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2. The resident gentry were allied to good English families. They held their heads above the Dutch traders of New York, and the money-getting Roundheads of Pennsylvania and New England. Never were people less republican than those of the great province which was soon to be foremost in the memorable revolt against the British crown.

3. The gentry of Virginia dwelt on their great lands after a fashion almost patriarchal. For its rough cultivation, each estate had a multitude of hands-of purchased and assigned servants—who were subject to the command of the master. The land yielded their food, live-stock, and game.

4. The great rivers swarmed with fish for the taking. From their banks the passage home was clear. Their ships took the tobacco off their private wharves on the banks of the Potomac or the James River, and carried it to London or Bristol-bringing back English goods and articles of home manufacture in return for the only produce which the Virginian gentry chose to cultivate. 5. Their hospitality was boundless.

No stranger was ever sent away from their gates. The gentry received one another, and travelled to each other's houses, in a state almost feudal. The question of slavery was not born at the time of which we write. To be the proprietor of black servants shocked the feelings of no Virginia gentleman; nor, in truth, was the despotism exercised over the negro race generally a savage one. The food was plenty: the poor black people lazy and not unhappy. You might have preached negro emancipation to Madam Esmond of Castlewood, as you might have told her to let the horses run loose out of her stables; she had no doubt but that the whip and the corn-bag were good for both.

6. Her father may have thought otherwise, but his doubts did not break forth in active denial, and he was rather disaffected than rebellious. At one period, this gentleman had taken a part in active life at home, and possibly might have been eager to share its rewards; but in latter days he did not seem to care for them. A something had occurred in his life, which had cast a tinge of melancholy over all his existence. He submitted to life, rather than enjoyed it, and never was in better spirits than in his last hours when he was going to lay it down.

7. When the boys' grandfather died, their mother, in great state, proclaimed her eldest son George her successor and heir of the estate; and Harry, George's younger brother by half an hour, was always enjoined to respect his senior. All the household was equally instructed to pay him honour: the negroes, of whom there was a large and happy family, and the assigned servants from Europe, whose lot was made as bearable as it might be under the government of the lady of Castlewood.

the whole family there scarcely was a rebel save Mrs Esmond's faithful friend and companion, Madam Mountain, and Harry's foster-mother, a faithful negro woman, who never could be made to understand why her child should not be first, who was handsomer, and stronger, and cleverer than his brother, as she vowed; though, in truth, there was scarcely any difference in the beauty, strength, or stature of the twins.

9. In disposition, they were in many points exceedingly unlike; but in feature they resembled each other so closely, that, but for the colour of their hair, it had been difficult to distinguish them. In their


beds, and when their heads were covered with those vast, ribboned nightcaps which our great and little ancestors wore, it was scarcely possible for any but a nurse or a mother to tell the one from the other child.

10. Howbeit alike in form, we have said that they differed in temper. The elder was peaceful, studious, and silent; the younger was warlike and noisy. He was quick at learning when he began, but very slow at beginning. No threats of the ferule would provoke Harry to learn in an idle fit, or would prevent George from helping his brother in his lesson. Harry was of a strong military turn, drilled the little negroes on the estate, and caned them like a corporal, having many good boxing-matches with them, and never bearing malice if he was worsted—whereas George was sparing of blows, and gentle with all about him.

11. As the custom in all families was, each of the boys had a special little servant assigned him: and it was a known fact that George, finding his little wretch of a blackamoor asleep on his master's bed, sat down beside it, and brushed the flies off the child with a feather-fan, to the horror of old Gumbo, the child's father, who found his young master so engaged, and to the indignation of Madam Esmond, who ordered the young negro off to the proper officer for a whipping. In vain George implored and entreated—burst into passionate tears, and besought a remission of the sentence. His mother was inflexible regarding the young rebel's punishment, and the little negro went off beseeching his young master not to cry.

12. On account of a certain apish drollery and humour which exhibited itself in the lad, and a liking for some of the old man's pursuits, the first of the twins was the grandfather's favourite and companion,


and would laugh and talk out all his infantine heart to the old gentleman, to whom the younger had seldom a word to say.

13. George was a demure, studious boy, and his senses seemed to brighten up in the library, where his brother was so gloomy. He knew the books before he could well-nigh carry them, and read in them long before he could understand them. Harry, on the other hand, was all alive in the stables or in the wood, eager for all parties of hunting and fishing, and promised to be a good sportsman from a very early age.

W. M. Thackeray.

mod'-elled dis-af-fect'-ed res'-i-dent re-bell'-ious re-pub'-li-can oc-curred' fash'-ion

mel'-an-chol-y man-u-fac-ture sub-mit-ted pro-pri'-e-tor pro-claimed' ex-er-cised suc-cess'-or



pat-ri-mon'-i-al home, house which

had belonged to his ancestors. Vir-gin'-i-a, an eastern state of

North America. It was origin-
ally an English colony, founded

in 1607.
al-lied', related.
· Round'-heads, a name given to the

Puritans in the time of Charles
I., because of their practice of
having the hair cut close to the
head. It is here applied to

their American descendants. Penn-syl-va'-ni-a, a large and pros

perous eastern state of North
America, named after William
Penn, to whom the territory
was granted by Charles II. in

mem'-or-a-ble, worthy of being re-

membered. re-volt', a rising against authority.

pa-tri-arch'-al, like the patriarchs

or early heads of families, such as Abraham or Jacob, of early

Bible history. as-signed', given to; set apart for. Po-to-mac, a large river of the

United States, which forms the greater part of the boundary between Virginia and Mary

land. hos-pi-tal'-i-ty, kindness to stran

gers. feu'-dal, pertaining to feudalism, a

system during the middle ages by which lands were held on condition of service to the lord

superior. des'-pot-ism, absolute power. ne'-gro em-an-ci-pa'-tion, deliver

ance of the negro from slavery. dis-po-si'-tion, temper. an'-ces-tors, forefathers.

fer'-ule, a rod used for punishing in-flex'-1-ble, unyielding; could not children.

be bent. mal'-ice, bad feeling.

ex-hib'-it-ed, showed. in-dig-na'-tion, anger.

pur-suits', occupations. re-mis'-sion, pardon; abatement. de-mure', sober; modest.

EXERCISES.—1. The Saxon prefix (1) to- means this ; as to-day, this day ; to-night, this night. (2) Un- means not, reversing or undoing ; as unfaithful, not faithful ; undress, to take off or undo the dress ; uncover, to take off the cover; unchain, to take off the chain.

2. Analyse and parse the following: “Never were people less republican than those of the great province which was soon to be foremost in the memorable revolt against the British crown.'

3. Make sentences of your own, and use in each one or more of the following words : Memorable, ancestor, hospitality, pursuit.


[From Washington Irving's Tour on the Prairies. ] 1. We left the buffalo camp about eight o'clock, and had a toilsome and harassing march of two hours, over ridges of hills covered with a ragged, meagre forest of scrub oaks, and broken by deep gullies.

2. About ten o'clock in the morning we came to where this line of rugged hills swept down into a valley, through which flowed the north fork of Red River. A beautiful meadow, about half a mile wide, enamelled with yellow, autumnal flowers, stretched for two or three miles along the foot of the hills, bordered on the opposite side by the river, whose banks were fringed with cotton-wood trees, the bright foliage of which refreshed and delighted the eye, after being wearied by the contemplation of monotonous wastes of brown forest.

3. The meadow was finely diversified by groves and clumps of trees, so happily disposed that they seemed

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