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resulting from the ignition of combustible matter or other air, of a temperature so high as to be capable of burning or charring fine or downy organic fibres. For this purpose the patentee prefers preparing the air, by causing atmospheric or other air containing oxygen, to be blown or otherwise forced upon charcoal, coke, or other combustible matter in an ignited state. By the active combustion thus carried on a highly heated air is produced. It is found convenient to have the coke or other combustible placed in an ignited state upon and distributed along the flat iron bed of a furnace about 12 inches wide, 12 inches deep, and about 12 inches longer than the width of the cloth intended to be dressed in the middle, and from one end to the other of which bed there is an orifice about a or an inch wide; which orifice externally communicates with one end of a pipe or channel, whose other end is connected with a fan, bellows, or other apparatus capable of furnishing a continuous and regular stream of air to the furnace to keep up the combustion of the fuel when the operation of dressing is going on. The door of the furnace should be of iron, and made to fit tight when shut; the sides and ends of the furnace, except the door, may be of brick-work, but the roof or top of the furnace should be of iron or other metal capable of standing the long-continued action of a high temperature. The roof may be flat, or curred, or tapering upwards to a narrow edge (ridged) from the sides of the furnace, through the middle of the roof; and from one end to the other of it there should be an orifice from zo to 4 of an inch wide, for the emission of the hot air, besides which vent there should be none other for the emission of air from the furnace. When the goods are intended to be dressed merely on the surface, it is is only requisite to cause them to pass quickly in an extended state from one roller to another (as is usual in dressing by contact with a red hot metallic plate, or the flame of combustible gas), at a short distance over and across the orifice in the roof of the furnace when a stream of the heated air is passing therefrom. The distance of goods from the orifice, and the speed at which they are passed, is regulated at the discretion of the operator, according to the rate of combustion going on in the furnace, and the force of the air blowing into and through the furnace ; but when it is desired that the dressing shall be effected, both on the surface of the goods and in the interstices of their texture, a draft should be created on the upper surface of the goods and directly above the orifice from which the hot air is issuing out of the furnace by the application and use of the same apparatus,
which is ordinarily used for a similar purpose when goods are being dressed, by the exposure of them to the action of the flame of combustible gas. The patentee does not claim as part of his invention the use of any of the mechanical means before men. tioned, nor the use of any particular materials, but what he claims is “the application to goods intended to be dressed by singe. ing of air, made so hot as to be capable of burning or charring the fine fibres of organic matter, that is, causing the goods which are to be dressed and the heated air to be in contact with each other till the desired effect is produced, not confining himself to any particular mode of causing the air to be heated, nor to any particular manner of applying the air when heated."
The second improvement in dressing is stated to have “the effect according to the degree in which it is applied, of giving increased body, marketable appearance, and seemingly improved quality, to yarn, thread, cloth, and other goods, spun, woven, or otherwise prepared or manufactured from cotton or other fibrous substance, or from a mixture of two or more kinds of fibrous substances." It consists in impregnating the goods with a solution of sulphate of magnesia, sulphate of soda, or sulphate of potash, or a mixture of two or more of those salts, and then drying them. When it is intended that the dressing, stiffening, or finishing material, that is to be applied to the goods, shall possess more adhesiveness than that which would result from the use of a solution simply of the salts mentioned, the solution may have gum, mucilage, or starch, or flour size, mixed with it—the strength of the solution and the quantity of gum or other adhesive matter to be added, being regulated and varied at the discretion of the operator, and according to the effect intended to be produced. If the goods are desired to be made very stiff, the solution of the salt will be required to be a saturated
formed at the temperature of 60° or higher; if they are not desired to be made stiff, but to have a moderate apparent increase of body given them, it will be sufficient that the solution used be of the specific gravity (temp. 60%) 1:15 or less. The solution may be applied in the same manner as that in which a flour or starch size solution or mixture is usually applied ; and in such case the excess may be squeezed out by passing the goods between rollers-after which the goods may be dried in the usual manner, when they will have acquired the increased body and altered appearance. So much of this part of the patentee's invention, as regards the use of a solution of sulphate of magnesia, is applicable to the manufacture of paper. The web
leaf or sheet of paper having been formed the cloth or goods through, or otherwise imand dried, is to be immersed in, passe ! pregnating them with, a solution of sulphate through, or otherwise impregnated with the of magnesia, and in afterwards passing them solution of salt, (the same observations re through, or otherwise impregnating them lative to the strength of the solution, as with, a solution of soap, or of the vegetable above, being attended to); the excess of the size,' or vice versa.” The double decomposisolution is removed by passing the paper tion spoken of takes place, and a mixture of between rollers, or by pressing between magnesia and grease or resin is deposited in folds of some absorbing substance ; the pa and among the fibres of the substance of per is then to be dried, after which it will which the cloth is formed. The cloth after have more body and stiffness than if the having had the excess of the finishing matesolution had not been applied. What the rials squeezed out by being passed between patentee claims under this head of his in rollers or otherwise and then dried, is ren. vention, is “merely the application of a dered to a great extent impervious to water. solution of sulphate of magnesia in the The use of a compound formed by mixing manufacture of paper, and the application a combination of alkali and resin, or a comof a solution of sulphate of magnesia, sul bination of alkali and grease, with sulphate phate of soda, or sulphate of potash, or of of magnesia, is also applicable to the manua mixture of two or more of the salts to the facture of paper. The sulphate of magnesia other descriptions of goods before mentioned instead of alum is to be put into the paperor alluded to, without confining himself to engine along with the vegetable size or soap, any precise manner of effecting the applica and therein mixed with the pulp, as alum and tion."
the vegetable size or soap generally are; the The improvements in finishing consist in sulphate of magnesia forms a substitute for "applying to cloth and other goods, woven the alum, and of its crystals about 332 parts or otherwise, prepared or manufactured from by weight are required to supply the place cotton or other fibrous substance, or from a of 487 parts of alum. mixture of two or more kinds of fibrous The patentee does not claim the use of the substances, a compound produced by mixing vegetable size or of soap per se, either in the a solution of sulphate of magnesia with a stiffening and finishing of goods, or in the solution of resin in alkali, (this alkaline manufacture of paper, but he claims “ the combination of resin being an article much application of the compound formed by mixused under the name of Vegetable Size,' ing a combination of resin and alkali, with in the manufacture of paper,) or with a sulphate of magnesia, and also the applicasolution of soap, combination of tallow or tion of the compound formed by mixing a other grease, and alkali.” A quantity of combination of tallow or other grease and the alkaline combination of resin (“ vegetable alkali with sulphate of magnesia, both in size") or of soap being dissolved in water, a the stiffening and finishing of goods, and in saturated or other solution of sulphate of paper-making, whether the said compound magnesia is added thereto, by which a double be mixed with any other ingredient or ingredecomposition takes place ; the resin or dients or not, and without confining himself grease (as the case may be) and the magnesia to any proportions or qualities of the several being precipitated together, and the sulphuric ingredients used in forming the compounds, acid and the alkali forming a sulphate of the or to any particular manner of applying the alkali. The quantity of the sulphate of compounds.” magnesia to be added, depends upon the A further improvement in stiffening and strength of the solution of resin ; it being finishing textile fabrics is described by the paknown when sufficient has been added, by a tentee, and consists in “ submitting or exposfurther addition not forming more precipi ing the cloth or other goods after having tate : and the strength of the solution of been immersed in, or otherwise impregnated resin to which the solution of sulphate of with, or having had in any way applied magnesia has to be added, depends upon the thereto, a solution or mixture of, or containthickness of the mixture which the operator ing sulphate of magnesia, or alum, or other is inclined to use. The mixture may either salt, having a metallic oxide for its base, to the have starch or flour size mixed with it or action of an atmosphere of, or one considernot, according to the discretion of the ably impregnated with, ammoniacal gas, by operator ; and it may be used in the manner which the magnesia, alumina, or other metalin which a mixture of filour size with china lic oxide becomes liberated from the acid clay and other earthy matter is generally with which it was combined, and is deposited used, after which the goods may be dried in in or upon the cloth or goods." This part the usual manner.
of the patentee's invention, so far as regards A modification of this finishing process is the use of ammoniacal gas for causing metal. also claimed, which consists “ in first passing lic oxides to be deposited in or upon the
cloth and other goods, is applicable to some of the combination which was applied having of the processes or operations connected with
been dissipated during the drying of the cloth printing calicoes and other goods; for in- or goods, and the grease, wax, or other matstance, an atmosphere containing ammoniacal ter (as the case may be) being left therein or gas can be used as a substitute for a mixture thereupon. The patentee lays no claim to of chalk and water, or for a solution of the formation of a compound of ammonia lime, or soda, or potash in water, in causing with lard, oil, or other grease, nor of ammo; the deposition of alumina and other metallic nia with wax, spermaceti, or stearine, but oxides, from the acids forming with them he claims the “application to cloth or other salts, and which salts are applied to goods goods in the dressing, stiffening, and finishing intended to have that style of printing ef thereof, for whatever purpose the said cloth fected upon them called "padding.' The or goods may be intended, of combinations salt or mixture of salts, or its solution, hav. of ammonia with lard, tallow, oil, or other ing been padded upon the calico or other
grease, wax, spermaceti, or stearine; and of goods, the article, either before or after ammonia with all or any two or more of the being in some degree dried, is to be ex other several ingredients, however the said posed to an atmosphere of, or one consider combination or combinations may have been ably impregnated with, ammoniacal gas, after formed, not confining himself to any partiwhich it will not be necessary to rinse it in an cular proportions of the ingredients forming alkaline solution, or mixture of chalk and the combination or combinations mentioned water. What is claimed in this part of the or alluded to, nor to any particular manner specification, is, “ the causing cloth or other of applying any of the combinations." goods, after the same have had in any way The last improvement specified by the or in any degree applied thereto a solution patentee, which relates also to finishing cloth or mixture of any kind, containing sulphate and goods, consists in “ drying them by the of magnesia, alum, or other salt, whose base application of the heated air produced by or is a metallic oxide, to be so acted upon by an resulting from the action of atmospheric air atmosphere of, or containing ammoniacal gas, or other air containing oxygen, upon charas that the metallic oxide forming the base of coal, coke or other carbonaceous matter in a the salt contained therein, shall become de state of ignition.” The carbonaceous matter posited in or upon the cloth, calico, or other is to be burned in such a stove as is usually goods.”
employed in warming buildings, and the air Another improvement in dressing, stiffen resulting from the combustion, instead of ing, and finishing, described by the patentee, being carried directly by a flue into the exconsists in applying to the goods "a combi ternal atmosphere, is allowed to pass into pation of ammonia with lard, tallow, oil, or the room or chamber in which cloth or other grease, or a combination of ammonia goods are hung or extended for drying. The with wax, spermaceti, or stearine, or a mix drying produced has the effect of giving the ture of any two or more of those ammoniacal cloth what is called by the trade a “hard combinations, either alone, or mixed with finish." starch or flour, size or gum, mucilage or any other matter." To form the combination, the lard or other grease, or the wax, spermaceti, or stearine, should be softened or just melted, by the application of heat, after which there should be added thereto liquor of
Queen's Bench. ammonia, the mixture being agitated till the
Westminster, June 4, 5, 1842. combioation is complete. When the prepa. (Before Mr. Justice Coleridge and a ration of the compound is well managed, one
Special Jury.) part by weight of liquor of ammonia, whose specific gravity is 0.96, is enough for two
The Queen v. Bynner. parts of any of the other mentioned articles. The Solicitor-General, Mr. Kelly, Nir. The combination having been formed and Hindmarsh, Mr. H. Hill, appeared for the allowed to cool under exclusion from the prosecution; and the Attorney-General, atmosphere, may be diluted and passed Mr. M. D. Hill, Mr. Crompton, and Mr. through a fine sieve, when the mixture or Webster, for the defendant. solution, either alone or with other matter, This was a proceeding by scire facias, the at the discretion of the operator, may be object of which was to repeal a patent, obapplied to the cloth or other goods in the tained by the defendant for the application manner in which starch or flour size is usu of a principle of which he claimed to be the ally applied. The cloth is then dried and inventor, and which he alleged could be submitted to such other mechanical finishing applied to any lamp or gas-burner. [For a operation as is desired, the ammoniacal part full description of this patent see Mech.
LAW CASE-THE SOLAR
Mag., vol. xxxiv. p. 33.] This principle was the introduction of atmospheric air at a point below the point of combustion, and the deflection of the air by means of metal or other deflectors upon the flame at a point above the point of combustion. The patent obtained by the defendant (and which was now sought be rescinded) was issued in December, 1837, and the chief grounds on which its validity was impugned was, that the invention was not new; for that the application of atmospheric air in the way described in the patent had been long ago known and practised, and great numbers of lamps had been made upon the same principle. The expired patent of Upton of 1828 was particularly relied on.
The present patent was also impugned for want of clearness in the specification. The detence was, that the patent claimed nothing but a new application of a principle; that the principle itself had been vaguely known, and tried to be acted on some years ago; but that it was the defendant alone who had brought it into scientific and useful application, and in substance, that the difference between him and those who had formerly directed their efforts to the same point, was the difference between success and the want of it. A great many scientific witnesses were examined to make out this defence, and the case occupied the court from its sitting on Monday till late on Tuesday afternoon.
Mr. Justice Coleridge summed up the case to the jury, who returned a verdict for the Crown.
man, and the lowest a Sudra. The largest recently found was dug up at Punnah, and it was sold for 4001.
Pork and Corn Oils-So successful have been late experiments, that pork (if the lean part is excepted) is converted into stearine for candles, a substitute for spermaceti, as well as into oil. The process is simple and cheap, and the oil is equal to any in use.
Late improvements, also, have enabled experimenters to obtain suflicient oil from corn meal to make this profitable, especially when the residuum is distilled, or which is far more desirable, fed out of stocks. The mode is by fermentation, and the oil which rises to the top is skimmed off, and ready for burning without further process of manufacture. The quantity obtained is ten gallons in 100 bushels of meal. Corn may be estimated as worth fifteen cents per bushel for the oil alone, when oil is worth 1 dollar, 50 cents per galion. The extent of the present manufacture of this corn oil may be conjectured from the desire of a single company to obtain the privilege of supplying the lighihouses on the upper lakes with this article. If from meal and pork the country can thus be supplied with oil for burning, and for machinery, and manufactures, chemistry is indeed already applied most beneficially to aid husbandry.-Report to Congress, of American Commissioner of Patents.
The “Trident" Steamer, which is beyond all question as fine a vessel as ever floated upon salt water, has just been put on the Edinburgh station by the General Steam Navigation Company. She was launched early in September of last year, from the yard of Messrs. Wigram and Green, and was constructed under the immediate direction of T. Brocklebank, Esq., and is said, by many naval architects, to be superior to any vessel yet launched from the Royal yards. Some idea of her strength may be formed from the fact, that although but of 1,000 tons, she has more timber in her than the Brilish Queen. In length from head to stern she measures 195 feet: her breadth of beam between the paddle-boxes being 31 feet: her engines were built at the Company's works, at Deptford, and her speed is equal to that of any vessel of similar tonnage. The coal-boxes, which surround the engineroom, hold 200 tons of fuel, and she has stowage for 670 tons of goods. Floating on the water, either with or without her cargo, the Trident is a surpassingly handsome model; carrying, in hull and rigging, all the strength of the Government war steamers, devoid of their characteristic heaviness of appearance. The quarter-deck is large, and from its height the passengers have a clear look-out a-head of the ship. The main-deck, from the engines not breaking through the decks, as is generally the case, is large and commodious, and forms an excellent promenade well sheltered by the forecastle and quarter-deck from the wind. Cabins adjacent to the larboard paddle-box are appropriated to the first and second mates, that they may always be handy to the deck. Near these is the cook's kitchen, capable of providing for three hundred persons; and large fire-pumps are fixed in different parts of the vessel, which are examined daily, whilst several life-preservers are on deck in case of accident. The engine-room, in which there are three galleries, one above the other, running over the works, is lit by means of reflectors, and regular berths are fitted adjoining the machinery for the engineers and stokers.-- Post Magazine.
XOTES AND NOTICES. Diamonds.-In a paper recently read before the Royal Asiatic Society " on the Mineral Resources of India," Lieutenant Newbold mentions the universal belief among the miners of India that diamonds grow; that worn-out excavations, after a lapse of rest of fifteen or twenty years, may again be examined, and fresh diamonds will be found in them. Although at first little disposed to pay any attention to such a belief, Lieut. Newbold found, subsequently, reason to consider it more fully; and he is now of opinion that the belief is not without foundation. He has generally found that the opinions of the natives on these matters is, in the main, correct; and has himself witnessed the extraction of diamonds, in tolerable abundance, from excavations long neglected as worn out. mines the natives content themselves with working the old excavations in succession, which they constantly find profitable alter a sufficient lapse of time, although abandoned before as unproductive. The smaller size of diamonds in modern times may perhaps be accounted for on this hypothesis, the cupidity of the contractors not allowing a suflicient interval of rest to intervene between the workings. (We are surprised that so acute and generally so rational an observer as Mr. Newbold, should lend his sanction to such nonsense.) Diamonds are divided by the Hindus into four castes, to which they give the names of their own civil distinctions; the best diamond being called a Brah
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