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common obligations of his profession. He took arms, and at the head of his monks, and a few scattered forces, put a stop to the torrent of the Dutch conquest. He made a gallant stand until succours arrived, and then resigned the commission with which the public necessity and his own valour had armed him, into the hands of a person appointed by authority. By this noble conduct the archbishop saved seven of the fourteen provinces into which Brazil was divided : the rest fell * into the hands of the Dutch, from whom they were again partly re-conquered by the Portuguese, but not without a considerable struggle, and after much loss on both sides. The Portuguese agreed to pay the Dutch eight tons of gold, to relinquish their interest in this country: which was accepted; and they have remained in peaceable possession of all Brazil till about 1762, when the Spaniards took the fortress of St. Sacrament; but by treaty of peace it was restored. This vast territory is but little known, partly from the want of science and curiosity, and partly on account of the thick forests which cover the extensive plains of La Plata. Though in strict alliance with Portugal, we have little precise knowledge of Brazil, and still less of the interior country of Amazonia. The chief city of Brazil was formerly Saint Salvador, which has since yielded to Rio de Janeiro. Brazil is now divided into eight independent governments, besides that of Rio de Janeiro, of which alone the governor retains the style of viceroy of the Brazils. The discovery and improvement of the gold and diamond mines, about one hundred leagues to the N. W. have secured to Janeiro a decided preponderance. But all the


provinces are growing fast into opulence and importance; and we are informed by Sir George Staunton, that they manufactured of late years several of the most necessary articles for their own consumption, and their produce was so considerable that the balance of trade began to be already in their favour; and remittances of bullion were made to them from Europe, in return for the overplus of their exports beyond their imports. The diamond mines belong exclusively to the crown; and one-fifth of the gold is exacted. There are also numerous taxes and impositions, which, instead of enlarging the revenue, are the great causes of its diminution. The European settlers in Brazil are fond of pleasure, but extremely observant of the ceremonies of religion. Labour is chiefly performed by slaves, about twenty thousand negroes being annually imported. The natives are said to be irreclaimable savages, who chiefly subsist apart on the coast between Janeiro and San Salvador. The harbour of Rio Janeiro is capacious and excellent; surrounded by a fertile country, and protected by the castle of Santa Cruz. On the west is the city of St. Sebastian, commonly called Rio de Janeiro, built on a tongue of land, the hills and rocks behind being crowned with woods, convents, houses, and churches. The streets are generally straight and well paved. Water is supplied by an aqueduct after the Roman plan; for, notwithstanding the name, there is no river of any note. The trade of Brazil is very great, and increases every year. Of the diamonds there are supposed to be returned to Europe to the amount of 130,000l. annually. This, with the sugar, the tobacco, the hides, and the valuable drugs for medicine and manufactures, may give some idea of the importance of this traffic, not only to Portugal, but te all the trading powers of Europe. Amazonia was discovered by Francisco Orellana, about the year 1580, who in returning from Peru sailed down the river Amazon to the Atlantic ocean. On the banks of the river he observed companies of women in arms. On that account he called the country Amazonia, or the Land of Amazons, and gave the name of Amazon to the river, which formerly had been called Maragnon. The Spaniards were never able to effect a settlement there; but the Portuguese have some small colonies on that part of the coast which lies betwixt Cape North and the mouth of the Amazon. This river is one of the largest in the world. It runs a course from west to east of about three thousand miles, and receives nearly two hundred other rivers, some of which are not inferior in magnitude to the Danube or the Nile. The breadth of this river at its mouth, where it discharges itself by several channels into the ocean, almost under the equator, is one hundred and fifty miles, and at one thousand five hundred miles from its mouth it is forty fathoms deep. In the rainy season it overflows its banks, and waters and fertilizes the adjacent country. The Indian nations inhabiting this extensive tract of the globe are very numerous; and the banks of almost every river are inhabited by a different people, who are governed by their caziques, distinguished from their subjects by coronets of beautiful feathers. They are idolaters, and worship the images of their ancient heroes. In their expeditions they carry their gods with them. The possessions of the French on the continent of America are very inconsiderable, They were formely the lords of Canada and Louisiania, but have now lost all footing in North America. On the southern continent, however, they have still a settlement, which is called Cayenne, in Guiana. The chief town is Caen, or Cayano, in which there are twelve hundred white inhabitants, exclusive of the garrison. The coast is very low, but within land there are fine hills, proper for almost every species of cultivation. But the French have not yet extended them so far as they might. The soil and climate seem unexceptionable, but during the rains many parts are inundated. The dry season is from June to October, and the heaviest rains are in our winter season. Cayenne pepper is the principal product of this country; besides which they export sugar, cocoa, vanilla, and indigo. The French have also taken possession of the island of Cayenne, which is situated at the mouth of the river of the same name. It is about fortyfive miles in circumference, and is reckoned very unhealthy. To this place the tyrant Robespierre banished many of the best men of France, for political offences. The Corsican Bonaparte has made use occasionally of this island for the same purpose. After the Portuguese had dispossessed the Dutch of Brazil, they formed settlements in Guiana, A. D. 1663, but four years afterwards they were expelled by the English, whose descendants form part of the colony, which was given back to the Dutch, in exchange for New-York, in 1676. Dutch Guiana is to the N. W. of the French settlement, and is often called Surinam, from a river of that name on which the capital is situated. The chief towns are Parimaribo, on the western bank


of the Surinam, and New Middleburg near the N. W. extremity of the colony. Demerara is a settlement on a river of that name. Issequibois another Dutch settlement on the Spanish Main, which surrendered to the English in 1781, but which was not considered of sufficient importance to be retained. The climate of this country is reckoned unwholesome. The wet and dry seasons are alternate, each for about three months. It is one of the richest and most valuable colonies belonging to the United Provinces; but it is in a less prosperous situation than it was some years since, owing to the wars in which they have been engaged with their fugitive negroes, whom they treated with great barbarity, and who are become sufficiently numerous to form a kind of colony in the woods, and to be really formidable enemies to their former masters. Under the command of chiefs elected from among themselves, they have cultivated lands for their subsistence; and making frequent incursions into the neighbouring plantations, revenge themselves upon their old oppressors. The chief trade of Surinam consists in sugar, cotton, coffee, tobacco, flax, skins, and very valuable dyeing drugs. The inhabitants of Dutch Guiana are either whites, blacks, or the reddish-brown aboriginal natives of America. The promiscuous intercourse of these different people has likewise generated several intermediate casts, whose colours depend on their degree of consanguinity to either Whites, Indians, or Negroes-There are so many birds of various species, and remarkable for the beauty of their plumage, in Guiana, that several persons in the colony have employed themselves with their dependants very advantageously in

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