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DESCRIPTION OF A MODE OF CARBONIZING TURF WITHOUT CLOSE VESSELS, THE PEAT FURNISHING ITS OWN CALORIC, WITHOUT PRODUCING ASHES. BY DOMINIQUE
ALBERT, LL.D. [From the Memoirs of the Literary and Philosophical Society of Manchester.*] When, in 1835, I built my present works process, which consists of setting fire to a at Cadishead, I was chiefly induced to choose few turf cakes placed on the ground, so as to the place on account of the proximity of let the air play between. As soon as these both turbaries, Chat Moss and Barton Moss, cakes are burning, they heap round and having previously ascertained that I could above other cakes, which very soon ignite make with turf as good charcoal as with also. They continue to feed thus this heap wood.
of fire, till it reaches about 5 feet in height, As the charcoal I wanted was for some and 6 or 7 at its base. They let it burn chemical purpose other than to be used as until the whole appears in a complete glow, fuel, the first condition of the carbonization when they cover it with large wet sods, either was, that it should produce a vegetable black, of soil and grass or heath sods, from the free from the mineral substance mixed with surface of moss land. This careless, but it, as is always the case when turf is carbo cheap and easy manner, causes the charcoal nized in Ireland, to supply the hearths of to be mixed with a quantity of uncarbonized some country smithies. I began, then, by vegetable, marl, sand, stones, and a notable submitting the turf to a dry distillation in proportion of ashes, all matters which do iron retorts, 5 feet deep to 4 feet diameter, not affect the iron jobs with which they covered with strong sheet iron caps, to which come in contact. I adapted cast iron pipes. I soon found, The Dutch I saw many years ago, carbohowever, that the quantity of auxiliary mi nizing peat for domestic purposes, in small neral fuel required to burn the turf, owing conical furnaces, as common with them in to the distance of 7 miles from the nearest the country places as the bread ovens are pits, rendered this method too expensive to here. They light the turf from below; and, be continued.
· when the combustion is nearly completed, I expected that the acid would compensate they close the top and bottom. Their mefor the price of the coal, but I could never thod, though superior to the Irish, and well get it above two or three degrees ; besides, adapted to their object, is neither as com. the pyroligneous alcohol diluted in the acid plete, nor does it give so pure an article as existed in a very small proportion. The I wished ; besides, I found its application tar, which was comparatively abundant, con almost impossible on a large scale. tained the greater part of the spirit, but the Amongst the different plans and instruclow price of tars in general offered me no tions I consulted to assist my experiments, encouragement to proceed.
I gave the preference to a large round perI knew, by the discoveries made by my pendicular furnace, in which, according to countryman, Mr. Merle, in 1834 and 1835, Dumas, (Chemistry applied to the Arts) M. that certain species of turfs gave a richer La Chabeaussiere distils wood. and superior gas than either coals or oils, After having studied what modifications and I convinced myself that the peats in my were necessary to render M. La Chabeausneighbourhood were of an excellent quality siere's furnace useful for peat's carbonization, for such a purpose, but I did not feel in without saving either gas or liquids, I conclined to set up any apparatus to save that structed the following kiln :--On a solid soil, produce, so I turned all my attention to find I made an excavation from 10 to 12 feet a cheaper mode of producing pure charcoal. wide at the top, 9 feet deep, and 9 in diaI had latterly observed the Irish in their meter at the bottom, which I covered with a
dry brick floor, that had a convexity of 6 • Vol. VI. Second Series. Just published by
inches. I lined this hole round with a dry Mr. Weale, and, like all the preceding volumes, brick wall, in the way of a common pump containing many excellent papers, though certainly on very dissimilar subjecis: ex. gr. " Blossoms of
pit. At four equal distances at the bottom the Jargonelle Pear," and " Sepulchral Monuments of the round wall, I opened an air hole of of Sardis," "Rohan Potato, and the Babylo. about 4 inches square, and continued it in nian Alphabet;"-a diversity which in these days of universal division and subdivision of subjects
the form of a narrow chimney outside the and societies, may not be very favourable to the sale wall, to the height of about 6 feet, when I of the volume. We beg to suggest to the Society, prolonged it about 6 feet more, but in an the expediency of publishing their Memoirs in future in two distinct and independent collections;
horizontal direction. For the top of this one to include all the Scieniific, and the other
kiln I had a sheet iron cover made, a few all the Literary and Miscellaneous i apers. Many inches wider than the diameter of the brickwould purchase the former, who would not care to burden themselves with the latter, and rice versa.
work, of a convexity of 2 feet, with a round ED. M. M.
hole or chimney in the centre, 1 foot high,
and 9 inches diameter, provided with a cover cakes has sunk to the level of the brickwork. and handle similar to that of a canister, and In this state, the cover is let down, and at a foot from the extremity of the large some soil is brought round its border to incover, are cut out four auxiliary chimneys, tercept the escape of smoke. In this stage at equal distances one from the other, with a of carbonization, all the air-holes with the 4 inch diameter. Four strong iron rings are large and small chimneys are open. fixed to the cover to receive the hooks of a As soon as the fire is perceived through chain, which, by means of a double purchase, either of the small chimneys corresponding raises or lowers the cover.
with the passages where the fire has been When this furnace, says Dumas, is filled lighted, the horizontal mouth of the same with wood, the cover is lowered down, and air-hole is to be slut with a piece of brick some firebrands are precipitated through the and some marl, and the others are to be central chimney to the bottom of the kiln ; successively stopped in the same way, the the wood being placed so as to leave a sort moment the redness of the fire can be disof funnel open. By means of the four blow tinguished. If there remains any doubt of ing air-holes the fire is very soon spread in the perfection of the operation, a pole about all directions, and its progress is to be regu 14 feet long should be thrust through the lated by shutting or opening the smoke and hole where the carbonization appears incomair holes, according to the direction of the plete, and by thus gauging to the bottom of wind.
the furnace, you will immediately be aware These rules, which no doubt did answer of the state of the charcoal, which you can when wood was to be distilled, were ineffi remedy instantly, by opening the air-hole cient wben applied to the carbonization of opposite the place examined. peat; but by dint of trials and patience, When the smoke begins to abate, you I succeeded beyond my utmost expectations, place the cover on the central chimney, but upon the following plan :
so as to shut only the half of the aperture, I make two tunnels of inch board, 9 feet taking care at the same time to direct the high and 8 inches square, with some hand open part of the cover towards that part of holes from distance to distance. These tun the kiln, which you might consider not so nels I place in the kiln along the side, in perfect as the remainder. At last, when the order that the bottom end may correspond eruption of smoke has ceased, you shut all with one of the four air-holes; one of my chimneys immediately, and the operation is workmen descends then to the floor of the at an end. It requires generally twenty-four furnace, and forms an aerated bed with peat, hours to complete the carbonization of one by setting the cakes upright, with their tops furnace, and sixty hours for carbonization inclined one towards another, so as to create and cooling of the charcoal. A kiln of these a good draft, which must, as much as pos dimensions can receive between three and sible, run in the direction of both air-holes four one-horse-loads of peat, of about fourwhere the tunnels are standing. It is neces teen hundred weight. sary for this operation that the cakes be There are three kinds of peat. The white, entire and dry, as pieces would intercept the or top of the moss land, is the lightest, and air, and a wet cake would paralyze the action consequently the worst; it is sold from four of the fire. After the setting of this bed, to five shillings the load. The brown, which the peat is thrown down upon it, and left in comes from the second stratum, is much the natural confusion of its fall, only it is better, being more compact, and sells at tive required that a man places round the tunnels shillings and sixpence per load. The black, the turf cakes in regular order, to build or best quality, sometimes called iron turf, like a chimney round these moveable tubes. is very hard and heavy: it gives an intense When the kiln is filled and heaped up about and sharp heat ; produces a thick black 3 feet above the level of the hole, the tun smoke, with strong and unpleasant smell ; it pels are drawn out by means of their hand burns slowly, and is bought at six shillings. holes, and leave two square passages from The incineration of the black turf leaves top to bottom. In these temporary chim heavy reddish ashes, whilst those of white neys, a few incandescent peat cakes are turf are of a sulphur yellow, and those of the thrown, and on these some broken pieces of brown have often a sort of orange tinge. turf, till the passages are filled; but as the The peat ashes which owe their alkaline air plays more freely through these former quality chiefly to the presence of lime, are chimneys, some barrowfulls of peat crumbs considered a good manure for grass and will shut the too wide pores, which places clover, and used as such in the north of are easily seen by the greater volume of France and in Belgium. March and April smoke escaping from them. The kiln left are the best inonths to use them. They are cpen to facilitate a more general conflagra- generally sown during damp weather, and tion, is not covered before the heap of turf will have a good effect used with any plant,
at its first appearance above ground. I tried able forge or furnace prepared for that purthem last year with pease and other vege pose. When the balls, or bullets, are to be tables, and perceived in one instance, that made from lead, or other soft metal, the the use of them cleared the cabbage plants heating process is omitted. The machine of the insects that were devouring them. consists of suitable cutters for cutting off
In order to get the kiln to act more regu the proper quantity of metal from the bar to larly, it is well to carbonize each sort of peat form a single ball, or shot, and of an appaseparately. I have at present four furnaces ratus for receiving the piece so cut off, and or kilns at work ; they are constructed be rolling it into the spherical form. The roll. tween two rails, on which I have built a ing is effected by means of channelied pieces moveable frame, with a roof covered with a of cast iron, or steel, which we will denomi. tarpauling. This skeleton of a house an nate swages. The channels in these, when swers two purposes, namely, it enables the the swages are made straight, are semi-cymen to fill and empty the kilns in all kinds lindrical, and by placing swages in pairs, of weather, and affords to the whole line the one over the other, with their channels coin. use of the double purchase to wind up the ciding, a cylindrical cavity is thereby formed. heavy iron covers.
These swages may be either straight or cirThe white turf gives a fourth of its weight cular ; and to one, or to both, of each pair, of charcoal, the brown a third, and the black a longitudinal, reciprocating, or a revolving, one-half.
motion, as the case may be, must be comThe nature of charcoal from peat is a municated by suitable machinery. great deal less pyrophoric than that of wood A MACHINE FOR SPLITTING LEATHER, charcoal ; and during the four years that I
HIDES. Alpha Richardson.have had always large quantities in the inte This patent is for improvements in the marior of my works, I have not had a single chines that split the leather by means of a instance of a spontaneous ignition, whilst I vibrating knife. The gauge-roller, which is had two accidents of this nature, with wood placed above the knife to gauge the thick. charcoal, in the short space of six weeks. ness of the grain side of the leather, works
on pivot-screws at each end, that pass through two arms projecting from a tubular shaft, within which a shaft revolves to com.
municate motion to the gauge-roller by (Selected and abridged from the Franklin Journal.] means of two chain bands, one at each end, IMPROVEMENT IN THE JACQUARD MA that pass through openings in the tubular
shaft. The table, or bed, against which the FIGURED GOODS. Alexander Calderhead. cutting is effected, rests on springs, and on The patentee says-" The nature of my im its upper surface there is a revolving, elasprovement consists, first, in lifting and low tic, steel rod, against which the flesh side of ering the threads of the warp with what I the leather is borne, and which yields to the call independent metallic heddles, or heylds, inequalities in the surface of the leather. instead of the weights, males and twines The split leather, or skin, is drawn through, composing the lower mountings, or harness, to feed the machine, by means of three of the draw loom. Second, in constructing rollers geared together. the cylinder, or pattern, so as to directly lift IMPROVEMENTS IN CLOCKS. Aaron D. and receive the said heddles, to form the Crane.—This clock, instead of being regusheed, or shive ; or in constructing a trunk lated by the vibrations of a pendulum, is and pattern web, both to direct what shall regulated by the twisting and untwisting of be the sheed as it does in the Jacquard and a narrow strip of steel, to the lower end of other drawing machines by trapping or un which a spherical weight is suspended. The trapping the hooks, or knot cords, to be twisting and untwisting of the strip of steel, drawn up."
which constitutes the pendulum-rod, is A MACHINE FOR MANUFACTURING CAN effected by an arrangement of levers conNON BALLS, BULLETS, AND OTHER KINDS nected with the escapement-wheel, but in a OF SHOT FROM MALLEABLE IRON, Levis manner not easily explained in words withGrandy and Thomas Osgood.--The metal out drawings. A rotary hammer, also, is from which the ball, or bullet, is to be made employed in the striking part, instead of the by means of our machine, is first to be formed ordinary reciprocating hammer; this haminto round bars of a size adapted to the kind mer is hung by a joint pin to the upper end of shot to be formed. When these are to of a vertical spindle, and is provided with a made of malleable iron, the metal must, counter weight to balance it- both the ham. preparatory to its being passed into the ma mer and counter weight, when lying hori. chine, be brought to a degree of heat nearly zontally, may rotate under the bell without equal to that requisite for welding, in a suit. striking it, but immediately in front of the
RECENT AMERICAN PATENTS.
bell there is a short inclined plane, which pipe to the short length of from fourteen to elevates the hammer sufficiently to cause it seventeen inches : the eject-pipe itself being to strike as it approaches the bell, and then from three to six inches long.' To a pipe, permits it to fall. The time, or watch part, connected with the engine by the usual lower is driven by a spring, which is wound up by joint of the branch pipe, (which the patentee the striking of the clock, and the striking calls the eject-pipe,) a short cylinder is part is driven by a large spring, which is to attached at right angles to the length of the be wound up in the usual way. On the pipe. The branch pipe, which is very short, arbor of one of the wheels in the train of the is attached to a cylinder which turns within striking part, there is a barrel containing that first named, the branch pipe passing the spring of the time part, which barrel is through a slot in it, of sufficient length to connected with the train of the time part; allow the pipe to play through a range of a this spring is attached to the arbor of the quarter of a circle: the inner cylinder has a wheel in the striking train, and its other end long opening in it to admit the water from forms the connexion with the time part by the main pipe. The inner cylinder is profriction against the inner periphery of the vided with gudgeons at each end, that pass barrel ; when the clock strikes, this spring through the heads of the first-mentioned will consequently be wound up, and any cylinder, and these have a lever attached to excess of winding will be counteracted by them for the purpose of governing the elevathe slipping of the spring on the inner peri tion of the branch pipe. phery of the barrel. In the construction of IMPROVEMENT IN MAKING BRUSHES ; this time-piece there is considerable inge Robert B. Lewis. - This patent is for a mode nuity displayed, but we apprehend that the of attaching the bristles, &c., to the handles skill of the inventor would have been more of brushes for whitewashing and for such profitably directed in the improving and ma other purposes as require brushes to be wide nufacturing of clocks operated by the ordi and thin. The bristles are placed on each nary pendulum, which his tortion pendulum side of a double champfered bar, and are is hardly destined to supersede.
then confined by a metallic band, made in DOOR AND OTHER LOCKS. Solomon An two parts, and jointed at each end. In this dreus.—The patentee says—" I denominate manner the bristles are confined by being this lock the combined snail-wheel lock, pinched between the side plates, or band, which name is given to it on account of its and the champfered bar. principal characteristics being the causing of IMPROVEMENT the key to carry around with it any desired FASTENING AND COMBINING THE TRUSS number of wheels formed of flat plates of
BRIDGES ; Jehu Price and metal, which wheels revolve upon a centre James T. Phillips.-We make the followpin, and are each of them perforated with a ing extract from the specification, viz:snail-like, or other suitably-formed opening, “The peculiarity in the manner of fastening within and upon which the bit of the key is our truss frames and combining them with to act.”—The snail-like openings in all the each other, consists in the employing of the wheels are alike, and the key is formed with pieces of timber last inserted in putting togeprojections on the bit of different lengths, ther the truss frame, in such a way as to one for each wheel, and as the key is turned, cause them to operate as keys, and to bind the projections being of different lengths, the whole frame together without its being they will act upon the snail.like openings at necessary to use pins, tree-nails, bolts, different parts, and then carry the wheels wedges, or other devices analogous thereto, around. Each of these wheels is provided excepting for fastening down the floor timwith a recess so situated, as that when the bers, or such as may be employed in coverprojections on the bit of the key are all in
From the circumstance of these contact with the wheels upon which they last inserted timbers keying the whole togeact, the recesses will all correspond, and re ther in a manner similar to the binding togeceive the end of a pendulous lever, which is ther of the toy sometimes called a puzzle set in motion by the continued turning of knot,' we have denominated our bridge the the wheels, by which means the bolt of the • Puzzle Keyed Bridge.'” lock is shot forward.
MANUFACTURING IMPROVEMENT IN FIRE ENGINES ; Asa
CASTING Barrelt, city of Baltimore. The patentee
MOULDS ; Thomas observes that “the usual manner of ejecting Shepherd and Thomas Loring. The patenwater from the engine, is by means of the tees say" We construct our moulds of goose-neck pipe, which is from five to eleven iron, placing one mould upon another, so as feet long; the bore having a uniform taper to form tiers, one above the other; and in through its whole length. Whereas, I con each mould, at each pouring, we cast half tract the length of the joints and the eject. hinge, the moulds containing, in the first
pouring, å pattern which occupies one half passing through the machine in a current thereof, and which is so constructed that it too thin or diffuse for the round teeth or can readily be removed, leaving the half asperities to act with sufficient force upon hinge first cast in the mould ; and we then, the light and scattered pods or hulls to break by a second pouring, cast the second half of them. the hinges. Instead of a joint pin we usually “ In my machine the hulling is effected cast the knuckles of one half the hinge with while the chaff and seed (in a mass) is under conical depressions, or countersinks, which a pressure produced by centrifugal force ; are to receive conical projections on the thus the effective power of the machine is knuckles of the other half; but, if preferred, rapidly increased with its activity." joint wires may be inserted in the ordinary A runner is attached to the lower end of a way, the respective halves being cast without vertical shaft, and is provided with teeth conical projections."
above and below, and on its outer periphery, ROTARY STEAM ENGINE; Jesse Tuttle. which is rounded. The teeth on the upper In this engine, as in many of the old surface extend much nearer to the shast than rotary engines, the chamber in which the on the under surface--the space between the piston works is formed by two plates, each inner ranges of teeth and the shaft being having a semi-circular annular groove, which occupied by arms which admit of a current when put together form the chamber for the of air to pass upwards. The upper end of rotary piston to work in.
The piston is the shaft is provided with a fan consisting of attached to the outer edge of a plate which arms or vanes—and the whole is surrounded rotates on its axis between the two heads by a case, that part which surrounds the fan that form the piston chambers, commonly being provided with a valve or damper to called the cylinder. On each side of this regulate the current of air, and the part rotating plate is formed a cam groove, which which surrounds the runner with teeth on receives a pin projecting from each side of a the inside, to correspond with and pass beforked connecting rod, for the purpose of tween those on the runner. working the abutment valves.
The grain is fed in through a hopper, that two of these abutment valves, placed on opens into the case near the inner circle of opposite sides of the piston chamber, with teeth on the upper surface of the runner, their forked connecting rods, the pins of and by the action of the centrifugal force it which slide in slots made in the outer case of is forced outwards, towards, and around, the the engine. The steam chambers are situated periphery, and then along the bottom to. on each side of the rotating plate, in which wards the centre, where it meets with a suitable appertures are made, as well as in strong current of air, produced by the fan at the shaft, to conduct the steam from the the top, which carries up the chaff and perside pipes to the piston. There is a sliding mits the grain to fall down. The centrifugal valve, with a handle, for changing the direc force resists the escape of the grain at the tion of the motion of the piston.
bottom, but as the body of grain is greater IMPROVEMENT IN
CONSTRUCTION at the top than at the bottom it is forced
Claim.-"What I claim as new, and as MILLS ; John Hobday and William J. my invention, and desire to secure by letters Cooke. In this operation the paddle boards patent, is the manner of hulling clover or are to pass through openings in the periphery other under a pressure produced by of a hollow drum, and are jointed to a crank centrifugal force after the manner and upon within it. The crank remains stationary, the principle herein before set forth; that is but the drum is made to revolve on its axis, to say, the seed in the hull is passed through and in consequence of this the paddles will a hulling chamber, in wliich it first diverges be projected beyond the periphery of the from, and is then conveyed towards the centre; drum during one part of their circuit, and centrifugal force subjecting the seed and hull will be drawn in during the remainder. to a pressure, less or greater, according to
MACHINE FOR HULLING CLOVER SEED; the velocity of the wheel, spheroid or runner, William C. Grimes.—The patentee says, - passes over or around the bilge or peri“In the construction of machines for hulling phery of the same. clover seed, it has been a common practice Secondly 'I claim the combination of to depend rather npon acute asperities to the fun with the hulling wheel or ring, and break the hull, than upon a more permanent operating after the manner, or upon the principle, or structure, less affected by use ; principle above described." hence such machines have become speedily Thirdly.--" I claim the mode of regulat. defective as they became worn; the seed ing or maintaining a nearly uniform current