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In repeating the experiment of passing the eleetric fluid through the Orestes, an accidental circumstance fully proved Mr. Harris's theory, that metals of themselves are not attractive, and ihat lightning will take the most direct continuous way to arrive at its course. The wire which led from the Semaphore to the cup containing the gunpowder at the mast-head of the ship was not properly placed, the bight touching the mast a few inches below the cup. The discharge, therefore, instead of continuing along the wire to the cup, was conveyed to the conductor . at the spot where the bight touched the mast, and carried through the ship, and thence by the seat to the boat where it fired the gun, leaving the gunpowder at the mast-head unexploded.
After Mr. Harris had concluded his experiments, Admiral Sir Edward Codrington said, that after what he had witnessed, he thought it but right publicly to observe that he felt perfectly convinced of the efficacy of the conductors upon Mr. Harris's plan, which, after the conclusive and satisfactory tests they had that day undergone, would no doubt be generally used throughout the navy.-Times.
NOTES AND NOTICES. Sale of the Great Western Steam-ship-On Monday last the steam-ship Great Western was offered for sale by public auction in Bristol. The bidding was very spirited, but she was ultimately bought in at 40,0001. The attempted sale of this powerful steam-ship gave rise to a rumour that she would not leave Bristol for New York on Saturday next, the 22d inst., as previously advertised. We llave, however, reason to believe there was not the slightest foundation for such report - Times.
Wonderful-Is True.- Mr. Samuel Colt made an experiment with his terrible Explosive Engine, at Washington, on Saturday, Aug. 27, which is said to be completely successful. A vessel prepared for the purpose was shivered to atoms at a distance of five miles. It was a repetition, on a large scale, of the experiment he performed off the Battery, at New York, on the 4th July. There was an immense concourse of spectators present, including the President Heads of Departments, and the Mayor of Washington. Mr. Colt was near Alexandria; a signal gun was fired at Washington, and in about twenty seconds thereafter, a huge column of water rose suddenly into the air, and when it descended not a trace of the vessel was to be seen.-American Papers.
The Gold Mines of Russia.-Russia now yields four times as inuch gold as all the rest of Europe, and the yearly produce of this metal (400 poods, or 16,000 lbs.) is suflìcient to load from forty to fifty sledges. The silver needs for its conveyance a caravan of from 120 to 150 sledges. The platina requires but three or four, and the copper, which is also conveyed chiefly by land, sets in motion 5000 sledges. By far the greater part of these metals coines to thi mint in Petersburgh.--Koht': Russia and the Russians.
New Paper Hangings.-A Liverpool piper thus describes a new style of paper hangiugs, recently introduced there from Switzerland. The effect must be very fine :--" The general character of the design may be styled Florentine; the ground work is white satin; the walls are divided into compartments by stiles of a rich gold colour, representing, with great accuracy, carved wood of intricate design; the panels are niches with drawings of deer, lions, swans, &c., each forming a complete picture in gorgeous borders of gilded ornaments and tiowers, partaking somewhat of the Louis Quatorze style; the alternate panels comprise a species of filigree work, varied with drawings of flowers and gems, in which gilding is most tastefully and sparingly introduced, the whole being of the most exquisite design and execution. An exceedingly rich border runs round the top of the room, and one of a corresponding design rouud the bottom part. From the judicious employment of French greys and other cool colours, the effect is not in the least gaudy, but at once rich and chaste. The introduc
tion of this paper may be regarded as a new era in decoration, and will do much to relieve us from the sameness and insipidity which pervade eren our best houses."
Foul Air in Mines.-Mr. Hardiman, a gentleman who made several experiments with Dr. Payerne in the diving-bell over the wreck of the Royal George at Spithead, has been trying other experiments at the Royal Polberou Consols' Mines, in St. Agnes, with the newly-invented method of purifying the air. The experiment was made at a depth of about 700 feet below the surface, and where the air was previously so vitiated that no person could approach the place, (a rise nine fathoms above the level,) a powerful air machine attached to the engine rods was put to work some time ago, which barely furnished air for three men with candles to exist. The method of purifying air was brought into action after this air machine had been thrown out of use, and although there were at that time no less than 15 men with candles in the rise, the air in ten minutes was so renovated that all breathed with comparative ease; the improvement was even visible, inasmuch, that where three candles were until then with difficulty made to burn, ten or more now burned freely. As a further test, two holes were blasted, and under the old method no man could approach the top of the rise until half an hour after the explosion, and in some cases longer, but the machine so quickly dissipated the smoke that in four minutes the men were at their work breathing air comparatively pure, and refreshed with the addi. tional advantage of being as cool as at the surface, although there were, as before stated, 15 men in the rise.
Wreck of an Iron Steamer.-The Brigand iroa steamer, of 600 tons, and 200 horses power, has teen unfortunately lost on the Scilly Islands. Piom the fo.lowing account of some of the circumstances of the disaster, it will be seen, that to the excellent system adopted in iron ships, of building them in several distinct water-tight compartments, the passengers and crew were in this instance, most prub. ably, indebted for their lives. “The Brigand sailed from Liverpool for London at 2 o'clock on Monday afternoon, and proceeded safely on her voyage until 5 o'clock oa Wednesday morning, when they say the St. Agnes' light, which, from the refraction of light, the weather being very hazy, they conceived to be at a considerable distance--they sere then steaming at 12 knots an hour: suddenly ihe man on the look-out at the bow sang out “Breakers ahead!" which they distinctly saw, but too late, unfortanately, for the rate at which they were going was such that they could not stop her; and, altnough they put the helm hard a-port, to endeavour to share the rock, the vessel immediately afterwards struck most violently, and two plates of the bluff of her bow were driven in. She rebounded from the rock, but in an instant aft:rwards she struck again, broadside on, the force of which blow may be in some measure conceived from the fact, that it actually drove a great portion of her paddle-wheel through her side into the engine-room. The vessel as built in four compartments, the plan adopted in iron ships, or she would have gone down instantly, two of her compartments being now burst, and the wat:r rushing into them at a most fearsal rate. By the two shocks four and a half plates were destrus. ed, and four an le irons were gone in the enginerooin.
The two compartments aft being, however, still water-tight, she continued to float, and every exertion was used by her commander, Captain Hunt, for upwards of two hours, to save her, when the crew took to the bats, and short iy alterwards ste went down, about seven miles from the rock, in about 45 fatioms of water."
INTENDING PATENTEES may be supplied gratis with Instructions, by application (postpaid) to Messrs. J. C. Robertson and Co., 166, Fleet-street, by whom is kept the only COMPLETE REGISTRY OF PATENTS EXTANT from 1617 to the present time).
LONDON: Edited, Printed, and Published by J. C. Robertson, at the Mechanics' Magazine Omice,
No. 166, Fleet-street. -Sold by W. and A. Galignani, Rue Vivienne, Paris;
Machin and Co., Dublin ; and w. C. Campbell and Co., Hamburgh.
ROSENBERG'S TYPE COMPOSING AND DISTRIBUTING MACHINES. We not long ago described a type chinery, in a manner remarkable at once composing machine, invented by Messrs. for its great ingenuity and perfect efYoung and Delcambre, (see Mech. Mag., ficiency. No. 985, June 25, 1842,) by which the Fig. 1 on our front page is an exact art of setting up types seemed likely to representation of Captain Rosenberg's be greatly assisted : not that it promised composing machine, as seen by us in to supersede the use of hands altogether operation; and fig. 2, a similar reprein this branch of labour, but because it sentation of his distributing machine. offered the means of producing much more work in a given time, by less skilled,
1. The Composing Machine. and consequently more cheaply paid, The pianoforte resemblance of this hands than those at present required. machine to that of Messrs. Young and Two females and five very young boys Delcambre will at once strike the reader; were stated to be able, after only six but it is only fair to both parties to obmonths' practice, to compose and distri serve, that neither of them lays claim to bute 6,000 types an hour, which was sup any originality in this respect. It is a posed to be equal to the work of at least form common to nearly all the inventions ihree able-bodied men of good education, of this class. on the present system ; and the conse a are the keys, on which the chief quent reduction in expense was estimated compositor performs, each key answering to be from 4d. to 2d. per 1,000 (brevier.) a particular letter, which is engraved upon The machine of Messrs. Young and Del a small ivory button, fixed above each cambre, it may be remembered, did no key. more than set up, or compose, that is, 6. Rack-frames, consisting of a series arrange the types in their proper order of vertical rails, by which compartments of sequence; the justifying, the impos are formed, (one for a's, one for b's, and ing, the correcting, and the distributing, so on,) into which the letters are placed, had all still to be done by hand, in the as they are lifted from the distributing
machine, (afterwards described.) We have now to present to
the c. A receiver, to which all the types notice of our readers a couple of ma are conveyed, and in which the line is chines invented and patented by Cap- formed into words and sentences. tain Rosenberg, by which a very con d. A justifying-stick, into which each siderable advance appears to have been line, when complete, is removed from the made in this line of mechanical in receiver c, for the purpose of being read vention. The setting-up of the types, over and justified by an assistant-comwhich Messrs. Young and Delcambre positor. were only able to do at the rate of 6,000 e. A galley, into which the assistantan hour, Captain Rosenberg states he compositor causes each line to slide down can do at the rate of (at least) 10,800 ; from the justifying-stick, after it has and the distribution of the types, which, been justified, for the purpose of being under Messrs. Young and Delcambre's spaced out. arrangements, furnishes occupation for h. A counting apparatus, by which the four hands, (boys,) Captain Rosenberg chief compositor is informed when each does by means of one, with the aid of line is completed. This apparatus conmachinery. We have ourselves had the sists of a dial-plate and two bands. The pleasure of secing Captain Rosenberg's plate is divided into inches and eighths of machines in operation ; and though our an inch. One of the hands is moveable, opportunities of observation have not and must be placed at starting upon one been such as to enable us to subscribe to of the marks, indicating the length of the his numerical estimate of their capabili. lines, or widih of the page to be comties, in its full extent, we liave no he posed. The other hand is so connected sitation in bearing our testimony to this with the key movements, that it advances much-first, that his setting-up process a distance equal to the thickness of each is a good deal quicker than that of Messrs. type composed, so that when it comes Young and Delcambre; and, second, immediately above the other, that gives that he does distribute by the aid of ma notice of the line being complete, when
it is instantly removed by the composi to the assistant-compositor, is placed a tor, and another begun. There is also a small table with compartments in it, conhammer, which strikes a small bell, as a taining the different sizes of spaces which warning to the compositor, a moment or may be requisite for the spacing out of two before each line is completed. the lines. There is also another table on
The mode of working with the machine his right, with compartments, containing is as follows. The chief compositor, who all the different sorts of types, for the sits at the front of the machine, having purpose of giving him access his copy before him, performs upon the letter, stop, figure, or sign, that may keys as he reads. By the action of the possibly have been omitted by the chief keys, the corresponding letters are forced compositor. (Neither of these tables is out from their respective compartments, shown in our engraving.) and are laid down upon an endless belt The principal feature of novelty in or chain, which is constantly passing this machine is, the endless chain on through the middle of the machine, from which the types are deposited, and by the right towards the left. By the mo which they are conveyed into the retion of this chain, the types, when libe- ceiver, and the advantages attending it rated and placed upon it, are very quickly are these :conveyed into the receiver, where, by the First, the types, instead of descending, action of a small eccentric, which is re as in Messrs. Young and Delcambre's volving at a considerable speed, the types machine, by their own gravity, through are deposited horizontally, one above the variously-curved channels in an inclined other, in the same order as the keys are plane, at some risk, (though small, perperformed upon, and are thus formed haps,) of derangement, and at a certain into lines, the lines being supported by a considerable loss from friction, are carT-shaped slider, which is caused to re ried forward in a straight line by the cede in the same proportion as the types endless chain, free from all chance of accumulate upon it. As each line is disturbance, and subject to little or no completed, (of which the compositor is friction. informed by one of the hands upon the Second.-In Messrs. Young and Deldial, and warned by the bell as before cambre’s machine, it is necessary that stated,) the compositor takes hold of a each type should have the start, down the small winch by his left hand, (which is inclined plane, of the type that is immeseen in the figure in the front of the re diately to follow it, and of course the ceiver c,) by turning which the line thus compositor can set but one type at a completed is lowered to the bottom of time. In Mr. Rosenberg's machine, the receiver, while by moving with his however, as many letters may be set at right hand a lever, (not seen in the once as happen to follow in uninterrupted figure,) the line is removed from the re alphabetical sequence, and, in practice, ceiver into the justifying-stick d. The there is a vast number of words and syltime consumed in this operation is less lables which the compositor soon learns than a second. As soon as the line is to dispose of in this way, by one stroke removed into the justifying-stick d, the on the keys. For example, act, add, assistant-compositor, as shown in fig. all, accent, adopt, envy, are words, the 1, at the left end of the machine,) letters in which following in their natural detaches, with his left hand, the upper order, may be set up by one pressure of end of that stick, its lower end being the hand on the keys; the endless chain movable upon a fulcrum, as represented carries the types forward in the order in at 8,) and having lowered it into a hori. which they were deposited upon it, and zontal position, he reads the line, (the nothing can occur to disturb that order. types standing now in a vertical posi So also with such syllables as ab, eff, tion.) Having corrected such faults as dem. opp, and ly. The saving in time may have occurred during the composi from the use of such accords, (as they tion, he, by removing a slider, which are termed,) both as compared with constitutes the bottom of the justifying Messrs. Young and Delcambre's mastick, causes the line of type to drop chine and with ordinary composing, may down at once from that stick into a gal be thus illustrated. The word accentualey, e, where he spaces it out.
tion contains twelve letters, and would At the back of the machine, and near require twenty-four movements of the
arm of a compositor to set up in the or without regard to order of sequence,) dinary way; but with Captain Rosen to the amount of 400 in a minute, or berg's machine, it is set up with only 24,000 in an hour.
Already a young three strokes on the keys, as thus, accentu man, with only a few months' practice, -at-ion.
and without a previous knowledge of Captain Rosenberg states that he has printing is able to set-up about three proved, by actual trials, that his machine Iines of brevier in a minute, each line is capable of delivering, or clearing out containing about 60 letters and spaces, types, (supposing them to be composed (this we witnessed,) and assuming that
he is able to do so for a continuance, apprehend, be in the negative. The this is equal to about 10,800 in an hour. justifying is visibly a slower process than
But here a question of importance the composing. It was admitted to us, arises. Can the types be justified as fast that, for a continuance, the assistantas they can be composed ? For it is evi compositor could not easily justify more dent that the speed with which the justi than 150 letters in a minute, which is fication can be accomplished must, of equal to 9,000 an hour, which falls short necessity, be the greatest speed at which of what the composing-machine can set it can be of any use to set up the types. The answer to this question must, we
up, by 1,800. We think it likely that means may be found to accelerate the