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zontal shaft f, which gives motion to a Answer.—Certainly; the most importpair of bevel wheels g, one of which is ant of anything that can be contrived for the attached to a short vertical shaft carrying safety of railway travelling. I believe, that a pinion h; this pinion takes into two

if self-acting breaks were put upon every racks i i, kept in gear by friction rollers carriage, scarcely any accident could take placed at the back; the ends of the racks place. are prolonged and attached to the centres

Question 1322.-What do you mean by of two bars lying across the carriage and

self-acting breaks ? carrying at each end a spring bow (kk)

Answer. Whenever the power is taken fitted, either with elastic bands of some

off the engine by the engine-driver, it imsuitable fabric, or boxes filled with wooden

mediately ceases to proceed so fast ; all the segments, &c.

carriages immediately run towards the en

gine, with the impetus put into them before Fig. 3 shows another form of self-act the engine was retarded. Every carriage, ing break; a a are strong iron rods at as it approaches the next carriage, shall apply tached to the centres of two cross-bars bb, the breaks itself. Every carriage is brought the ends of which are attached to the into the state of a sledge; the rolling motion back of the buffer-heads; the other ends of the wheels ceases; and supposing that an of the rods a a, are forked, and embrace engine was running on with 12 or 14 coaches, springs cc; the ends of these springs and that every coach had a breaksman (that impinge against bars d d, laying across

is, 12 coaches and 12 breaksmen), and the the carriage, the ends of which are fitted

whole of them upon the look-out to see if with boxes containing segments of wood

anything went wrong in the engine, to apor other suitable material, or with bows

fly the breaks immediately, I conceive that similar to k k in fig. 2. f is a curved

the self-acting principle is fifty times better.stay in the plane of action towards the

It will be seen that the action which centres of the wheels, on which are form.

Mr. Stephenson considered so desirable, ed guides for the ends of the bars d d to

is precisely that which distinguishes Mr. move upon; the springs c c, and the

Bunnett's invention. bars d d, are shown in section. The Among other recommendations of Mr. rods a a, are capable of adjustment length

Bunnett's breaks, is the entire absence of ways, so as to bring the breaks to bear

concussion on their application ; being upon the wheels when the buffers shall governed by the buffer springs, and be forced in to any determined point.

formed of an elastic material, they enThe action of these breaks on the wheels

tirely obviate the disagreeable jar, and is simultaneous, and the force is equalized harsh grating noise so frequently, and so and regulated by the strength of the justly complained of. Besides this, more springs c c.

or less force is in every case applied exThe value and importance (in theory) actly as the exigencies of the case may reof an efficient system of breaks for rail

quire. way carriages has been constantly assert

Should the strength of the buffered in your pages, and it would, perhaps,

springs be at any time insufficient to adbe difficult to find a higher practical tes

mit of backing a train, a very ready mode timony to their immense advantages

can be provided for preventing the action especially those of a self-acting descrip

of the breaks upon the wheels. tion--than that given by Mr. George

I remain, Sir, yours respectfully, Stephenson, before a Select Committee

WM. BADDELEY. of the House of Commons, in the fol 29, Alfred-street, Islington, lowing words:

August 31, 1842. Question 1319. By Mr. Labouchere.You have, of course, devoted much atten. MR. HALL'S LOCOMOTIVE SMOKE-BURNER. tion to the means of preventing accidents

Sir, I had intended, this week, going upon railways ? Answer.--I have.

into the several points referred to in my " Question 1320.—You have paid much

letter, inserted in your Magazine of the attention to the subject of breaks?

3rd instant, with reference to Mr. Hall's " Answer.-I have.

pretensions, and his mode of admitting Question 1321.-Do you consider them

air to the furnaces of locomotive engines; an important element of safety in railway but finding Mr. Hall disputes Mr. Kearstravelling?

ley's statement on this subject, I will not

interfere, until the success or failure of means of producing some of the best Mr. Hall's plan be decided. As a mere written and truly important articles on matter of caution, on my part, this is Life Assurance that have ever appeared manifestly called for, as I do not choose in your Magazine, or perhaps in any to point out either the errors he has com. other periodical. My best thanks are mitted in his mode of introducing the air, due to Mr. George Scott for the multior suggest how he could remedy such error. farious calculations he has made on this

For the present, then, I can only re- highly important subject. The question peat that, when the dispute respecting has also been ably discussed by G. and Mr. Kearsley's report is decided, not by Kinclaven. I am sure if any of these Mr. Hall's opinion, but by that of more gentlemen had seen the prospectus of the impartial judges, I am prepared to prove West Middlesex Independent Life Asmy three propositions - 1. That Mr. surance Society, they would soon bave Hall's mode of introducing air is an in blown it up in your Magazine without fringement of my patent; 2. That he the assistance of the renowned Sir Peter, has carried it into practice so injudi- and saved the deluded multitude many ciously, as to insure its failure; and 3. thousand pounds. That it is cold, and not hot air which he If it would not put your scientific cor. introduces. These points being to be respondents to too much trouble, I would considered on purely scientific grounds, esteem it a great favour if they would there can be no room for any personal give their opinion upon the following matter or angry comment. But it is little Table which I have copied from the strange, in a matter based so exclusively prospectus of an Assurance Company. on chemical considerations, as the peculiar So far as I am enabled to judge, the modes of bringing the oxygen of the air annual premiums are higher than safety into chemical union with the combustible requires. gases evolved in a furnace, that those who Table of Annual Premiums for sedispute the correctness of my practice curing £100 to a child on attaining the and details, will not discuss the question age of 21. on chemical grounds, but fly away to the irrelevant points of the old practice, the

Annual

Age not exacknowledged proportions among the

ceeding parts of a furnace, and their areas and

years.

Premiums. sections, &c. &c.; and, what is even still more irrelevant, dispute my right to give

£ d. an opinion, as not being a professed en

1 3 5 gineer, or as presuming to know better than " operative engineers," or so-called

2 3 10 PRACTICAL” men. The real question at issue is, whether

3 3 17 6 my facts or assertions be true or not. The merits of the question, as to the

4

0 principles I have urged, are for the consideration of the chemical professor, and

5 4 1 3 not for those who reject chemical considerations.

6 4 199 With your permission, Sir, I will,

7 5 9 10 from time to time, continue to put before your readers, not merely the che

8 61
mical results of my practice, but the de-
tails of the practice itself.

9 6 14 8
I am, Sir, yours, &c.,
C. W. WILLIAMS.

10 7 10 6 Liverpool, September 8.

I am, Sir, your obedient servant,

Iver Mac IVER, Sir,—The question I proposed (No.989)

September 13, 1842. in your highly useful journal, has been the

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LIFE ASSURANCE,

PLAN FOR THE APPLICATION OF THE STEAM POWER OF H. M. STEAMERS TO THE

PROJECTION OF SHOT, AS WELL AS TO PROPELLING PURPOSES. Sir,-Whilst I cannot but rejoice in even of the power of four, five, and six the exertions of those well-intentioned hundred horses ;- indeed, there scarcely individuals who are seeking to subdue appears any limit to the size and power and extinguish the spirit of war and the which may be given to these machines. rage for conquest, and shall ever feel What I propose is, that this enormous gratified at their success; yet still I have power, which in those vessels is always to lament that there appears every pro available, should be applied to the bability and prospect that the honour

purpose of projecting balls, bullets, nay, the existence of our empire will, at shells, &c., of what size, shape, or nature no great distance of time, require again soever may be thought most desirable. the unfurling of the blood-stained banner The medium by which this power is to of Mars.

be transmitted from the engine to the So long as France appears animated, as projectile is atmospheric air, applied in a at present, with the restless and unsub manner somewhat resembling the comdued ambition for military renown, com mon air-gun. bined with jealousy of our maritime su For the compression of the air I would periority; whilst" Russia continues to have a series of air-pumps, through grow up, as it were, to the manhood of a which the air should be passed from one vast military empire ;* and whilst our to another ; diminishing the diameter or descendants and neighbours across the bore of the pumps as the air becomes Atlantic evince so pertinacious and crow more compressed, and increasing the ing a disposition ; even so long, Sir, as strength and thickness of the metal of these facts and evidences exist, and ap the pumps in the same proportion; and pear to increase, will it be necessary to either discharging the air from the gun send forth our wooden, or rather iron as fast as it is supplied, or compressing it walls, to maintain peace and good order. into a reservoir to be used when required,

Impelled, Mr. Editor, therefore, by which reservoir I propose should be made the force of these powerful arguments of wrought-iron iubes, which, as is well and unwelcome facts, I have great plea known, can be made to sustain an imsure in submitting to your notice and mense pressure. approval a plan of propelling bullets and For ihe discharge of the balls or bul. other projectiles by a mere breath of lets, I would either employ a similar air.

paratus to that of Mr. Perkins, or a peI dare say, Sir, that you

well remem

culiar construction which I have devised, ber the "no small stir” and excitement by which a regular and continuous sucproduced when Mr. Perkins first brought cession of balls can be supplied into the out his steam gun, which, indeed, conti

gun. nues to be a very popular exhibition ; no As only one or two guns would be nedoubt, also, you are acquainted how that

cessary for discharging an invention has never been turned to any quantity of balls, the guns required could practical account on a large scale. Now, be made of a length greater than usual, Sir, the object of my addressing you is, to to obtain the full effect from the air exgive a "local habitation and a name to pended, and at the same time secure a scheme bearing some resemblance to

greater accuracy of aim. that of Mr. Perkins, which has been re There are various methods by which volving in my mind, and not being able the paddles can be disconnected from the to discover any great objection to its engine, which would answer equally well practical application, I wish to record it to connect the engine with the pumps for in the most practical work of the age. the compression of the air, so that the The steam-engines on board steam

air-pumps and the paddle-n heels could. packets have been constructed lately of be worked cither together or separately, immense size and power; two and three as required. hundred horse-power engines have of The whole apparatus is of simple conlate become general, and some there are struction, and the additional weight is

but trifling; thus, the mighty power See Alison's History of Europe,

which dracs along at one moment, the

ap

enormous

bulky "fire-spirit" of the deep, could, in humane, expeditious, safe, and econothe next, be made to send a storm of mical method of keeping our refractory bullets rattling along the watery main! neighbours in peace and quietness; and,

From experiments which have been as in duty bound, I beg to propose the made on the explosive force of gunpow- plan “pro bono publico." der, and from comparison with the effect I remain, Sir, produced by the compression of air, I

Your obedient servant, submit that the above will be the most

C. W.

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cording to Mr. Smith's improvements in county of Northampton, and appear from their complete state. A is the cistern; B certificates which are before us, to have the basin ; C a trap connected with the bot.

given every where the greatest satisfactom of the basin ; D a principal service pipe tion. One of these certificates we shall which conveys the water from the cistern to the basin ; E, a secondary service pipe which

be excused for quoting at length, when

we mention, that it bears at foot the name proceeds from the large service pipe D (at the point where it turns off towards the

of so deservedly high an authority in all basin,) to the back of the trap C; F, a spring

matters of practical improvement, as Earl valve, by the raising or lowering of which,

Spencer. by means of the wire, or cord G, the supply

“Northampton General Lunatic Asylum, of water from the cistern is let on or shut

“ June 2, 1842. off; H, the box of the service pipe D, and I " The House-Visitors and Medical Superthe discharge pipe. When the valve F is intendent having made repeated and just raised, the water rushes at (nearly) one and complaints of the Water Closets of this Inthe same time through the principal and stitution, and of their inefficiency to meet secondary service pipes D and E into the the various causes of obstruction peculiar to basin and trap, so that the contents of the Establishments of this character ; the Combasin are no sooner carried down into the

mittee having also further incurred considertrap by the main stream of water, than they able

expense in alterations and repairs, withare driven forward by the secondary stream out deriving any permanent benefit, they from the back of the trap into the discharge were at length induced to give the Closet, pipe ), and any detention or deposit is thus for which Mr. Smith has taken out a patent, effectually prevented. The adoption of the a trial in the Refractory-Ward of the female secondary service pipe rendering any con division of this Asylum ; the closets of that siderable length of fall unnecessary, enables part of the building being most frequently the inventor to give to the trap the short out of order. The result of this experiment curved form represented in the drawing, has been perfectly satisfactory to the Comwhich is attended with this further advantage, mittee and all the Officers, and an immediate that the basin and trap may be placed on the order was made for their general introducfloor of the closet, or other apartment, where tion. It is with great pleasure that the they are fixed (the distance from the top of Committee, after nearly twelve months' exthe basin to the bottom of the trap being perience, bear full testimony to the great only about 18 inches,) instead of its being value of Mr. Smith's Patent Closet; and in requisite to cut away the floor, as is fre justice to him they would further state, that quently the case with water-closets on the they believe these Closets, from their concommon construction. Should the trap at struction, to be peculiarly adapted for use in any time become accidentally stopped up, Lunatic Asylums. there is a small door K, at the top, through

“ SPENCER, Chairman." which access may be obtained to clear away the obstruction. The principal service pipe

Dr. Prichard, the Physician-Superintendthe inventor makes of an inch and a half ant of the Northampton General Hospital strong lead pipe, and the secondary pipe of for the Insane, expresses a strong conviction the same material, but only half the size. that “the introduction of Mr. Smith's PaThe service box should be made of lead of tent Closets into similar Institutions will re9 or 10 lbs. to the foot, and not larger than move a pregnant source of anxiety and disto afford just sufficient room for the valve to quiet to them, and also add materially to work in. In most cases the service box need the comforts, convenience, and health of the have no bottom, but may be simply placed patients." on the mouth of the service pipe, the latter The Governor of the County Gaol and being soldered into the bottom of the cistern. House of Correction, Northampton, consiBut where want of room makes it desirable ders them“ superior to all others which to have a small cistern, it will be proper to have been fixed upon different principles in make the service box with a bottom, as usual, the Prison." and that very strong. When the basin and

There are other certificates, equally fatrap are fixed, they should be well packed vourable, from Mr. Miln, the County Surall round with saw-dust, or some other nou

veyor; and Messrs. Hull, Law, and Elliott, conducting material, to exclude the effects of

Architects. frost, though, unless when accidentally obstructed, there can seldom be any lodgment The best of all certificates, however, of water in either.

is the manifest utility of the invention Water closets on this plan have been itself; it is one of those things which introduced into a number of public and needs only to be seen, to be approved of private establishments in the town and and adopted.

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