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Sir, I send herewith a sketch of an introduction where pumps are now in apparatus, which I call my atmospheric use, as all labour and expensive maengine, which I have had in use in a chinery, wear and tear, are saved by its dye-house for above twelve months, and adoption. I will only add, that in situahave found very useful in raising water. * tions where much water is required, this Simple in its construction, and effective engine will be invaluable, and admirably in its operation, I anticipate its general adapted for use in steam-vessels.
A is a large wooden reservoir, in the • Our correspondent points out, in a private note,
form of a wine pipe ; and, as great presthat there is a resemblance between his atmo sure is exerted upon its surface by the spheric engine and that described in our last volume, page 443, as invented by Pierre Ravard, oi atmosphere, the head or top is sustained Paris; but assures us that he had his apparatus in by a perpendicular post from the bottom, actual use long before the date of our description of Ravard's machine, and asks us whether it be not
in the centre, as represented by the dotted possible-seeing the Jersey papers contained some
lines. eirly notices of his invention-that Ravard may B. A steam-pipe, conveying steam inhave borrowed from him? It is possible enough that this may have been the case; but equally so
to the upper part of the reservoir. that both may have been independent inventions. C. A supply-pipe from the well, about However the question of priority of invention may stand, there can be no doubt as to the great simpli
2 inches diamcter. city and utility of the apparatus itself. Ed. M. M.
D. A funnel to hold about two quarts
of cold water, with a stop-cock, for con the engineers employed in the war steam densing the steam.
navy of this country, have from time to E. A large tap to draw off the water time issued rules to regulate their examinaraised.
tion as to qualification for the trust reposed F. A glass tube communicating with in them, and to keep pace with the improve. the upper and lower parts of the reser
ments in steam navigation, and the great voir, showing the level of water in the
value of the vessels about to be constructed reservoir.
for the service, have revised and improved To raise the water, I proceed as fol
the regulations for the whole of that now lows:
important branch, and the new rules and
regulations have just been issued, dated I first, by opening the pipe B, fill the
June 23, 1842, and are as follows :reservoir with steam, which may be ascertained by its forcing its way out at the
“ RULES AND REGULATIONS RESPECTING tap E, driving the atmospheric air before
, APPOINTMENTS, it. I then close both B and E, and open
RANK, PAY, AND ALLOWANCES, ALLOTthe tap of the funnel, to allow a portion
MENT, UNIFORM, AND SUPERANNUATION
OF ENGINEERS IN HER MAJESTY'S SERof the cold water it contains to flow into
VICE. the reservoir, which condenses the steam, and thereby causes a partial vacuum,
EXAMINATION. which tap must be closed before the fun “No person will be deemed eligible for an nel is quite empty, to prevent any air
appointment as engineer, or for promotion finding its way into the interior. The to the second or first class, until he shall supply-pipe C is now opened, when the
have passed an examination on the points
stated below, or on such other points as the water instantly rushes up, and fills the
Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty may reservoir in an incredibly short space of
from time to time think proper to require time.
before the captain-superintendent of Her The steam-pipe may be made use of
Majesty's dockyard at Woolwich, and the to force the contents of the reservoir out
chief engineer and inspector of machinery, through the pipe E, which it will do very
or before such other officers as their Lord advantageously; and as no air will then
ships may appoint for that purpose. be admitted, the apparatus is in its best “ Before presenting himself, the candistate for a second operation; and so on, date must prepare specimens of working ad infinitum.
sketches, and of his proficiency in acI remain, Sir, yours respectfully, counts.
JAMES SCHOLEFIELD. “ First-class Engineers.—No person will 4, Grenville-street, St. Helen's, Jersey.
be considered qualified to hold the warrant August 4, 1842.
of first-class engineer who is not able to keep accounts, and to make notes in the log of
every particular of the working of the enTHE ROYAL STEAM NAVY.
gines and boilers. We subjoin a set of Rules and Regula “ He must be thoroughly acquainted with tions which have just been issued by the the working of the principles on which the Lords of the Admiralty, respecting “the machine works in all its parts, capable of examination, appointments, rank, pay, working the engines and boilers, and of setallowances, &c. of engineers in Her ting right any defects which may arise in Majesty's service ; and, considering
them, and of adjusting the length of the how many of our readers are personally
various rods and motions, slide-valves, ecinterested in the subject matter of this
“ He must also be able to make rough document, and how much it concerns the nation at large, that due encouragement
sketches, with the requisite dimensions fit to
work froin, of every part of an engine, and should be given to the new and all-im
be willing to take charge of the engineers' portant branch of our public service, to
boys. which it relates, we are sure no one “ Second-class engineers must not be inwill think the space which it occupies ferior in education to those of the first class, ill-appropriated, or quarrel with us, for
and but little inferior to them in mechanical further requesting attention to the few acquirements, and must also be willing to remarks which we feel called upon to take charge of and teach the engineers' make upon it.
** Third class engineers must be equal in “ The Lords Commissioners of the Ad education to the section and first class enginmiralty, in order to insure the efficiency of eers, and acquainted with the principles of
marine engines and boilers, and with the names and uses of all their parts. They must also be able to make rough sketches as before described.
“ Those who have not served in Her Ma. jesty's navy as engineers' boys, must be examined by the surgeon of the establishment as to their being of sound bodily constitution, and they must produce well authenti. cated certificates from the engineers in whose factories they have worked, of their being skilful workmen, of good disposition, and of good conduct in every particular, especially as regards sobriety.
APPOINTMENT. . “ Engineers are appointed by warrant from the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty, or by commanders-in-chief on foreign stations, in vacancies occasioned by death in the same manner as other warrant officers of the navy are appointed.
“No person will be considered eligible for a second class engineer without having served at sea as an engineer, nor the first class without having served as chief engineer of a seagoing steam-vessel. In either case the can. didate must produce satisfactory testimonials of his efficiency and good conduct while thus serving at sea.
“An engineer, after having served three years in the third class, will be permitted, if he can produce good certificates from the commanders under whom he may have served, to present himselt in examination for the se. cond class, when a suitable opportunity shall offer, and, in like manner, after having served three years in the second class, he will be permitted to present himself for examination for the first class. If, however, on examination it shall appear to the examining officers that the qualifications of a candidate are such that a shorter period than three years may be sufficient to enable him to acquire the experience necessary for performing the duties of a higher class, a note thereof, with the reasons, will be made upon the passing certificate, which will render him eligible for examination and promotion in less than three years, if his subsequent conduct should appear to merit it.
the River Thames, Portsmouth, or Plymouth-harbour, or when the vessel to which they belong is paid off and they are still retained on board :
“ First class, 121. per lunar month; second class, 81. per lunar month ; third class, 51. 68. per lunar month.
" When borne on the books of the guard. ships of the ordinary, and not actually employed in the charge or repair of steam ma. chinery.--First class, 71. 178. per month ; second glass, 41. 188. per month; third class, 31. 88. per month.
• The first class engineer of ships in com. mission is to have the instruction of two engineers' boys, and to receive an allowance of 6d. per day for each.
" When there are three engineers' boys, the second class engineer is to instruct the junior boy of the three, and to receive the allowance of 6d. per day.
“When there are four engineers’ boys the senior second class engineer is to instruct the third boy; the junior second class engi. neer the fourth boy; and each is respectively to receive the allowance of 6d. per day for the instruction of the boy placed under him.
“ This allowance is to be granted only on the production of a certificate from the commanding officer under whose orders the engineers may be actually serving, that the boys have been duly instructed in conformity with the established regulations, and such certificate is never to be granted unless the superintendent of the dockyard, or the of. ficer in command of the vessel be thoroughly satisfied from personal observation that the intentions of these regulations have been strictly carried into effect.
Engineers when serving on board one of Her Majesty's steam-vessels within the tropics, while the steam is up, are to receive one-half the amount of the pay of the respective classes in addition, for which they may draw every six months whether they allot or not.
“ When engineers do not draw for their tropical pay, a certificate is to be granted to them, similar to that on the back of the bill for the adjustment of their claims to the said pay on their arrival in England.
Engineers of vessels in commission, when employed in repairing defects of other ves. sels than those in which they are serving, except in the home dockyards, Holyhead, the River Thames, Portsmouth, or Plymouth harbour, to be allowed extra pay as warrant officers in addition, according to the scale established by Her Majesty's regulationsnamely, 28. a-day.
" Engineers are distributed into three classes ; they rank next below carpenters, and with each other according to their standing on the official list.
PAY AND ALLOWANCES. " To engineers when serving on board one of Her Majesty's steam-vessels in commission; or in any of Her Majesty's dockyards, whenever their services may be required there; or in repairing their own or any other vessel in the home dockyards—Holyhead,
ALLOTMENTS AND MONTHLY ALLOWANCE.
" The following are the scales of allot. ments and monthly allowance for engineers
not exceeding in the first case 501. a-year, nor in the second case 45l. a-year, nor in the third case exceeding 35l. a-year.
“ 4th.-1, that engineers who may lose one limb in action ; 2, or who may receive wounds or injuries equal to the loss of a limb ; 3, or who may receive injuries or hurts in the service, though not in action, equal to the loss of a limb, shall be allowed pensions (as the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty may deem proper), not exceeding in the first case 251. a-year, nor in the second case exceeding 201. a-year, nor in the third case exceeding 15l. a-year.
“The pensions for wounds and hurts to be granted after a careful survey, held by the officer at this office, when practicable, and to be in addition to any other pension the officer may be entitled to.
“5th. No engineer to be allowed to reckon as service towards superannuation any period of time during which he shall not have maintained a good character in the ship in which he has served.
REGULATIONS AS TO THE INSTRUCTION AND QUALIFICATION
while actively employed and while employed
d. First engineer, per calendar month.6 10 0 Second engineer, ditto
4 6 0 Third engineer, ditto ..
2 17 0 ALLOTMENT WHILE IN GUARD-SHIPS. First engineer, per calendar month 4 5 0 Second engineer, ditto
2 13 0 Third engineer, ditto ..
1 16 0 MONTHLY ALLOWANCE WHILE ACTIVELY
2 0 Third engineer, ditto ..
10 0 MONTHLY ALLOWANCE WHILE IN GUARD
SHIPS. First engineer, per calendar month 2 10 0 Second engineer, ditto
1 10 0 Third engineer, ditto ..........
1 0 0 UNIFORM OF FIRST ENGINEERS. “ Coat.-Blue cloth, double breasted ; buttons having a steam-engine, with a crown above, embossed on them, to be placed four and four, and a larger button of the same kind on the collar.
** Waistcoat.-With buttons similar to those on the coat. “Trousers.- Plain blue cloth.
Cap.— With a narrow gold lace band. “ SUPERANNUATIONS AND PENSIONS.
“ The following rules shall be observed in regard to superannuations and pensions of the engineers of Her Majesty's fleet :
“ First.–That when engineers shall be found upon survey unfit for further service they shall be allowed 31. a-year for each year they shall have served as warrant-officers in ships in commission; and 11. a year for each year they shall have served as warrant-officers in ships in ordinary, or as supernumeraries in guard ships.
** 2nd. - That in cases in which the services of engineers shall appear to the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty to be more than ordinarily meritorious, a further sum may be allowed to the said warrant-officers in addition to the pension allowed by art. 1, varying from 11. to 151, a-year, reference being had to the character of the officer, and the cause which may have rendered him unfit for service,
" 3rd.—1, that engineers who may lose two limbs in action ; 2, or who may receive wounds or injuries in action equal to the loss of two limbs ; 3, or who may receive injuries or hurts in the service, though not in action, equal to the loss of two limbs, shall be allowed pensions (as the Lords Commis. sioners of the Admiralty may deem proper),
“ Fourth Class.---Boys on entering the service as fourth class apprentices must not be less than 14 nor more than 17 years of age; they must be of good moral character and sound bodily constitution, and able to write and work a question in the rule of three.
“ Third Class.-At the expiration of their third year of service, provided their conduct has been good during that period, the boys will be considered eligible for removal to the third class if, on examination, they appear to have made themselves acquainted with the names and uses of every part of the engines, gauges, barometers, &c.
“ Second Class.-If boys, in the fourth year from their entrance into the service, be acquainted, through the instruction of the engineer under whom they may be placed, with the whole principle of the engine and boilers, with the use of all the various tools, and with the mode of effecting repairs, as far as they are performed on board ; if they be able to take off and replace any of the working parts; pack the slide-valves, pistons, piston rods, and stuffing-boxes ; if they understand the action and condensation of steam, the return of water into the boilers, the construction of all the pumps, and of the feeding and blowing off apparatus, safety valves, &c., and can chalk out roughly the outlines of the engines and wheels, and have become generally useful, they will be considered fit for removal to the second class, provided their conduct has been good.
“Boys of the second class having attained
the fifth and last year of their service will vices of men possessing all the qualificabe transferred to Her Majesty's dockyard, tions required. Not so the superannuation at Woolwich, where they will receive in allowances and pensions, which are disstructions on various subjects connected
proportionately small, and very palpably with the construction and management of
inadequate. engines and boilers.
Engineers of all the three classes are “ First Class.-At the expiration of the
to have the rank of Warrant Officers, 5th year, if, on a strict examination, the boys be found qualified for the appointment
and to take precedence “next below the of third class engineers, and if their conduct carpenters,"—that is below the lowest has been in all respects satisfactory, they
(heretofore) of the class, caulkers only will be removed to the list of the first class, excepted! Here is that which spoils all and be considered candidates for promotion, -a grand error which will go far to and will take precedence according to conduct destroy all the good effect anticipated and abilities.
from the liberal pay and not so liberal “ Pay of Engineers' Boys per lunar allowances and pensions—a noxious inmonth.–First class, 11, 148.; second class, gredient thrown contemptuously-incon11. 68. ; third class, ll. 38.; fourth class,
siderately at least—into the cup, of which 148. 60.
the sure effect must be to turn the whole Monthly allowance. During the first
to gall and wormwood, 12 months' servitude from the time of their
Why should the engineers rank so first entry on board the ship, 28.; after 12
low ? 'A degree higher only than your months' servitude at home, 33. ; abroad,
handler of oakum and stopper of holes ! 48."
The qualifications required of the enWith the qualifications required of per- gineers are qualifications equal to those sons entering into the naval engineering required of any officer of the ward or service of the country, we have no fault gun-rooms ;-they must be persons, not to find, unless it be that they are so only of good, but of scienlific educationloosely and illiterately expressed. The masters of all the knowledge of a Watt, first and second class engineers are to be
and of almost all the decision and promp" thoroughly acquainted with the working titude of a Nelson. In a letter which we of the principles on which the machine lately received from the head of an emiworks," while the third class engineer is to nent steam.engine building firm, there is be "acquainted with the principles of a passage so apposite to this particular marine engines and boilers"-as if it were point, that we cannot forbear from here meant to be said that the inferior officer quoting it—though written certainly with must know the principles of the machi no view to publication, and with little exnery, while it is sufficient if his superiors pectation (we fancy) that the valuable class are acquainted with the working of these of men in question were about to be so principles. Then we have the words scurvily treated by Her Majesty's governmachine," "engine," engines and ment.
“ I have been an eyewitness," boilers," indifferently employed to signify he says, “ to many instances of great the same thing—" defects” in boilers, emergency where the safely of all dewhich no engineer can cure afloat, placed pended upon the thought of the instant in the same category with derangements —where your marine engineer has of machinery which he may and ought to exhibited a degree of inventive power, be able to remedy on the instant; and united to a coolness of judgment and eccentrics spoken of as things, the readiness of execution, such as none, length (!) of which it is very necessary but the mechanics of Great Britain, and to be competent to adjust, &c. It those the very best of their class, could would not, we presume to think, have have displayed.” Who, then, may we lessened the respect with which it is de ask, was chief officer ? Not either sirable the instructions of the Lords captain, or lieutenant, or master, or even Commissioners should be regarded by all gunner, or carpenter, or caulker, but their “ faithful servants" had they been undeniably the ENGINEER, who, everyin this instance expressed in a more clerk where else, but at his post and in publike fashion, and with a little more dis lic estimation, ranks below them all! tinctness, clearness, and consistency.
Between no two classes of officers is The pay is liberal, and, so far as pay the analogy so close and striking as begoes, well calculated to secure the ser tween the engineer and the master.