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Cima, two leagues. Our troops left in blockade of the castle retired at day-break on the 22d, and the gallant defenders regained their liberty-On the 23d we marched to 'Torquemada, 8 leagues.-On the 24th, destroying the bridge orer the river Pisuerga, we marched to Duenas, four leagues, and the 1st battalion 1st guards joined the division. On the 25th, destroying another bridge over the same rirer, but which is considerably increased by the Carrion and Alarcon, wbich empty themselves into it near this place, the 5th, 6th, and 7th divisions, and a division of Spaniards were posted on the bank, and the 1st division ascended the hills which run in line with the river: the enemy passed the river in force at a ford, but were driven back with great loss by the 6th and Spanish divisions, who charged and bayonetted many mid-deep in the river ; indeed the 15th French regiment of infantry was m a manner annibilated.—The 1st division manæuvred all day on the left flank, and returned to Duenas at night.-On the 26th, marched, and again crossed the Pisuerga to Cabecon, three leagues, fortified the bridge, and halted on the 27th and 28th. During the time we halted here the enemy remained in force on the opposite bank of the river, throwing forward his advance to Valladolid; but the bridge in rear of that city being destroyed, the French contented themselves with throwing a few shots and shells into it, still pushing forward their adrance on the right bank towards Tordesillas, which the enemy occupied.-Halted till the 6th of November, and marched to Castrejon, seven leagues.-On the 7th to Pituagua, six leagues.-8th to Los Villiaris, three leagues, about a league from Salamanca.—Here we again put our beads into a house (for the first time since the 10th of September) and halted till the 13th, turning out every morning at daybreak, and marching to the heights the army occupied on the 20th of June.-On the 14th we marched to Salamanca, where the 3d battalion 1st guards joined from General Hill's corps ; lay on our arms all day outside the city; a sharp cannonading was heard from about Los Huertes, where the enemy were crossing their old ford of the Tormes: we took op quarters in the city at night, and I had just laid down when we were ordered under arms; crossed the bridge, and proceeded to the heights we held on the 21st of July.-We had a great expectation of being engaged next morning, viz. 15th, but it turned out otherwise, for we retired to Munillia, two leagues.-On 16th to La Boreda, five leagues.-17th to Sap Monias, 4 leagues.On the 18th to Sanctus Spiritus, fire Jeagues.-19th to Cuidad Rodriga, four leagues.- 20th to Espeja, two leagnes.—Here we again got under cover, and halted while arrangements were making for winter cantonments.--I forgot to mention that General Hill's corps, the 3d division from Madrid, and the 4th from the Escurial, joined us at Salamanca.

To speak of this retreat in its true light is past my ability; it rained day and night-roads knee-deep in mud and water all the way-an enemy close to our beels, dead men, horses, mules, asses, oxen, broken-down cars, and sick without number. Lieutenant-General Sir E. Paget, who commanded our division, was taken prisoner on the 16th while recopnoitring.–The brigade of goos, commauded by Captain Chapman, attached to the 5th division, and an immense quantity of baggage, fell into the enemy's bands on the same day.

Montgaut, 6th December, 1812. The dismal and harassed march has ceased, and the divisions are settling themselres in their winter quarters: our friends in England, it is likely, have little idea how much we bave to do wben once our particular quarter is allotted to us.-A good lodging, comfortably furnished, generally receires us when going into winter quarters at home; here bow great the difference; a brigade is huddled into a Portuguese village, of which it is not possible to convey any idea to our friends at home; but I will explain what I have to do, ere I can reach a sensation bordering on what is called comfort:-in order to have light, without sharing the inclemency of the weather, I have a frame made to a window; this frame is divided by string into squares, to which is attached oiled paper--a clumsy imitation of what we sometimes observe in carpenters' shops--this is my window:-the floor of my apartment is fortunately without holes; but that must be scraped and washed, an operation it nerer before has experienced. I have next to stop up the holes in the walls of my room, and, if I can procure a little white-wash, give a similarity of appearance to what never had changed from the first formation, except by the effect of damp, and the filthy customs of the natives : plaster or white-wash is very seldom found here: the roof must remain, as it serves not only to keep out the rain, but also to let out the smoke—the labor of man cannot wash the blackamoor white :-conceive now my apartment, in some degree cleared from its native filth and dungeonlike appearance; a bundle of clean straw, nicely disposed of in one corner, with two blankets, composes my bed; a rough heavy table, and a ricketty stool, finishes the catalogue of my furniture; a dirty tin lamp, with oil, lights me to bed.-lo regard to any other comforts, as the Portuguese have scarcely an idea beyond the brute creation, you may conceive their astonishment when they bebeld me raising a little fabric in a corner of the yard ; it was totally beyond their comprehension.Now, my friends, here I am settled for winter-quarters, master of just sufficient philosophy to save a rope the trouble of ending a life at this moment of less importance to me than ever: the weather is fine and warm ; should it change, and oblige me to keep within doors, without books, without any resource, but what my fancy raises, and you will allow a man's imagination must be prolific, who can, under such cir. cumstances, form any thing like a lively sentiment; what a prospect! but we have one consolation, and that must serve to feed any pleasurable ideas we may endeavour to cherish, that those dear to us, are far removed from the bloody devastation of war, and enjoy the blessings it bas pleased a gracious Providence to bestow on our favored country.

Mongaulde, 9th December, 1819. We are now in quiet cantonments, recovering from our fatigue, and must therefore look to friends at home for novelty: hutted as we are, at a miserable village, in wretched bamlets, on the side of rocky mountains, there is nothing left for us to create rariety but the most welcome letters from friends. Books we cannot have, our poor worn-down mules had enough to carry; and eren pen, ink, and paper are scarce articles.-We form little societies amongst ourselves; yet it requires an unusual flow of animal spirits to carry us through the day some officers amuse themselves in shooting, there being plenty of woodcocks, partridges, bares, & and rabbits; but rather a scarcity of powder and shot: to the officer who is not a sportsman, as the country around is a continuation of steep ascent and descent, and that by the most rugged roads, dangerous to the rider and unpleasant to those who walk, the pleasure arising from exercise is denied; in short, my friend, it is a deep monotonous round of insipidity, and, in defiance of the fatigues and distresses arising from our tinkering campaigns, I question whether the greater part of us would not prefer daily marches to this unmeaning banishment.

A letter has been issued in orders from the Commander of the Forces directed to the General Officers commanding divisions, containing much complaint on the It

laxation from discipline prevalent in this army, finding great fault with both officers
and soldiers-no doubt it always happens so with retreating armies--and it is a
most desirable object, as much as possible, to preserve the strictest attention to
discipline on such trying occasions ; but I cannot help thinking much of this cause
for reprehension arises from the ignorance of some General Officers; nor can it be
otherwise when the greater part of these gentlemen, from the rapid strides they
made to obtain rank in the service, had not time to get any insight into the duties of
the different gradations of rank: there are men who never saw service, until they
came flourishing out to this country as Brigadiers and Major-Generals; many who
Qever passed through the duties of a battalion; who never even mounted a captain's
guard-and are these the men to oppose to the French Generals, or to be put in
competition with men, whose military merit alone has placed them at the head of
regiments, brigades, and divisions ? and thus, I fear, the Marquis of Wellington's
letter will create great disgust; and that troops who have cheerfully encountered
a campaign of uncommon duration; who bave been instrumental in gaining laurels
for the brow of their Chief; who have given proofs of courage, patience, and perse-
verance, exceeding the most sanguine expectations, will think themselves but ill-
requited in receiving so general, and so heavy a censure:-much may be advanced in
faror of the army, and I bave no doubt much will be urged in opposing censures,
which are generally felt as unmerited :-the soldier will say “I have done my part-
I have marched bundreds of miles—I have endured hunger, thirst, cold, wet, heat,
fatigue, and nakedness-I have encountered the enemy in the field and attacked
him in his strong fortresses; and where it was possible to conquer him by courage
and resolution I have done it."-To whom then does attach this censure if our en-
deavours are not crowned with success? Not to the soldier, for he is a ready and
obedient instrument, even in the bands of those on whom he places no confidence:-
nor can the officer be blamed for the old and experienced officer is neglected and
ill-used, and insulted by the promotion of striplings ;-rash, head-strong, ignorant,
presuming boys; and surely you cannot censure the latter; they may excite pity-
all this may be urged with justice Very young men, and of course mighty young
soldiers, come out to this country, and obtain high situations, nor do I fear contra-
diction when I assert they are incompetent to do the duty expected from them;
when I assert that many General Officers are not competent to the duty of a regi-
mental Captain:Sand I beg to know what confidence can be placed in them by
men who are hourly witnesses of their imbecility. .


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Circular Letter issued by the Marquis of Wellington to his Army,

after the Retreat into Portugal, alluded to in the preceding Letters of our Correspondents. S R 818, have ordered the army into cantonments, in which I hope that circumstances will enable me to keep them for some time, during which the troops will receive their clothing, necessaries, &c. which are already in progress, by different lines 3 7 of communication, to the several divisions and brigades. But, besides these ob- .. jects, I must draw your attention, in a very particular manner, to the state of disci- i to pline of the troops. The discipline of every army, after a long and active campaign,', becomes in some degree relaxed, and requires the utmost attention on the part of the General and other Officers, to bring it back to the state in which it ought to be for service; but I any concerned to bare to observe, that the army under my com:



mand has fallen off, in this respect, in the late campaign, to a greater degree than any army with wbich I have ever served, or of which I have ever read. Yet this army has met with no disaster; it has suffered no privations, which but trifling attention on the part of the Officers could not have prevented, and for which there existed no reason whatever in the nature of the service ; nor has it suffered any bardships, excepting those resulting from the necessity of being exposed to the inclemencies of the weather, at a moment when they were most severe. It must be obvious, however, to every officer, that from the moment the troops commenced their retreat from the neighbourhood of Burgos on the one hand, and from Madrid on the other, the officers lost all command over their men. Irregularities and outrages of all descriptions were committed with impunity; and losses have been sustained which ought never to have occurred. Yet the necessity for retreat existing, none was ever made in which the troops made such short marches ; none on which they made such long and repeated halts; and none on which the retreating armies were so little pressed on their rear by the enemy. We must look, therefore, for the existing evils, and for the situation in which we now find the army, to some canse besides those resulting from the operations in which we have been engaged. I bare no hesitation in attributing these evils to the habitual inattention of the Officers of the regiments to their duty, as prescribed by the standing regulations of the service, and by the orders of this army. I am far from questioning the zeal, still less the gallantry and spirit of the Officers of the army; and I am quite certain, that as their minds can be convinced of the necessity of minute and constant attention to understand, recollect, and carry into execution the orders which have been issued for the performance of their duty, and that the strict performance of this duty is necessary to enable the army to serve the country as it ought to be served, they will, in future, give their attention to these points. Unfortunately, the inexperience of the Officers of the army bas induced many to conceive, that the period during which an army is on service, is one of relaxation from all rule, instead of being, as it is, the period during which, of all others, every rule for the regulation and control of the conduct of the soldier, for the inspection and care of his arms, ammunition, accoutrements, necessaries, and field equipments, and his horse and horse appointments, for the receipt and issue and care of bis provisions, and the regulation of all that belongs to his food, and the forage for his borse, must be most strictly attended to by the Othcer of his company or troop, if it is intended that an army, a British army in particular, shall be brought into the field of battle, in a state of efficiency to meet the enemy on the day of trial. These are the points, then, to which I most earnestly intreat you to turn your attention, and the atteption of the Officers of the regiments under your command, Portuguese as well as English, during the period in which it may be in my power to leave the troops in their cantonments. The Commanding Officers of regiments must enforce the orders of the army, regarding the constant inspection and superintendance of the Officers over the conduct of the men of their companies in their cantoninents; and they must endeavour to inspire the Non-commissioned Oflicers with a sense of their situation and authority; and the Non-commissioned Oficers must be forced to do their duty, by being constantly under the view and superintendence of the Officers. By these means, the frequent and discreditable recourse to the authority of the Provost, and to punishments by the sentence of Courts-Martial, will be prevented: and the soldiers will not dare to commit the offences and outrages, of which there are too many complaints, when they know that their Officers and their Non-commissioned Officers have their eyes and attention turned towards them. The Commanding Officers of regiments must likewise enforce the orders of the army, regarding the constant, real inspection of the soldiers' arms, ammunition, accoutrements, and necessaries ; in order to prevent, at all times, the shameful waste of ammunition, and the sale of that article, and of the soldiers' necessaries. With this view both should be inspected daily. In regard to the food of the soldier, I have frequently observed and lamented, in the late campaign, the facility and celerity with which the French soldiers cooked, in comparison with those of our army. The cause of this disadvantage is the same with that of every other description,—the want of attention of the Officers to the Orders of the Army, and to the conduct of their men; and their consequent want of authority over their conduct. Certain men of each company should be appointed to cut and bring in wood, others to fetch water, and others to get the meat, &c. to be cooked ; and it would soon be found, if this practice were daily enforced, and a particular hour for seeing the dinners, and for the men dining, named as it ought to be equally as for the parade, that cooking would no longer require the inconvenient length of time wbich it has lately been found to take, and that the soldiers would not be exposed to the privation of their food, at the moment at which the army may be engaged in operations with the enemy. You will, of course, give your attention to the field exercise and discipline of the troops. It is very desirable that the soldiers should not lose the habits of marching; and the division should march 10 or 12 miles twice in each week, if the weather should permit, and the roads in the neighbourhood of the cantonments of the divisions should be dry. But I repeat, that the great object of the attention of the General and Field-Officers must be, to get the Captains and Subalterns of the regiments to understand, and to perform the duties required from them, as the only inode by which the discipline and efficiency of the army can be restored and maintained during the next campaiga. I have the honor to be, &c.

WELLINGTON, Freneyda, Nov. 28, 1812. 70 — , or the Officer commanding the


Horse-Guards, 3d of August, 1812. At a General Court-Martial held at Hytbe, on the 23d of March, 1812, and. continued by adjournments to the 13th of April following, Lieutenant LEWIS APPELIUS, of the 85th Regiment of Foot, was arraigned upon the under-mentioned Charges, viz:

Ist." For scandalous and infamous conduct unbecoming the character of an officer and a gentleman, in falsely and maliciously asserting to Captain Hylton, of the 85th regiment, at Belem in Portugal, on or about the 1st of June, 1811, that he, Lieutenant Appelius, had pulled Major Mein, of the same regiment, by the nose, and takca bis, Lieutenant Appelius's, feet from the Hudibrastic seat of honor, or words to that effect; and if Major Mein had added that to the Charge which he had given in against him, Lieutenant Appelius, on or about December last, meaning 1810, it would have been nothing but the truth."

ed." In falsely and maliciously propagating and asserting between the 12th and 24th of June, 1811, to the officers of the 85th regiment, then serving in Portugal, that be, Lieutenant Appelius, bad pulled Major Mein by the nose, and taken bis, Lieutenant Appelius's, fect from the Hudibrastic seat of honor, or

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