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Patrick Steal, of Halesworth, Saffolk, maltster, for iinprovements in the manufacture of mult. Sez. tember 22; 6 months.

John Juckes, of Putney, gentleman, for improvements in furnaces. September 22; 6 months.

William Roche, of Prince's-end, Sta:Ford, mechanic and engineer, for improvements in the manufacture of mineral colours. September 3; six months.

William Warburton, of Oxford-street, gentleman, for improvements in the construction of carriages and apparatus for retarding the progress of the same. September 8; six months.

John Wordsworth Robson, of Jamaica-terrace, Commercial-road, engineer, for certain improvements in machinery and apparatus for raising, forcing, conveying, and drawing off liquids. September 8; six months.

James Insole, of Birmingham, saddlers' ironmonger, for improvements in the manufacture of brushes. Septeinber 8; six inonths.

Joseph Henry Tuck, of Francis-place, New Northroad, engineer, for certain improvements in machi. nery or apparatus for making or manufacturing candles. September 8; six months.

William Elward Newton, or Chancery-lane, civil engineer, for inprovements in machinery or appa. ratus for making or manufacturing screws, screwblanks, and rivets. (Being a cominunication.) September 8; six months.

Herbert George James, of Great Tower-street, merchant, for certain improvements in machines or apparatus for weighing various kinds of articles or goods. (Being a coininunica:ion from abroad.) September 8; six months.

William Fothergul Cooke, of Copthall-buildings, Esq., for improvements in apparatus for transmit. ing electricity between distant places, which inprovements can be applied, amongst other purposes, to apparatus for giving signals and sounding alarums at distant places by means of electric currents. September 8; six months.

Thomas Thirlwall, of Low Felling, Durhain, engine-builder, for certain improvements in lubricating the piston-rods of steam-engines, and of other machinery. Septeniber 8; six months.

William Crofts, of New Radford, Nottingham, lace machine maker, for improvements in the manufacture of figured or ornamental lace. September 8; six inonths.

Thomas Marsden, of Salford, Lancaster, machine maker, and Solomon Robinson of the same place, flax-dresser, for improvements in machinery for dressing or hackling tlax and hemp. September ; six months.

James Wake, jun., of Goole, York, coal-factor, for certain improvements in propelling vessels. Septeinber 9; six nionths.

John Rolt, of Great Cumberland-place, colonel in Her Majesty's arıny, for certain improvements in saddles. September 15; six months.

Frederick Bowles, of Moorgate-street, London, for a new method by machinery of preparing flour from all kinds of grain and potatoes, for making starch, bread, biscuits, and pastry. (Being a communication from abroad.) September 15; 6 inonths.

Christopher Nickels, of York-road, Lambeth, gentleinan, and Caleb Bedells, of Leicester, manufacturer, for improvements in fabrics produced by lace machinery. September 15; 6 months.

Williain Henry James, of Martin's-lane, London, civil engineer, for certain improvements in railways and carriage-ways, railway and other carriages, and in the mode of propelling the said carriages, parts of which improvements are applicable to the reduction of friction in other machines. September 16; 6 months.

John Sanders, William Williams, Samuel Lawrence Taylor, and William Armstrong, all of Beda ford, agricultural implement inakers, and Evan William David, of Cardiff, for improvements in machinery for ploughing, harrowing, and raking land, and for cutting food for animals. September 22 ; 6 months.

NOTES AND NOTICES. Preservalion of Lise at S:1.- letter has been a-ldressed to Lloyd's, from Mr. Edward Jennings, Lieutenant R.N., suggesting the general adoption, in rough weather, of life lines being led fore and aft, both to windward and leeward, so that the men have something to lay hold of in passing from one end of the vessel to the other. In addition to this, he advises that cach man be furnished with a belt made gasket fashion, about a fathom and a half long. The utility of this is shown by the wearer, when in an exposed situation, such as on the forecastle, conning, steering, &c., taking two half hitches with it, to either the life line or any of the standing ringing, &c. He observes that such a belt could not interfere with the wearer's duty aloft, as at sucha tunes the end might be wound round the body and tacked in. He concludes by i upressing the necessity of each captain of merchant vessels being sopplied with a good baroaneler, as a great deal of wear and tear of spars and canvass night be avoided, and the loss of shipping also prevented.

New Cheveanr-de frise.-M. de Grange, an engineerat Lyons, has invented a machine of this description, which is composed of a globe of brass of three or four inches in diameter, fixed to an iron handle the thickness of a finger, and about three and a half feet long, with a spike at the end. The glove or ball is perforated with twelve holes, so arranged as to adınit of as many lances of the same length as the handle. These lances are fixed in the globe by means of iron pins, and when set up, form a defence of about seven feet in height and as many in length. A body of infantry arriving on a plain furnished with these cheveaux-de-frise, to the extent of double the line it is to forın, that is to say, sufficient to cover its front a'id rear, in the proportion of one for every seven men, one of who.n carries the bail and its handle, and each of the six others two lances, can, says the inventor, form itself in order of battle, and on the approach of an enemy's cavalry plant the cheveaux-de-frise in its front and rear to keep them off, and thus the first and third ranks will be enabled to fire in line with: out the loss of time and frontage occasioned by forming the troops into a hollow or a solid square.

The Clock at Strasburg.-- After four years' labour the repairs of the astronomical clock at Strasburg are completed. In this curious piece of mechanism the revolutions of the sun, ine moon, and the planets are marked down with scientitic exactness. Seven figures represent the seven days of the week, each appearing in its turn on the day allotted to it. The four ages come forward to strike the quarters, and the skeleton Death strikes the hours. At noon the twelve Apostles advance in succession to bead down before the figure of our Saviour, who gives them the benediction. At the same moment a cock claps his wings and crow's three times. It is said to be one of the most curious pieces of clock-work in Europe.

INTENDING PATENTEES may be supplied gratis with Instructions, by application (postpaid) to Messrs. J. C. Robertson and Co., 166, Fleet-street, by whom is kept the only COMPLETE REGISTRY OF PATENTS EXTANT form 1617 to the present time).

LONDON: Edited, Printed, and Published by J. C. Robertson, at the Mechanics' Magazine Ožice,

No. 166, Fleet-street.-Sold by W. and A. Galignani, Rue Vivienne, Paris;

Machin and Co., Dublin; and W. C. Campbell and Co., llamburgh.


No. 999.]

Edited, Printed and Pablished by J. C. Robertson, No. 166, Fleet-street.


[Price 3d.



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ENGINES. The improvements which we have now in which the line A B is equal to the radius to bring under the notice of our readers A C, or chord A B of fig. 4, and divide it form the subject of a patent granted the also into six equal parts, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6. 8th of February last to Benjamin Biram, Then draw a perpendicular, C 6, of an inEsq., of Wentworth. In his specifica

determinate length, and set off the given tion the patentee first developes the prin.

angle C A B, if it be that of the extremity, ciples on which his improvements are

or C3 B if of the middle of the sail, and founded, and then exemplifies their prac

continue the line until it intersects the per

pendicular, C 6. The distance from this tical application to windmills, paddlewheels, &c. The former can hardly be

point of intersection, C to 6, gives the depth called new to mechanical science; but,

of the cylinder, or space in which the sails may be said to revolve, that is to say,

if if we may judge from the novelty of the

viewed edgewise, and supposing the wheel to conclusions which Mr. Biram deduces

have six vanes, and to be so made as to in. from them, and which we believe to be

tercept the whole cylinder of wind. If the perfectly sound, they have never before depth of the cylinder be required of a difbeen so thoroughly understood or well ferent proportion, or if the size of each vane explained.

be other than the sixth part of a circle, a The vanes of windmills, and other si line drawn parallel to A B, through such milar machines propelled by currents of proportionate length of C B, will give the air, consist commonly of plain surfaces depth of the cylinder required. Then draw set obliquely to the planes of motion of the oblique straight lines, C1, C2, C3, the machines, but set at angles, as Mr.

C 4, and C 5, from the point of intersection, Biram truly observes, generally deter

C, found as above described, and the angles mined by guess, and often exceedingly

CIB, C 2 B, C 3 B, C 4 B, and C 5 B, will

be those which the sail should form with the inappropriate ; while the floats of water

plane of motion, at the distances 1 B, 2 B, wheels, and other similar machines acted

3 B, 4 B, 5 B, from the centre point, B, (fig. upon by water, consist also commonly of

5,) representing the axle or centre of the plain surfaces , but placed directly in the sails

. For, supposing the angle C A B, fig. line of motion of the fluid. Now, the 2, to be equal to the angle of the sail with first position or principle which Mr. the plane of motion at the extremity, or Biram undertakes to demonstrate is, that A B, fig. 4, and the wind in the direction in both these cases there is a certain D3, it will strike the sail at the extremity curved form which may be given to the A B, fig. 4, at the angle A CB, fig. 5, which vanes or floats, or other similar agents, of will recede, from the impulse of the wind, in both those classes of machines, or, in the same time as the points 5 5, 4 4, 33, other words, a certain gradual reduction

2 2, and 1 1, at the corresponding angles, in the angle of obliquity, in proportion

CIB, C 2 B, C 3 B, C 4 B, and C5 B, to the distance from their axes, by which,

which, (assuming the machine to be unloadin most cases, a greater amount of useful

ed, and without friction,) will be in the same effect can be obtained from them, than

time that the wind passes through the dis

tance CB, fig. 5 ; whereby it is evident each by or from any other.

portion of the sail will present no more than “For example, let A B C of fig. 4 of its proportionate resistance to the wind, and the accompanying engravings represent the recede from its action with that velocity, sixth part of a circle described by the revo exactly, which offers the least interruption lution of a windmill, in which case the chord

to the wind's onward progress.” CB of the arc A B will be equal to the

The influence which the angle of incliradius A C, and let the lines A C and C B be divided into six equal parts, 1, 2, 3, 4,

nation exercises on the velocity of the body 5, 6, so that the chord of the arc at each of

moved is still more strikingly illustrated the divisions, 55, 44, 33, 22, and 11,

by supposing water, instead of air, to be shall be respectively equal to the distances

the medium in which it revolves. C5, C4, C3, C2, and Cl; then, to as “ Let A B C D, fig. 6, represent a paralcertain the angle which a vane or sail should lelogram equal to the circumference of a make with the plane of motion, at any other cylinder or wheel, W, fig. 7, formed by the distance from the axis C, (the angle at the revolution of the sails, and the oblique extremity on any other point being given,) straight lines C1, C2, C3, and C 4, differlet the vertical section, fig. 5, be constructed, ent angles which the extremities of the sails

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angle of C 4 = 14 will make four revolutions in the same time that it performs two revolutions with the sails at an angle of 263°, or one revolution with them at an angle of 45°. And if the angle be greater than 45°, as C l = 563°, the rotation of the wheel upon its axis will be slower than the advance in a lateral direction ; that is to say, it will make but one revolution while advancing one and a half times the distance of its own circumference. It will be evident, however, that if the angle of the wheel be at C 4 equal to 14°, the

quantity of water which must pass through it to cause one revolution of the wheel will be equal to the contents of a cylinder of the wheel's diameter and the depth E D; and that if the angle of the vane bear the direction C 3, then double the quantity of water will be required to produce one revolution. Again, if the wheel were to have double the number of floats, (which it ought to have, in order that the water may act upon the whole area of the cylinder or wheel,) then it may be inferred that double the power will be

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A convenient method of ascertaining the proper angles to be given to vanes or floats, at any required distance from the centre, when the angle at any one distance has been given, is shown by the diagram, fig. 8.

“The line B C represents the centre line of the wheel; D E, the circumference; a, b, c, d, e, and f, radial lines, drawn at distances, in respect to each other, corresponding with the angles to the centre of 14° 2', 26° 14', 45°, 56° 19', and 63° 26', as represented by the oblique lines Cb, Cc, Cd, C e, Cf; g, h, i, k, l, m, n, o, p, q, r, s, t, u, other oblique lines, representing the various angles to the centre marked thereon; and 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, vertical lines parallel with the centre line, intersecting at equal distances the dif. ferent radial and oblique lines. Now, the angle which any vane, with a given terminal angle, should have, at any point nearer to the centre, as 5, 4, 3, 2, 1, will be the same as that of the oblique line, which is intersected at that point by one or other of the vertical lines, 5, 4, 3, 2, or 1. For example: a vane whose extremity is at an angle of 45°, if constructed according to the diagram, fig. 8, will present, at the distances from the centre of the wheel stated below, the angles set opposite thereto :

At one-sixth, an angle of 80° 32'
At two-sixths

71° 34'
At three-sixths, or middle... 63° 26'
At four-sixths

56° 19' At five-sixths

50° 11'


Extremity. may be thus demonstrated : by reference to the figure, it will be seen that the oblique line C d, which represents the angle of 45°, intersects the two radius lines above it, c and b, representing the base lines of angles of 26° 34' and 14° 2', respectively, the one at the middle of its length, and the other at one-fourth of its length, from the centre. Hence it follows, that a vane or float, having an angular extremity of 45°, if it present one-half of the diameter of one of 26° 34', or one-fourth of the diameter of one of 14° 2', will traverse the same distance in one rero. lution as either of the others. And what is true of any one angle will be equally true of all others; so that the following rule may be laid down, as of universal application.

“ Rule.—To find the angle of a float or vane at any required distance on the radius, the angle at some other distance being given.

From the point C, on the radius line Ca, set off the angle of the given distance, and draw a line parallel to CB, from the given distance on the radius line Ca; then draw through the angle of the given distance another oblique line, until it intersects the parallel line to C B, and from the point of intersection draw a perpendicular to the line CB, on which set off the required distance; the distance C to B intersected by the lastfound line, divided by the length of the required distance, will give the tangent of the angle required, and from that tangent the angle required may be found by reference to any table of natural sines. For example: take the intersection of the horizontal line 9 and the vertical line 3; then, 9 + 3 = 3, which is (nearly) the tangent of the angle 71° 34'."

And that these angles are in reality those which will produce the best practical effect

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