Abbildungen der Seite
PDF
EPUB

RAILWAY REFORM.

ers.

Italians say,

ent is so simple as hardly to require any Sir,- There is a standing jest among further explanation; at the same time, those who love to laugh at philosophers, we shall be glad to receive from him any about Sir Isaac Newton's having caused additional elucidations which he may a hole to be cut in his study door for his think likely to be of interest to our readcat to come in by, and by its side another --ED, M. M.] for her kitten ; a story which, as the

se non e rero, e ben tro. vato." Now, however ridiculous this may

MR. CLEMENT'S NAUTICAL INVENTIONS. seem, something like a parallel to it may be seen on all our railroads, which, to The Sillometer, Marine Thermometer, the great cost, and almost ruin, of their

and Steam Thermometer. shareholders, have been made double, Since we gave a description of these when a single one might have sufficed; ingenious instruments

, (see Mech. Mag., for in order to work a single railroad No. 989, p. 84.,) a very complete series with as much efficacy as a double one, of trials have been made of them, by we have only to construet, at about half command of the Lords of the Admiralty, its length, a single sinuosity, either to on board of H. M. S. V. Lightning, the right or to the left, to enable the during several voyages from Woolwich train coming up, to pass the train going Portsmouth and back, and also up and down, and take its place, and, vice versa, down the river Medway. We have been the opposite train. And this passage favoured with a sight of the Official Remight be safely used by making a short ports of these trials, and with permission halt at each end of the sinuosity. To to make the extracts from them which accomplish this great saving, it is only we subjoin. The results, it will be seen, necessary that the two trains should

are in the highest degree satisfactory, always start at the same hour, and stop and in perfect accordance with those preat each end of the sinuous curve, until viously obtained by the officers of the by a signal one train enters the curve, French Royal Marine. We may hope, and the other proceeds in a straight line. therefore, to see these instruments now I need not, I believe, take up more room generally

adopted, both in our government in your useful Magazine by detailing the and merchant services; the Marine Therimmense saving that would accrue by mometer, more especially in all vessels this simple and not expensive process, as which are exposed to the risk of coming it is evident it would nearly reduce the in contact with floating icebergs, or have whole expenditure by one half; and if to navigate unknown, or imperfectly constructed on a plan, the model of

known seas. which I have just sent to France and Germany (for in England we never

1. Trials with the Sillometer. adopt new plans in great works), (During Passage from Woolwich to Portswhich includes a great saving in the

mouth.) transverse sleepers, as well as an addi

“ Thursday, October, 1842.- About one tional security in the construction of the

mile and a quarter below Gravesend, comwheels which support the engine, and menced a trial between Massey's Patent Log would also reduce the expense consider and M. Clement's Sillometer. After a run ably, whilst it would render the railway of 24 hours, (being off Sheerness,) more lasting, and easier to be laid down, Distance given by Massey's Log, 1514 miles. than any that has as yet been adopted to

Sillometer .. 15 my knowledge. You will oblige me by inserting this in your next Magazine, and

“ Distance from Nore Light to Deal.

42 miles, if any of your correspondents are desirous By Sillometer of seeing my new plan, and you can

By Tables, reckoning from buoy make room for it, I shall have great

to buoy... pleasure in sending it for your pages.

“ At 4 h. 25 m. p. m., altered the course I am, yours, &c., George CUMBERLAND, Sen.

4 points, during which operation the Sillo

meter showed a diminution of speed, from 8 Oct. 20, 1842. Colver-street, Bristol.

miles per hour to 7 miles. [The plan of our esteemed correspond “ At 8 h. 50 m. p. m., off South Fore.

[ocr errors]

land, commenced a trial between Massey's

" At 10 a. m. About two miles past the Log and the Sillometer. Friday morning. Nab Light. Tried Massey's Log. Took in Massey's Log.

“ Distance to near the entrance of Ports“ Distance from abreast the South Foreland mouth Harbour, to about 7 miles to the eastward of the Owers, By Massey's Log. 6 miles, nearly. By Massey's Log 844 miles. By Sillometer

6 exactly. By Sillometer

82} By Tables, reckoning from buoy to buoy

85

During the passage round to Portsmouth, the speed of the vessel was purposely

checked, by blowing off steam, to see the “ Moved sundry weights aft, viz., boat,

effect on the Sillometer.

The speed, as brass guns, anchor, oars, &c.; for an instant

shown by the Sillometer, was gradually rethe speed, as shown by the Sillometer, di.

duced from 8 miles per hour to 4, at which minished to 7.4 miles per hour, but it al

point it stood steady. On the order being most immediately increased to the former

given for full speed, the Sillometer showed a speed of 8 miles. “ Moved the same weights forward : no

gradual increase of speed, till it came to 8 sensible difference in the speed of the vessel.

miles per hour, as before.' “ The speed, as shown by the Sillometer, varied from 8:1 to 8.2 miles per hour.

On the return voyage, from Portsmouth

to Woolwich, the distance performed was, “ Tried the speed of the vessel by the By Massey's Log

119 miles. common log, which gave. 84 miles By the Sillometer

118.6 The Sillometer, the same, viz... 81

II. Trials with the Marine Thermometer.
(During voyage from Woolwich to Portsmouth.)

[merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][ocr errors][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small]

"i from

Thermometer would indicate the approach temperature which it indicated off the to rocks and icebergs, from the influence

same point was 16.20 and 16:5,"aris. these bodies are known to have on the tem

ing," says the official report, perature of the sea, for a considerable dis

the circumstance of our course being tance."

more distant from the light vessel :" It will be observed, that, when off the another striking illustration of the corNab Head, the temperature indicated by rectness with which the instrument dethe Marine Thermometer was 14.25° notes the recession from, or approach to, centig. ; but, on the return voyage, the

shoal water.
III. Trials with Steam Thermometer.
(During passage from Woolwich to Portsmouth.)

[merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][ocr errors][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small]

We take leave to extract also from the vessel, and the most advantageous quantity official report the following general ob

and distribution of the sails, for obtaining servations, in which the merits of the in the greatest speed. As the sillometer shows struments are very impartially and fairly

immediately, the effect which every alteration stated.

in the sails or trim of the ship has on its

velocity, it follows also, that ships fitted "The dial of the marine thermometer is on

with the sillometer can constantly maintain deck, and shows by inspection merely, the

the speed that may have been agreed upon,

and so keep company together, and main. approach to shoal and deep water, also, (as

tain the same relative position, though, from it is inferred,) the approach to land, rocks,

the darkness of the night, or thickness of and ice-bergs.

the weather, they cannot see each other. “ The steam thermometer is so placed, that

“ To ascertain the distance run after any the officer on deck observes the degree of

number of hours, it is simply to take the temperature (and pressure) of the steam in

number of minutes one of the watches of the the boilers, so that, if from any cause, the

sillometer has gained over the other, and to temperature of the steam in the boilers becomes higher or lower than it should be, it im

multiply that number by 6, there results the

distance run in miles. mediately becomes known; and, in high-pres

“ The instruments of Monsr. Clement, sure engines more especially, the approach

fitted on board the Lightning, appear to be to such a degree of temperature and pressure as may be dangerous is easily observed.

well and securely placed ; nor does there “ The sillometer has also a dial upon deck,

appear to be any danger of their being dewhich constantly shows the number of miles

ranged.” per hour that the vessel is going ; conse. We subjoin the account of the additional quently, it is easy to discover, under all trials made with the thermometer in the circumstances, what is the best trim of the Medway.

} Vessel stopped

Trials with the Steam Thermometer in the temperature of the steam was 111°.5 (centiMedway.

grade); on getting under weigh, it lowered

to 109°:3 ; going easy, it rose to 110.9 ; Oct. 16, 1842 Centigrade.

going on again, it lowered to 110°.1: going easy again, it rose to 110.5 ; going on at full

speed, it gradually lowered to 106o9. h. m. 12 40 P.M.

Sheerness. 1 45 Upnor

ABSTRACTS OF SPECIFICATIONS OF ENGLISH 2 0 111.3 Off Chatham dock

PATENTS RECENTLY ENROLLED. 111.3

CHARLES HANCOCK, OF GROSVENOR111.5

PLACE, Artist, for certain improvements Ordered to go on.

in printing cotton, silk, woollen, and other 110.2

stuffs. Patent dated February 8, 1842. 110:1

These improvements consist in printing 109.95

cotton, silk, woollen, and other stuffs, with 109.8

oil or oil-colours, without any previous pre109.7

paration of the stuffs by mordants, sizes, or 109.6

otherwise; and also in printing them partly 109.4

with oil or oil-colours, and partly with 109.3

water-colours or dischargeable resists, whereOrder to ease her. by the ordinary process of printing is greatly 109.7 a little.

abridged. The following is given as “the 109.8

manner in which the said improvements are 109.9

to be performed." 110.0

" To obtain a suitable medium for the 110.1

colours, I first mix linseed-oil, nut-oil, or 110.2

other drying oil, (preferring linseed-oil, be110.3

cause of its drying quality, and of its retain110.4

ing its fluidity at lower temperatures than 110.5

most others,) and raw or burnt Turkey um110.9

ber together, in the proportion of about one Order, “ go on." gallon of the oil for about every pound of 110 8

the umber ; and I boil this mixture over a 4 0

110.75 Abreast Upnor. slow fire, in an open metal pan of large area, 110.7

and of sufficient depth to allow it to rise 110.4

without boiling over, continuing the boiling 110.15 Off Gillingham. until the mixture gives indication of having 4 10 110:1

nearly parted with most of its evaporable Order to ease her. constituents, and taking care to draw the 110.15

fire before any deposition of carbon takes 4 15 110-20

place, which would have a discolouring effect 110.5

on the contents of the pan. When these

conditions have been duly observed, the re110-2

sulting product is a viscid substance, of an 110:1

uniform consistency, resembling that of dis110.0

solved caoutchouc, flowing freely on the ap109.8

plication of a slight heat, or spreading by 4 20 109.2

slight mechanical pressure, and neither soil4 25

108.1
Going full speed

ing nor running, on being brought into con108.0

tact with textile fabrics or paper. Instead 107.5

of completing the process at one boiling, it 4 30 107.0

may be effected with less risk of failure, 106.9

though more slowly, by several boilings, al

lowing the mixture or the oil to cool each 107.5

Arrived at time the fire is drawn. A metal cover may be 4 40 108.3 Sheerness. suspended over the pan by weighted chains,

or ropes passing over pulleys, so that, in the

event of the inflammable gases disengaged The observations here taken show how catching fire, the cover may be instantly every variation in the temperature of the lowered, and the flame extinguished. When steam in the boilers is indicated by the it is desirable, for any particular purpose, to steam thermometer of Monsr. Clement. have the medium of a more drying or more Thus, when the vessel was stopped, the adhesive quality than usual, I add, as the

case may be, to the mixture or oil, when in brass rack and pinion. The rack is about the pan, either a little white vitriol, litharge, one sixteenth part of an inch thick, and sugar of lead, or other drier, or a little of forms an arc of about two-fifths of a circle, any suitable resin. Before the product of (except at its top and bottom ends which the boiling or boilings has become quite are complete circles,) and upon the edges of cold, it may be thinned down, if desired, this arc, a number of teeth are cut, into with highly-rectified oil of turpentine, or which the pinion is geared. The (circular) any other sufficient solvent. In order to top of this arc has a flat circular disc of me. combine the composition or medium, the tal soldered into it, and forms a base to nature and preparation of which I have thus which the cup for the candle is riveted, and described, with any of the pigments or other in the back of this arc a spring is made by matters suitable for the printing of cotton, cutting away the metal from three of its silk, woollen, and other stuffs, the combina sides, (leaving it suspended at the top), and tion is best effected in vessels heated by then pressing it outward. The use of this steam, according to the mode usually adopted spring is by pressing against the shaft of the in colour manufactories and laboratories. candlestick, to prevent the rack or "push When the colours are to be applied to the up" sliding downwards, except when actuated stuffs, it may be done without any previous upon by the pinion. The rack or “ push preparation of the stuffs by mordants, sizes, up" being now put in the shaft, the pinion oils, or otherwise, and by means either of is put through a hole made in each side of cylinder printing-machines, or plates, or the shaft upon which it is supported, and it blocks. If the medium has been previously is fastened in its place by being riveted at thinned sufficiently by oil of turpentine, or the end. By turning round a knob with the other solvent, the colours may be applied in fore-finger and thumb, the pinion revolves a cold state; or, if the medium has not been and moves the rack or “push up" either up so previously thinned, then, in order to or down, depending upon the way in which make the colours flow freely, the colour the knob is turned. troughs, tearing-sieves, plates, and cylinders The “claim" is to any “push up, in must be kept warm by steam, or some other which a rack and pinion is used, of whatever transmitter of a gentle heat, by any of the form and however placed," and also to the well-known methods commonly employed method before described as well as several for such purposes. The colours do not rest others stated in the specification of "giving on the surface, but penetrate the body of the motion to the rack and pinion.” stuff, and this without running. Any smell John GEORGE BODMER, OF MANCAES. imparted by the oil or turpentine may be TER, for certain improvements in machinery dissipated by exposure to the air. The stuffs or apparatus for cleaning, carding, roring, so printed on may be of any colour or or spinning, cotton and other fibrous sub. colours."

stances. Patent dated March 7, 1842. In the processes hitherto described, it The present improvements have reference has been supposed that the figures, designs, principally to certain machines formerly or patterns, are to be printed with the oil. patented by Mr. Bodmer, and particularly colours, but instead thereof the figures, de to those which were the subject of the patent signs, or patterns may be produced in the of October 23, 1836. manner of resists, by some fugitive water The patentee describes, 1. An improved colour, gum, or paste, and an oil-colour, blower and lap-frame, by means of which he prepared as before directed, be made use of can form one single narrow lap, say of 5 to produce only the general ground, the stuff inches in width, from the produce of a beater being washed afterwards to discharge the and feeding apparatus, “ of the usual or any resist, and then aired, as before directed, to convenient width." get rid of any smell of the oil or turpentine. 2. A self-acting tool or doffer, by which

Thomas CLIVE, OF BIRMINGHAM, for the sliver, or lap of a lap-frame, is cut, incertain improvements in the construction of stead of being separated as usual by hand. candlesticks. Patent, dated April 7, 1842. 3. An "improved mechanism” for clear.

These improvements in candlesticks con ing, shifting, or stripping flats or top-cards. sist firstly, in the construction of a new This improvement, the patentee says, he apparatus or push up" (as this part is considers “ of great importance, because of commonly called) for raising the candle in the simplicity and strength of the mechan. the socket of the candlestick, and secondly, ism, and the improved position of the stripin the combination of this “ new push up' ping-rollers, as the fibres which hang down with an elastic holder for holding a candle from the cards are in a more favourable securely in the candlestick, and for which position to be taken hold of by the rollers, (in part) a patent was granted 25th April, which may be driven by straps and pullies, 1839, to James Barlow, of Birmingham. or by gearing from any of the slow moving

The new “push up" is composed of a rollers of the carding-engine."

« ZurückWeiter »