, must elapse before the shelf-room of the new building will be filled. In a gallery 350 feet long by 35 feet wide will be shown works of art. Maps, charts, Washingtoniana, the valuable Toner collection now stored in the crypt, and halls for copyright records and for the accumulations under the copyright laws will be provided for in convenient rooms and galleries. It is expected that in the new building the treasures of the library can be made more available to the general public. At the time of the present writing-September, 1888--the building seems no farther advanced than in 1887.
We have now completed our tour of the principal divisions of the Capitol. There still remain the basement story, in which are situated the postoffices, and a number of the committee rooms of Congress, the Law Library, now under the charge of Mr. C. W. Hoffman, which comprises 70,000 law books, the document- and folding-rooms, in which the books and pamphlets printed by government are stored; and the attic story, which is devoted mainly to committee rooms.
The sub-basement is well worthy a visit, if for nothing more than to inspect the apparatus by which the halls, corridors, and chambers of the Capitol are heated. Below this basement is a subterranean region, into which man rarely penetrates,
a no-man's land, full of long, dark, creepy corridors, and dim ghostly chambers, where are stored old models, half dismembered casts of statues, packingboxes, and other rubbish.
At the other end of Pennsylvania Avenue, a mile distant from the Capitol, we shall find the President's House, the seat of the Executive, the third great co-ordinate branch of government. It is surrounded by the Department buildings, and, tradition avers, was placed at this distance from the Capitol, that the Executive might be far removed from the influence of the legislative branch-perhaps that the Legislature might be entirely free from the overawing influence of the Executive. The President is the head of the Republic, charged with the execution of the laws made by Congress, and approved, if occasion requires, by the Supreme Court; it will be interesting, therefore, to inquire as to his powers and prerogatives, and as to the methods by which the people make choice of him to execute their behests.
The same constitution that enacted the legislative and judicial power called into being the executive. Article II, of that instrument, which immediately follows the article defining the legislative Branch, begins thus: “ The executive power shall be vested in a Presi
dent of the United States of America. He shall hold his office during the term of four years, and, together with the Vice-President, chosen for the same term, be elected as follows,”—and then goes on to describe the method of his election. We will first inquire into his powers and duties, which are defined in Sections II and III of this article, thus : He “shall be Commander-in-Chief of the Army and Navy of the United States, and of the Militia of the several States when called into the service of the United States. ... He shall have power to grant reprieves and pardons for offenses agairst the United States, except in cases of impeachment. He shall have power, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, to make treaties, provided two thirds of the Senators present concur; and he shall nominate, and by and with the advice and consent of the Senate shall appoint ambassadors, other public ministers, and consuls, judges of the Supreme Court, and all other officers of the United States, whose appointments are not herein otherwise provided for, and which shall be established by law. He shall have power to fill all vacancies that may happen during the recess of the Senate, by granting commissions which shall expire at the end of the next session." His duties are "from time to time to give Congress information of the state of the Union, and recommend to their consideration such measures as he shall judge necessary and expedient.” On extraordinary occasions “to convene both Houses, or either of them, and in case they cannot agree with respect to the time of adjournment, to adjourn them