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Clement's thermometer is kept constantly is in consequence of the ice. Travellers to under water at the same depth, and in Europe having the fate of the President bedicates the different temperatures of the
fore them, act with more caution, and conwater by means of a dial placed on the sequently take passage in one of our fine deck of the vessel, and always open to
fast-sailing packets, thinking it best to keep examination. The immediate action is
clear of ice-islands two hundred feet high, communicated by wheels, the working
when they can, and not to run into them at of which turns two han
the rate of twelve miles per hour." upon the dial,
4. The fourth invention of M. Clethe one marking the single degrees, and the other the tens. The whole is en
ment consists of an instrument which closed in a tube attached to the side of
indicates constantly the elasticity of the the vessel, and the helix of the apparatus
steam both in high and low-pressure is at the lowest part of the tube, in im
engines, and the level also of the water mediate contact with the water, and al
in the boilers. The instrument may also ways at the same height.
be applied to the piston of an engine, so İn experiments which have been made
as to show the loss of power sustained on the coast of France with this Subma.
by the steam in its way to it. A tube, rine Thermometer, results have been ob.
similar to the Manometer, is affixed to tained which fully establish the great
the instrument through which the steam service this instrument may ren:Jer to
ascends, and is introduced into a copper navigation, by furnishing á sure and
or brass box placed on the deck of the constant indicator of all sudden changes indicates, by means of a hand, to the
vessel, and upon which a graduated dial from deep to shallow water. It is ob. vious that it will serve also to announce
officer of the watch, the effects of the with equal certainty the approach of
engine, without his having to send below
to ascertain it. those ice-bergs, which at certain seasons
M. Clement has obtained Patents for of the year render the navigation of the
these different inventions both in France Atlantic so perilous. The Editor of the “New York Herald," in lately attempt
and this country. The whole of them
are well deserving the attention of our ing to account for the preference still given by the majority of trans-atlantic
Board of Admiralty, and of the East
India and other public Companies conpassengers to the old sailing liners over the modern steamers, ascribes it entirely
nected with shipping-the Submarine to the fear of those ice-bergs, though by
Thermometer more especially, which the employment of M. Clement's Sub
supplies what is at present an absolute
want in our maritime service, and would marine Thermometer, they might at all
add a wonderful degree of security to times be very easily avoided. The fol
navigation, whether the motive power be. lowing is the passage we allude to:
wind or steam. “ DEPARTURE OF THE GREAT WestERN.—This favourite steamer sailed yesterday afternoon (28th April, 1842) at two o'clock for Liverpool, with seventy-two passengers, about one half the number she can accommodate.
Sir,-- From the account in your Maga“ We stated yesterday that the Siddons zine for last month of the experiments and Ville de Lyon carried nearly seventy of Messrs. Wright and Bain on the passengers.
We now state that the owner Serpentine River, the supposition might of the Siddons had to turn off several appli be formed that the experiment of passcations, and that the owners of the Ville de ing the galvanic fluid through a great Lyon were constrained to put up extra
length of water had never before been state-rooms.
performed. “ The above two paragraphs present two
I beg leave to call your attention to a curious facts. Here we see a favourite and very successful steam-ship leave our shores
work published in 1803, in which it is
said that the same experiment was made, with only half her complement of passengers, and two sailing-ships depart with every berth
with perfect success, in the very infancy billed.
of the science. The experiment is given " What is the cause of this? Is it be by Aldini, in his account of some improvecause confidence in steam-ships is shaken? ments in galvanism, and was performed Or is it because this is the season for ice at Calais, across an arm of the sea, bebergs to cover the Atlantic? We believe it tween Fort Rouge and the West Mole, a
ON ELECTRICAL CURRENTS AND MR.
SMEE ON ELECTRO-METALLURGY.
distance of about 200 feet. An insulated tubing for purposes of insulation, in what wire was conducted from a galvanic pile situation and under what protection would of eighty plates of zink and silver across they propose to place the said wires ? the water, and the circuit was completed Whilst on this subject, Mr. Editor, by plunging the extremity of the wire permit me to remark that your strictures into the sea, so that the only passage for on Mr. Smee's Work on Electro-Metalthe electric fluid was through the water. lurgy which appeared in your Magazine By this means Aldini was enabled to give for last month, appear to be too severe, a strong shock to any person whose body and, in justice to that gentleman, require, formed a part of the circuit; and there I submit, some modification. Mr. Smee can be no doubt that the experiment
the idea of Electro-Metalwould have answered through a much lurgy appears to have been first suggreater distance of water. In this case gested by the use of Daniell's Battery.' there would be the advantage resulting On this sentence you remark as folfrom salt water being a better conductor lows: “ Where, Mr. Smee, does this apof the galvanic fluid than the water of the pear? In no other page, we are certain, of Serpentine River. Aldini also succeeded The history of Electro-Metallurgy that in passing the same subtle agent for a ever was written.” Almost immediately great distance along the shore. But
after, you quote from Mr. Shaw's Book, whilst these experiments prove how what you call the literal truth of the easily the electric fluid can be passed case, • We learn by the above extracts, through a great length or bulk of water, that Mr. Spencer was experimenting with yet their tendency is to show the im a voltaic arrangement similar to that of portance of continuing to insulate from Professor Daniell.” So that here is reone another the wires of the electric tele corded a fact which perfectly agrees with graph; for if a shorter line of communi the statement of Mr. Smee, which you cation for the electric fluid is made by designate as
designate as “falsehood" and resulting the access of water or any thing else, the from “the wish to extinguish another's strength and intensity of the desired effect well-earned fame.” will be weakened in the same proportion. But there is yet a rival inventor, who Suppose, for instance, it is required to states that his first idea of Electro-Metaltelegraph at a distance of sixty miles, the lurgy was suggested in the use of Propositive galvanic fluid passing along one fessor Daniell's battery. In the pamwire and returning by another placed phlet of Dr. M. H. Jacobi on this subject, alongside of it, or at the distance of a few translated by Mr. Sturgeon, he says, that feet-are we to understand that success his attention was first directed to the subwould be equally certain if the wires were ject of Electro-Metallurgy in February placed in water throughout the whole 1837, by observing that the copper prelength or even separated by a few feet of cipitated in a Daniell's battery had on it damp earth which has been proved to be the marks and indentations of the copper so good a conductor of the galvanic fluid ? plate on which it was precipitated, so In the account of the experiment of that here again Mr. Smee's statement is Messrs. Wright and Bain, in which the confirmed. two wires were immersed in the river You will observe, Mr. Editor, that I do and the electric current passed from bank not seek in the least degree to palliate the to bank, it is not said whether the ex neglect and injustice committed by Mr, periment was first tried when the wires Smee in omitting to make any allusion were above the water, and then compared to the claims of Mr. Spencer, of which with the result when the same wires were conduct you express deserved reprobaimmersed in the water, which is the ob tion; neither have I any sympathy with vious method of trying the experiment. those learned Professors or " fellows" of In addition, however, to this, the tubing for the reception of the wires has other “ Literally speaking, our correspondent is purposes besides preventing the access of right." The words quoted do not certainly exclude
the supposition that it might have been to Mr. water; its principal use appears to be to Spencer, that Daniell's battery suggested the idea ; prevent the wires receiving any external but, as it is obvious froin the context that such was injury or derangement, to so many varie
not the meaning intended to be conveyed by Mr.
Smee to his readers, since he clearly desired to ties of which it is liable, and especially on perpetuate an impression that Mr. Spencer had no a line of railway. Supposing that Messrs.
hand whatever in the discovery, we thought, and Wright and Bain could dispense with the
still think, him guilty in substance and effect of the offence we imputed to him.-- Ed. M. M.
the Royal Society, who choose to take no THE MARINE KITE-SIDE SCREW PROnotice of the merits of Mr. Spencer, sim
PELLERS, ETC. ply, as you observe, for no other obvious Sir,-In your Magazine of July 2, reason, than because he is not one of there is a very useful suggestion of your their own privileged and prejudiced class. correspondent, Mr. J. Jones, for the use But I think that there is a tendency in you, of an apparatus which he calls a “Marine Mr. Editor, as well as in the minds of Kite," intended to anchor, as it were, a Englishmen, generally, to overlook also ship in such deep water, where no cable the claims of Professor Jacobi to at least or common anchor can reach the bottom. an original discovery, if not a priority of It is a thing that may often be of very invention, of the Electrotype.
saving effect, and I can most decidedly A similar coincidence appears to have vouch for its efficacy, as also point out occurred in this as in many other great the most easy and expeditious mode of and useful discoveries, by which two ori construction. I have had occasion to try ginal and ingenious minds arrive inde it twice; once in 182:2, on the lee shore of pendently of each other at the same con the Bay of Biscay; again off the island clusion. Dr. M. H. Jacobi says that the of Milo, in the Grecian Archipelago, in subject was first suggested to him by some 1828 ;---both times in most violent gales experiments in February 1837, whilst of wind and in the night, with water too the first experiment of Mr. Spencer, deep to anchor, and dangerous lying-to which led the way to his discovery, was from lee-way. The way in which I connot made until September of the same structed these now so-called “Sea Kites" year; and whilst Jacobi produced in pub was this. I bound two spars, about twelve lic, and before his Majesty the Lord and feet long, to a studding sail, one at each King of all the Russias, an electrotype as edge. To the spar intended to be lowerearly as October 1838, it was not until most, I attached several cannon-shot, about the same time, in the year following, tied up in pieces of canvass, Six cords that Mr. Spencer's discovery was an were attached to the spars and then joined nounced; from which it
appears that Dr. together. At the junction a hauser was Jacobi was first in the field, though sub connected, of about 100 or more yards sequently it seems as if he was almost long. The shot caused this screen-like overcome with difficulties; whilst Mr. affair to float perpendicularly, and itmust Spencer, having once entered on the sub be a dreadful gale indeed, and a wonderject, proceeded from one discovery to fully lazy ship to pull it on at an inch in a another, until he introduced his invention minute. to the public, with scarcely any improve In the case of currents, ship and floatment to be desired; for the separate de ing anchor might go along in company composition cell and the precipitation of together, but in ninety-nine cases out of a the other metals seemed to follow as hundred it may be turned to good account. matters of course,
I do not know whether this idea and You observe that Mr. Smee's work is construction of mine were original or not. allowed to be defective, remarking on the I should think that it must have struck promise of one-third additional matter in other people before it did me. But nei. the new edition ; I would merely ask, ther of the masters of the ships I used it would not the "Manual" of Mr. Shaw, or in had ever seen or heard of it before. It of any one else, have been equally defect takes but a few minutes to construct. Of ive now if published as long ago as Mr. course it can be made larger or smaller, Smee's book? And have not the details according to circumstances--the possesof this beautiful and wonder-working art sion of spars, sails, &c. Only as much made progress sufficient since that time to shot or ballast iron must be applied as require at least one-third additional space ? well sink the lower spar, and so keep the
Requesting you to insert these remarks canvass in a perpendicular position. in your valuable publication-assuring In No. 983, your correspondent, Mr, you at the same time that I am perfectly Frederick Scheer, gives us an idea of unacquainted with any of the parties con screw-propellers to be applied to the sides cerned, and have written for the sake of a steam-vessel. It happened that when, alone of that “Truth” which should guide in March 1828, I presented the Duke us in every inquiry.
of Clarence, Lorel 'Iligh Admiral, my I remain, Sir, your obedient servant, screw-propeller, according to the plan
now called the “ Archimedian," I also place the weak upon a level with the gave him a model of a screw apparatus strong, and that as we are the strongest to be placed at the sides of a ship, if so at sea, we do not want them.” I replied, desired, in the way proposed by your that the day might arrive when it would ingenious correspondent Mr. Scheer, in be desirable to have prevented the weak No. 983, p. 473. But the Duke of Cla from having such means, and that it rence rejected both. He also rejected would be useful to give me some employ my spiral shot; spiral percussion shells at Woolwich, where I could
do very good for horizontal projection; my shot-proof service. But His Royal Highness did iron steam-ships, to be armed with two not take the hint.
I have my correguns to throw shells horizontally of ten spondence with Admiral Sir Edward or twelve inches diameter, and only a Owen, his naval Aid-de-camp, on the few carronades at the sides, to protect subject. All were then neglected I was from boarding; my musket-sail and tilted repulsed. Now, horizontal shells from wagon-burners; my.compound naval pre two large pivot guns, &c. are adoptedhensile rockets, &c. Of the latter he after my twenty years preaching !-Somesaid, that he "would not for the world thing like my wood-paving of 1824! have such means introduced into the
I am, &c. service, because the use of them would
Sir,- I beg to submit to your attention a design for the prevention of shop robberies, by the advice of the Editor of the Sunday Times, as given in answers to correspondents in that paper of May 29th Jast. That some remedy of the kind is requisitc, it is scarcely necessary to state, and the principle of action of the one now submitted will readily suggest itself to your readers on inspection. Robberies of watches, jewellery, &c., have of late been very frequent, and in many cases the perpetrators have eluded pursuit from having had the advantage in propinquity to the street door,
By my method it will be perceived, that on a person's entrance to a shop, the door may be made noiselessly and carefully fast without exciting suspicion, so that if a pretended purchaser should feel a disposition to bolt out with any article, he would be no less surprised than chagrined to discover that he had been previously bolted in.
The utility of an instrument of the kind is apparent in more than one particular. It would be a good security, and more easily applied than bolts. Or where a female, for instance, is alone in a shop where there are valuable articles,
and which a thief would have a better In my drawing, the fastening is shown chance of carrying off with impunity, as effected by the hand, but by a slight she would feel perfectly secure, when difference in arrangement, it might be aware, that the inspector of her stock acted on by the foot--a still better method. was already in safe custody. From the In the prefixed engraving, a reprevery low cost, too, of this contrivance, sents a section of a counter; b the shop it may be almost universally adopted; floor, and C C the street door. indeed, the bare knowledge that such a I am, Sir, yours very respectfully, means of detection was in existence,
EDWARD S. Bayston. would do much to abolish this system of
10, St. Augustin's Parade, Bristol, runaway pilfering.
June 4, 1842.
IMPROVED ELECTRO-METALLURGIC APPARATUS.
Sir, — Having been engaged for a the medals are suspended, forcing the considerable time with Electro-Metal upper stratum, which is the lightest, from lurgy, and from professing to deal in being partly deprived of its copper, to the chemical apparatus having had numerous crystals, which again become saturated; applications to supply all the requisites thus keeping up a continued circulation, for a novice to commence with, the only and maintaining the whole of the solution difficulty I have had to contend with has at its point of saturation, let the decombeen the want of a simple, cheap and ef position go on ever so fast. ficient apparatus. I tried every form hi The box is ths of an inch thick, and therto recommended or known, and found cemented; its inside dimensions are 5} something objectionable in all of them; inches in depth, 4} inches in width, and but at length 1 hit upon the form repre 8 inches long; the porous tube is 6 inches sented in the prefixed engraving, which, high, the copper rim 1 inch wide and fth after a fair trial, may be confidently re thick, bent to a square of 44 inches, but commended as being the most economi not soldered. Medals from 4 inches diacal and useful form of single cell yet meter down to seals the size of a sixpence, proposed. It possesses the essential re may be made with equal ease and cerquisites of cheapness, simplicity, and re tainty. quiring no further attention when set in The zink plate may be immersed to action, till the acid in the tube becomes any depth, by turning the connecting saturated.
wire on one side, and placing the binding The crystals of sulphate of copper screw on its edge, instead of the end. being placed on the wire frame (which If you think this worth inserting in is covered with muslin, and dips just be your valuable periodical, I have no doubt neath the surface of the solution) are you will receive the thanks of many of gradually dissolved. The saturated so your subscribers, as well as of your oblution being the heaviest, falls down on liged servant, the glass plate placed obliquely under the
W. K. BRIDGMAN. frame, and is carried to the part where King's-Lynn, June 30, 1842.