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DESCRIPTION OF IRVING'S PATENT CORN DRILL, OR MACHINE FOR SOWING
ALL KINDS OF CORN OR GRAIN,
(Specification Enrolled, December 7, 1842.) Description.
upon the upper surfaces of the seed discs, Fig. 1 of the accompanying engravings for the purpose of clearing the holes, is a side elevation of the machine; fig. 2
and only allowing the requisite quana plan; and fig. 3 an end elevation. tity of seed to pass through each time. A A is the frame, to which the va
To facilitate the passage, and to ensure rious parts of the machine are attached, the proper quantity of seed, the holes in B is one of the wheels upon which the
Fig. 3. machine is carried, (the nearest wheel being left out in figure 1 for the sake of clearness.) Upon the axle of the wheels is axed a toothed wheel C, which takes into, or gears with a smaller toothed
@z z6 wheel, or pinion, D, on the axle of which is fixed another toothed wheel or pinion E. Upon the axle of D there is also fixed two bevelled toothed wheels, F F, which take into, or gear with, two the seed-discs are made wider on the other bevelled toothed wheels, GG, under surface. P P are the coulters, upon each axle of which is also fixed similar in form and material to those a' toothed wheel, or pinion H H, and in general use, and arranged to suit a circular plate, or disc J J, of metal any inequality of surface they may or other suitable material, called a seed have to pass over or act upon. disc. A plan of this seed disc, on an two arms of wood, iron, or other mateenlarged scale, is given in fig. 3. The rial, which are attached to the frame toothed wheels, or pinions, H H, take into, A A, so as to admit of their being moved or gear with the intermediate toothed when required, into the position shown wheels, or pinions, K K, which latter take by the dotted lines d in fig. 1. Attached into, or gear with, two other toothed to the arms a a is a rod or axle b, which wheels, or pinions, L L, upon each axle passes through the eyes or sockets at the of which is fixed another circular plate, ends of the coulter blades, and which or disc, M M, similar to the beforemen eyes or sockets allow the coulters to turn tioned plates or seed discs, which said freely upon the axle or rod b, so as to discs are perforated with holes z z, of any act separately or together as required. required number and size, as shown in Q is a roller or drum attached to the fig. 3.
frame A A, and moving freely upon its N is a box or trough to contain the axis. The chains c c are attached at one seed ; the bottom has holes perforated in end to this roller or drum, the other it, and there are spouts, or tubes I I, ends being attached by a hook to each (made of leather, tin, or other material,) of the coulters P P. The ends of the attached to each hole, the number and chains e e are also attached to the width apart being regulated by the num roller or drum Q. These chains are ber of furrows, and the width between further attached to the upper ends of each furrow. 00, are plates of metal the levers 1 l, the other ends of the or other material fixed upon the interior levers 1 l being attached by a joint to a of the bottom of the seed box. These board m, which, together with the levers plates have recesses in them to receive Il and chains e e, are used as a press the circular plates, or discs J J and MM, upon the coulters, as will be more fully which are accurately fitted to the recesses explained hereafter. Attached to the in the plates ( 0, allowing the seed discs roller or drum Q are two other chains, to turn freely therein ; the upper surface f g, (the latter being indicated by a of the seed discs and plates are to be flush. doited line in fig. 1,) which pass, one Above each of the holes in the seed box, over the other, to another roller or are fixed small stiffbrushes X (sufficiently drum R, around which they are passed large to cover the holes in the seed discs,) and attached. The roller or drum R the surfaces of which brushes press close moves freely upon its axis, and has at
each end a ratchet wheel h i fixed upon the seed in the box N N. As these discs it, each being provided with a pall j k to J J and M M revolve, the seed falls act in opposite directions to each other. into the holes in the discs that are exThe roller or drum R is perforated with posed to it, in which the seed passes any convenient number of holes to re round until it arrives under the brushes ceive a handle or lever n, to be used X, and over the holes in the bottom of to turn the roller when required. SS the seed-box.. The brushes X clear are two clutches which slide upon the away the superfluous seed, only allowing axle of the wheels B B. T Tare the the requisite quantity to drop through clutch-levers, by which, and the clutches the holes and spouts I I, into the furrows, SS, the machine is thrown in or out of singly or severally according to the size gear, as occasion may require. U is a of the holes in the seed discs; the disreceptacle or box for manure (omitted tance between the dropping being regufor clearness' sake in the plan fig. 2), and lated by the number of holes in the seed the apparatus for distributing the same. discs, and the proportion the several o is a toothed-wheel or pinion (indicated wheels and pinions bear to each other. by the dotted line in fig. 1), which takes At the same time that motion is commuinto or gears with and receives motion nicated to the toothed wheel C, to the from the toothed-wheel C upon the axle toothed wheel or pinion D, the bevelled of the wheels B B. Upon the axle of wheels, E F, &c. It is communicated by the wheel or pinion o (which axle is not the same means to the toothed wheel or shown in the drawing) are fixed the pinion o, the spoons and the pinion r spoons for supplying the hoppers or upon its axle, to the toothed wheel 8, funnels p p, and spouts 9 9. Upon the and the arms or spurs upon the axle of end of the same axle is fixed the toothed. the latter, thereby causing the manure pinion r, which takes into and gives to drop through the hoppers or funnels motion to the toothed-wheel s. On the P p, and the spouts a 9, into the furrows axle of the latter there are fixed arms or or drills, a little in advance of, and simul. spurs (not shown in the drawing) which taneous with, the seed or grain from the revolving through the manure in the box spouts I I. A certain supply of a giren U, keep it agitated, and thereby facilitate quantity of manure is thus insured to the regularity of the supply required for every portion of grain or seed as it is the spoons. V V are parts of the shafts ; sown, and as both are discharged so near t t are slides which pass between the the ground, they are affected but little bottom of the seed-box and the under (if at all) by the wind, before they are sides of the seed-discs, having a hole in deposited in the ground. them to allow the seed to pass through, The coulters may be of any approved but when drawn partly out they stop form, and are so arranged in this machine any of the holes that are not required to as to be capable of making the furrows of be used; u u are rests for the clutch any depth the soil will admit, or the seed levers ; v u are fulcrum-pins for the may require. These arrangements are clutch-levers; w w are weights that are such, also, as to allow them to act sepaplaced upon the coulters to prevent them rately or together, as circumstances, or from rising.
the inequality of the surface may render The action of the machine is as fol. necessary. When the furrows or drills lows: by placing the clutch levers in the are required to be deeper than the coulposition indicated by the dotted lines on ters and weights, in their ordinary posithe plan, fig. 2, the clutches S S are tion, will make them, the pall k is rethrown into gear with the wheels B B. leased from the ratchet wheel, and thrown Motion being given to these, it is there. back, the handle n is inserted in one of by communicated to the toothed wheel the holes in the roller or drum R, nearC, and by the latter (at the same time) est the back frame A of the machine, to the toothed wheel or pinion D, the and the roller or drum R is turned round bevelled wheels F F and G G, and the towards the front of the machine, and toothed wheels or pinions, H H, K K, the chain g (indicated by the dotted line and L L, thereby causing the circular in fig. 1.) is wound upon the roller or plates or discs J ) and M M (affixed to drum R, thereby causing the roller or the axles of the toothed wheels or pin- drum (l' to revolve, and take up the ions H H and L L), to revolve under chains e e, attached to the upper ends of
the levers 1 l, which being thus drawn plates or discs for dropping or sowing all down, makes the lower end of the same kinds of seed or grain, and their combinapress down the board m (to which they tion with wheels and pinions or other meare attached) upon the coulters, forcing chanical contrivances, for the purpose of them into the ground to any depth that may carrying out the principle and its application be found expedient. When they require
as herein described, and as shown in the acto be raised, the pall j is released, the
companying drawing." roller or drum R is turned back, taking
Remarks. up the chain f f, and causing the roller The machine, as shown in the accomor drum Q to revolve and take up the panying engravings and before described, chains c c, thereby raising the coulters is arranged for drilling and sowing eight to their original position, or to the posi furrows at once; but, as stated in the tion indicated by the dotted lines in fig. description, it is not confined to that 1, so as to be entirely out of the way of number, but may be made to drill and any obstruction that
sow any number of furrows, within reathe ground.
sonable limits. The principal advantage When the seed is required to be drop which the machine offers is, the saving ped nearer together than the machine in of seed or grain ; it being intended, and so its present arrangement is capable of ef. constructed, as to sow or deposit the seed fecting, all that is required to be done is, in one, two, or three grains at a time, to loosen the screws by which the plum instead of the trail, or continuous dismer blocks, that carry the axles of the charge of the drills generally in use at wheels B B, are fixed to the frame A A, the present day. It is found by experiand move them (the plummer blocks) ence that sowing two or three grains in back, or move the frame forward, (slots one spot, with a clear space of four, five, being provided in the plummer blocks, six, or even nine inches, between them through which the above screws pass). and the next adjoining cluster of seed, alThe toothed wheels or pinions, D and lows more room and nourishment to each E, having been moved along their axle, root, and a freer circulation of air, and until the pinion E takes into or gears produces a fuller and stronger crop, than with the toothed wheel C, they are when the seed is sown in a continuous then fixed upon their axle by their keys trail in which case the roots are crowded or cotters; the plummer blocks are and impoverished, so that only a part screwed firmiy to the frame A A, and comes to perfection. It is calculated that the machine is again ready for use. the quantity of seed saved by this machine
The principle of this machine admits will not be less than two-thirds, if not of many other modifications, by which it three-fourths, of that ordinarily required. may be made applicable to the sowing of all kinds of seed or grain, and under every variety of circumstance. It may, for example, be constructed of a greater or less width, so as to drill and sow a
Dr. Moser's Discoveries. greater or less number of furrows than Professor Möser, of Königsberg, has, the machine shown in the engravings; within the last few months, published or it may be adapted to one or more in Poggendorf's Annalen, and elsewhere, horses, so that the horse or horses may a great number of observations and exwalk upon the lands immediately in front perimental results connected with phoof the machine, or in the trenches on tography, which are not only inost each or either side. A hand-machine remarkable from their singularity and on the same principle might also be novelty, but of the highest importreadily constructed.
ance, as for the first time laying open the
action of minute and bidden forces in Claim.-" I wish it to be undertood, that, in the machine herein described and shown,
nature, operating in a way never before I do not claim the manure apparatus shown
so much as suspected. Some slight noand described, nor do I claim the forin of
tice of these researches was given by the coulters, but I claim those peculiar ar
Professor Bessel, the astronomer, to the rangements as herein described, and as
British Association at Manchester; but shown in the accompanying drawings; I also as no complete account of them bas yet claim the application and use of perforated appeared in English, it seems desirable
PROGRESS OF FOREIGN SCIENCE.