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FINED IN PIPES AND OTHER RECEPTACLES; Francis R. Torbet.-In the constructing of this apparatus one end of a balance lever is connected, by a joint link, with a sliding valve, which governs the inlet of steam or other fluid, and the other end of said balance is connected with a piston which works in a cylinder opening into the pipe or other re. ceptacle, into which the steam or other fluid has been admitted. A sliding counter weight is attached to one end of the balance lever, so that by moving it farther from or nearer to the fulcrum, the pressure of the steam or other fluid will be regulated. It will be evident that if the pressure within the pipe be too great, the piston will be forced up in its cylinder, which, by means of the connexion with the balance lever, will partially close the sliding valve, and vice versa.

Claim.-“I do not claim as my invention any parts of the machine as new in mecha. nics, nor as involving a new or peculiar motion, but I do claim as my invention, and not previously known or used, the general arrangement of the machine herein described and set forth for the purpose of regulating the pressure of steam and other fluids confined in pipes and other receptacles, by means of a piston, moved by the pressure of the fluid itself, and communicating its motion to a slide valve so as to reduce the aperture through which such fluid, but under greater pressure, is admitted."



of air through the machine, by means of a valve or door, operating after the manner or upon the principle herein before set forth."

A REFRIGERATOR; Job S. Gold. This refrigerator consists of a square, or other formed, double box, with a space between the two, filled in with any bad conductor of heat. The inside is provided with shelves, open at the ends to allow of a free circulation of the air from one compartment to the other. At the top, or upper part, there is an apartment, or reservoir, for ice, and at the side there is another reservoir for ice water, the upper part thereof communicating with the bottom of the ice chamber, and the lower end being provided with a cock for drawing off the water.

The claim is, first, to the separate apartment for the ice at the top or in the upper part of the refrigerator, substantially as deseribed. Second, to the combination of the ice water reservoir and the arrangement of the shelves with the apartment for ice as specified, for the purpose of producing the circulation of air to equalize the temperature, substantially as described. And third, to the ice water reservoir in combination with the apartment for ice, as described.

IMPROVEMENT MACHINE ; Alfred Churchill.--This machine is intended for thrashing all kinds of grain when standing in the field, without cutting the straw.

There are two chains, one on each side of the forward part of the machine, which chains pass over rollers, or pulleys, and to which four rods are attached at equal distances apart. Immediately back of these chains and rods is placed the thrashing cylinder and concave, which are of the usual construction ; and between the chains and rods, and the thrasher, there is a cap, provided with hooks, which slides up and down. As the machine is pushed forward the rods on the chains catch the heads of grain and push them towards the thrasher, at the same time one of the rods on the chains catches the books on the cap, which is thus lifted up, the heads of grain are pushed under, the cap is then relieved, falls on to the grain, and bolds it during the operation of thrashing.

Claim." What I claim as my invention, and desire to secure by letters patent, is the method herein described, of gathering and thrashing grain at the same time by means of the resolving rods, and oscillating or revolving cap, constituting the gatherer, in combination with the thrasher and concave, the #bole being constructed and operating substantially in the manner set forth.”




Sir,-I send you the following question on life assurance for insertion (and to let you know that I am still alive) in your useful Journal.

IVER, M'Iver.

Question. One hundred individuals, each of the ages of twenty-three, subscribe annually for ten years a sufficient sum each to enable the survivors to receive each 1001, at the end of twenty years. How much per annum will each subscriber have to pay for the ten years to afford each of the survivors the abovementioned sum ? The calculation to be made at 3 or 4 per cent., and the survivorships to be taken from the Northampton

tables of probabilities. Also, supposing the proprietary of such a scheme to receive one.third of the profits, what will the annual premium be in that case ?


any other

has been built for the East India Company's navy, XOTES AND NOTICES.

and will take her departure in a few days. The The Fountain in Kensington Gardens. - The Guadaloupe is the largest iron steamer 'yet built. water and scenery in that part of Kensington Her length, from the figure-head to the taffrail, is Gardens where this fountain is placed are in a 201 feet, and her breadth of beam 30 feet 1 inch, style of what may be termed commonplace nature ; and her tonnage, per admeasurement, nearly 800 but the fountain, which is placed in the middle of tons. She only draws 9 feet of water, with provithe river, consists of a series of circular cast-iron sions and water for 120 men, and 10 days' coal on basins, arranged on a vertical axis one above an board. She carries two large pivot-gunscone forother, exactly like an old-fashioned dumb-waiter. ward and the other aft, 68-pounders, on sliding The cast-iron axis rises abruptly from the water; carriages of oak, the under-frame working on cirand the whole, which may be 10 or 12 feet high, is cular rails of brass, secured to the deck. The painted white. Any thing less in accordance with weight of each gun, including the carriages, is from the surrounding scenery it is difficult to imagine. 5} to 6 tons. She is brigantine rigged, and is a We have often, when passing this fountain, asked

very handsome vessel. She will prove a very power. ourselves whether it be possible that Lord Lincoln, ful coadjutor to the Nemesis, Queen, Phlegethon, and the other Commissioners of Woods and Forests, and Sesostris, now engaged in the Chinese warfare can approve of it; and, if they do not approve of at Chusan, Chinhae, and Ningpo. The Guadaloupe it, how it happens that such a hideous object, or is built in compartments, and a proof of the efficacy indeed any object intended to be ornamental, could of this plan has been afforded by the Nemesis, which be put up without their knowledge and approbation. had a hole knocked in her bottom at the taking of If this fountain had risen out of a base of rockwork Amoy, yet performed important services for four it would have been less hideous, but still liable to months subsequently without being laid up for rethe objection of being altogether incongruous to pairs, The accommodations for the crew of the the scene in which it is placed. A single bold jet Guadaloupe are exceedingly roomy, and there is from a mass of rock in such a scene we hold to be space for berthing

troops, if necessary.-Times. admissible, but by no means either a jet or a Going ahead! The Admiralty made a great step drooping fountain from sculpture or regular archi. in advance, when they lately ordered the Penelope tecture. The most appropriate fountain which to be fitted with engines of 630 horse power; but, could be introduced in this part of the water in

as if determined to put all competition utterly out Kensington Gardens, is what we suggested in our of the question, they have since ordered another to Volume for 1841 (p. 331), viz. huge masses of rock

be built called the Dragon, which is to have engines in the form of a source, placed where the mock of 800 horse power, and will be of double the power bridge now stands, from which the water might of any of our present steam frigates. Not many trickle down in streamlets. We say this kind of workshops in Great Britain are capable of producing fountain would have been the most appropriate; such enormous engines, and in all France there is because, being at the upper end or commencement not one. Even the Dragon, however, will be inseof the river, or rather lake, it would have indicated rior by 200 horse power, to the Great Britain (late how it was supplied, while no violence would have Mammoth) just on the point of completion, by a been done to the character of the scenery. Instead private company of adventurers. of exhibiting a source of this kind, and disguising Immense Gun.-On Wednesday last a barge the termination of the lake by one or two islands,

arrived at the wharf of the Royal Arsenal, Wool. an attempt is made to keep up the character of a wich, having on board the largest gun ever made river by building three arches as a termination, the

in this country.

A powerful shears was put up commonplace resource, in cases of this kind, in the expressly for landing this ponderous piece of ordinfancy of the natural style of laying out grounds,

nance, weighing very nearly eighteen tons, none of but long since rejected by every modern artist of the cranes on the wharf being equal to the task. cultivated taste. Altogether, the termination of The arrangements for landing this great gun were this piece of water is so bad in itself, and so ridicu excellently made, and carried into effect without lous when contrasted with the real bridge within the slightest accident; and the labour of conveying sight of it, that we think it will be instructive to it to the butt, shows great ingenuity, being effected exhibit its absurdity by sketches, which we intend by a coil of strong rope around it, moving the imsooner or later to do. The fountain at present only

mense mass in a rolling manner along four large plays occasionally; but, if a rocky source were

logs of wood, changed alternately as the gun prosubstituted, the supply of water might easily be so gresses. This gun is made on the howitzer princiregulated as to flow throughout the whole of that ple, and is about 12 feet long, with an immense portion of every day during which the gardens are quantity of metal at the breech. The diameter of open to the public. --Gardener's Magazine for June.

the bore is within about one-tenth of 16 inches. The The loftiest Chimney in the World.- A chimney

weight of solid shot with which it will be fired is has been completed at the St. Rollox chemical

4351b, and shells of 33010., and it is expected two works, near Glasgow, which is supposed to be the

solid shot of that weight and four shells in the same loftiest in the world. It rises 450 feet from the proportion will be used when it is proved at the ground, and at least 600 feet above the more densely butt. The howitzer was cast and bored by Messrs. peopled portions of the city and the bed of the river. Walker and Co., for Mehemet Ali, Pasha of Egypt, In relative height, independent of the elevation of and two other large guns, 130 pounders, were its base, it is little inferior to the loftiest super landed at the same time to be proved for service in structures in the world ; in absolute height it towers Egypt.---Times. into the air incomparably higher. The great pyramid of Cheops rises 498 feet, but this includes a base of 150. Strasburg cathedral is 474; St. Peter's

INTENDING PATENTEEs may be supplied in Rome, from ground to pinnacle, 450, being ex gratis with Instructions, by application (postactly the height of this chimney; St. Paul's, in paid) to Messrs. J. C. Robertson and Co., London, 370. The base of the chimney, underground, is 46 feet in diameter; at the ground, 40;

166, Fleet-street, by whom is kept the only at the top, 13 feet 6 inches.

COMPLETE REGISTRY OF PATENTS EXTANT A new iron Steam Frigate, called the Guadaloupe, from 1617 to the present time).

LONDON: Edited, Printed, and Published by J. C. Robertson, at the Mechanics' Magazine Office,

No. 166, Fleet-street. -Sold by W. and A, Galignani, Rue Vivienne, Paris;

Machin and Co., Dublin; and W. C. Campbell and Co., Hamburgh.

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BESSEMER'S PATENT IMPROVEMENTS IN THE MANUFACTURE OF GLASS. The improvements comprehended un neath being stationary, by which means the der the present patent (dated 23d Sept. desired equal mixture of the ingredients is 1841) are, if we mistake not, of more greatly obstructed, and the ascent and escape importance than any which have been of the thousands of air bubbles or “ seeds introduced into the glass manufacture for (as they are technically called) is preventa long series of years. They relate prin

ed, since their floating power is too small cipally to the two descriptions of glass

to allow of their escape. 3dly. On the old known by the names of plate glass, and

system, in order to apply the reverberatory optical flint glass. Those which at pre

heat to the best advantage, the mouth of the

cistern is left uncovered. This allows dust sent concern plate glass we propose to

to fall in,-admits sometimes the smoke, describe very fully; but as the ingeni

which produces discoloration of the metal ous inventor is now engaged in some ex wherever it touches it, and sometimes small periments which are expected to throw

fragments off the angles of the bricks or great additional light on the optical flint stones forming the arch, and what are called glass improvements, we shall defer the “ tears," to drop from the arch, these tears description of them for a few weeks, in being formed by the action of the evaorder that we may have the benefit in porated salt acting on the fire brick or drawing it up, of the results of these stone arch, and making a semi-transparent experiments.

glass, which falling into the cistern proThe present process of manufacturing duces serious evils. 4thly. The difficulty plate glass is described by Mr. Bessemer of removing one cistern in the old furnace as being defective in the following par

without cooling the remainder, thereby cre. ticulars :

ating much hurry and confusion in the cast.

ing, from the necessity of taking so little 1st. It has been found that owing to glass time to empty all the cisterns, while it often being a bad conductor of heat the upper occurs that the glass in the cistern last drawn strata in the melting cisterns average 2500 is not in a state to be used, or, at any rate, Fahr. of heat more than at the bottom. Now is much deteriorated in quality. Lastly, as the salt potass or soda used in the manu The old system of heating is most destrucfacture of glass is evaporable, it is evident tive to furnaces, as their roofs or arches have that from the increased heat at the surface, to receive the heat to be given out to the the composition of the metal at the top must cisterns, and when these furnaces are once be very different from that at the bottom of

lighted, they cannot be let out again without the cistern. Owing to the great loss of salt destroying the arches, and the consequence the refractive property of the glass also un is, that they only last a short time,-in some dergoes a change, and its rate of expansion cases only about fifteen months. and contraction at different temperatures is in like manner liable to be affected, while the To remove these defects Mr. Bessemer increased fluidity of the upper strata adds to

inserts one or more plates or discs of plathe general inequality of the mass. When tinum in the bottom of the melting cissuch a cistern of metal is thrown out on the tern, as represented in the accompanying " casting table," and is rolled into a sheet, engravings, fig. 1 and 2, and places the the different portions of the metal, with their cistern so as that, varied properties, come in contact with each other, and where the more refractive portion its bottom is exposed to the direct action joins the less refractive, the defect so com of the fire. The heated air and flame, after monly occurring (which is called in the trade striking the platinum disc, pass through the uaviness) manifests itself. Its liability to openings under the cistern into the upper fracture is also much increased, from the annular space, where they enclose the cisdifferent compositions of the various parts tern as it were in a cylinder of flame, meeting in contact, or rather in union, with each over its top in a cone and then escaping into other, possessing different rates of expansion the flue. The object, however, of thus surand contraction. 2dly. Another defect of rounding the cistern with flame is stated to the present system arises from the heat being be more for the prevention of radiation from principally applied to the upper surface of the cistern than for the transmission of heat the glass in the cistern, whereby the upper to the metal. The effect of applying heat stratum of glass becomes hotter and specifi through the medium of the thin plate of cally lighter than the under one, which pre platinum at the bottom is that those parti. vents a circulation of the particles forming cles of glass which first receive it are exthe mass-the cooler and heavier strata be. panded, and by their expansion have their

specific gravity lessened, which causes them and an almost perfect uniformity of heat, to ascend while the cooler and heavier fluidity, and composition of matter. A particles descend from the surface. The plate formed of such metal has no false reresults are a perfect mixture of materials fraction, or wreaths, and is less liable to frac

Fig. 3.

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