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sent inclined to give the preference to connexion between the engine and drivthe plan as presented in fig. 4, where the ing-wheel is effected by means of double
cranks, and an intermediate shaft having in a pinion on the driving axle. The a spur-wheel on its centre, which works advantages that will result from this are,
that the same engine may be adapted for measurement of the water in the tender, at a passenger or luggage train; or, in other starting and at stopping. From the leaky words, can be made equal to a 11 or 18 state of the boiler, and from an imperfection inch cylinder, by proportioning the spur in the reversing valve, which was not tight, gearing. There will also be an entire one-fifth of the whole quantity of steam geabsence of any sinuous or oscillatory mo
nerated was wasted. The water was nearly tion, which is a fruitful source of danger,
cold in the tender at starting. I think the is highly destructive to the tires of the
result of the experiment very fair, upon the wheels, and has a constant tendency to
whole; and I feel satisfied that, with an ef.
ficient boiler, the engine will be found both disturb and damage the rails,
economical and effective. One of its great The experimental locomotive recently advantages is, that there is no lateral motried on the Liverpool line was driven
tion. As I have made many trips with the by spur-gearing on the centre of the
engine, I can state that the sinuous motion driving-axle, but differently arranged which takes place in the ordinary form of from the plan now proposed. As respects the locomotives in use does not happen with its friction, it was found that with 2 lbs. your engine, thus rendering it less likely to pressure in the boiler, when the driving run off or injure the rails. The pressure of wheels were supported, it would make the steam in the boiler was ascertained by a 80 or 100 revolutions per minute, and thermometer, and also by two safety-valves, that with 10 lbs. it would move itself and
with the usual spring balance. I took the tender on the rails. The highest velocity
pressure at the end of every mile. obtained was 37 miles per hour.
“ Yours very truly, The following are the results of some
“ MONTAGUE L. PHILLIPS." of the experiments, though I must pre " To Mr. E. B. Rowley." mise, that the boiler used was an old and
20 inefficient one. The dimensions of its
Mars rotary locomotive, with tender, heating surfaces are 37.84 square feet,
tons, left Liverpool for Manchester, with
12 loaded wagons 60 tons, 1 cwt. 3 qrs. ; exposed to radiant caloric ; 258.44 feet
80 tons, 1 cwt. 2 qrs., at 1 h. are of tube surface; length of ditto, 6 42 min. Strong wind ahead. feet 6 inches.
Miles. Hours. Min. Sec. in Boiler. Date. Load. Aver. speed Distance
46 miles. 2
53 June 15
50 38 59 12 17 14
57 20 18 57 11 0
30 18 30 30 45 0
35 47 0 19.3 30
55 July 1 25
34 14 7
7 30 53 As an accurate account of the con
14 31 41 sumption of coke had not been kept, a 9
18 20 56 trip was made to ascertain this : the fol
22 15 33 lowing are the particulars, as furnished 11
25 30 by Professor Phillips, of the New Col 12
27 45 38 lege, Manchester.
35 45 48 “ Manchester, Monday, July 18, 1842.
38 “ Dear Sir,-I enclose the following ac
16 2 40 25 41 count of the experiment made with the Mars 17
43 30 31 rotary locomotive engine, on Saturday last, 18
46 40 36 to determine the consumption of fuel. I 19
38 should first state that the boiler was so im
52 50 perfect and leaky, that we dared not put any
38 pressure on, so that the actual power and 22
59 5 36 velocity of the engine with its load could not 23
3 30 54 be fairly tested. All the tubes were leaky, 24
7 40 41 and several plugged.
50 " At the mean pressure of 40.1 lbs. per 26
42 square inch in the boiler, the engine would 27
20 25 have consumed 514) gallons of water during 28
24 30 34 the experiment; whereas the quantity ac 29
29 15 33 tually employed was 617) gallons, by actual 30
t. cwt. qrs.
Average pressure of steam in boiler, 40} lbs.
Average velocity in miles per hour, 16.2: Consumption of fuel, 4 bags of coke 560 lbs., and 2 bags of coal 280 lbs., which I consider equal to 187 lbs. of coke, which will give 24:9 lbs. of coke per mile.
less of a resemblance to one another, and contain some common terms; but they are not so closely identified in form as to admit of enunciation under one general rule.
This is what is wanted, and it is for this purpose that the problem is re-proposed.
PROBLEM IN TRIGONOMETRY.
Given the distance between two obSir,- I am rather late in enrolling myself as a contributor to your very
jects A and B, with the angles oband widely circulated miscellany; but
served at the stations C and D, (all in papers of aninteresting and novel character the same plane,) to find the position having accumulated on my hands, I hope of the stations. that you will, from time to time, allow me a small space in your columns, in order
My attention was first directed to the that I may communicate their contents
subject by Captain John Hobbes of the to the public. Some of those papers are
Royal Engineers; while he was superinof a very abstruse and startling nature,
tending the grand trigonometrical survey and may probably excite some curiosity
of Ayrshire, in the West of Scotland. in the minds of many of your readers ;
The solution I then gave was purely others are of a nature purely practical,
geometrical : but it was considered by and will be read with interest by those
the proposer, and other mathematician's who are engaged in mechanical pur
in that part of the country, as being a suits.
very comprehensive and elegant one, and As my name is already well known
gave occasion for much discussion in connexion with mathematical and me
amongst those who were capable of apchanical subjects; I feel inclined to have preciating its beauties. It is not unlikely it suppressed in all my communications,
that a republication of the problem, and propose to pass incognito, under the
may elicit an answer from some of those anagrammatical designation of
who remember the circumstance, alYour friend and Servant,
though a period of more than twenty UNIT STUART.
years has elapsed since it was first agitated amongst them.
U. S. There is a problem in Trigonometry
August 19, 1842. of very great use to maritime surveyors, in fixing the position of rocks, shoals, and other dangerous obstructions to navigation. This problem has been very often proposed for solution, and as often
CITY-MESSRS, WRIGHT AND BAIN'S resolved, but there is still wanting, a practical rule that will apply to all the Sir,--In your Magazine of the 23rd cases, without requiring a separate inves ult., is a letter signed “ C. W." in which tigation of a different construction for the writer has called attention to some each.
successful experiments made at Calais in In one of the early numbers of Mr. 1803, by passing galvanic electricity, Colburn's United Service Journal, I when using water as part of the electric gave an analytical solution of all the cases, circuit, in order to show that Mr. Bain deduced from a valuable but neglected and myself were not the original discovtheorem in Emerson's Trigonometry. erers of the two or three facts you menThis solution, with slight variations, was tioned, as having witnessed at the Sershortly afterwards copied into the third pentine river. Neither Mr. Bain nor volume of Dr. Hution's Mathematical myself were aware of similar experiments Course, but without any acknowledg. having been tried by Aldini until we saw ment of the source from which it had “ C. W.'s.” letter ; but, if we had been, been obtained.
they were not exactly analogous to ours, The several equations arising from the as it appears he used a “pile of eighty solution here alluded to have all more or plates,” which would produce an electri
TRANSMISSION OF GALVANIC ELECTRI
city of high tension, more resembling the nearly as quick as with the wires insulated, electricity of the atmosphere (or light and we still think that by using conducning,) than the voltaic current used by tors of sufficient capacity, the current can us, (generated by a single cell, contain be sent a sufficient distance for ordinary ing two inches of platinum, and one of telegraphs; for, although all the electric zink.) “C. W." "will see that the two currents would not reach the extreme experiments bear little resemblance to ends of the line, still there would be sufeach other, as the electricity employed at ficient to reflect the electric conductor: Calais, from its nature, would be expected for we find this can be done by a tithe of to travel through feeble conductors, such the power necessary to move the needle, as water, or moist earth, (and this it was or produce magnetism in soft iron. which enabled Aldini to give shocks.)
Can “C. W." or any other of your Now it is well known that this electricity correspondents oblige Mr. Bain and my. would not answer the purpose of a tele self by giving an explanation of the maggraph ; neither would voltaic electricity netism not ceasing, upon the current being give shocks, not being sufficiently in broken when the wires were immersed in tense to pass through the body. Sup the water ? For, time and other circumposing we had gone no further than stances prevented our carrying the inves. merely to dip the ends of the metallic tigation so far as we wished. conductors into the water, we should not
I am, Sir, have succeeded in passing the current
Your obedient servant, from our battery, for we found that a
THOMAS WRIGHT. considerable surface of metal was neces August 15, 1842. sary, at the ends, to convey the electricity to and from the water; this we supplied by fastening a coil containing 40 or 50 yards of wire to the ends of the metallic THE NEW STEAMER, “QUEEN." conductors, immersed in the water. Sir,-Having read in your valuable With respect to the bare wires laid Magazine the report of the trial of a new through the Serpentine, we did not "try steamer called the Queen, you will much the current with the wires above the oblige one of your constant readers by water," as this would have been a diffi inserting the following remarks upon the cult operation; but we tried the power of report and the steamers in question. the current at several points between the I agree most cordially with that porbanks of the river, with the bare wires tion of your correspondent "L. P.'s" immersed, and found thatwhen a powerful letter wherein he states that your battery was employed, a very considerable publication is almost the only medium portion of the electricity passed from the through which works of art or merit can positive to the negative wire without reach the public ; or, to use “L. P.'s" going to the opposite bank, and this was words, "the scientific world;" this is particularly the case within the first fifty sufficiently known, and we are quite or sixty yards of the battery. With the aware that some of the flying wonders of small battery, however, used in the first the present age of steam have been inexperiment, nearly the whole current was troduced to the public, and the scientific confined to the wires and passed through world through your very excellent me. their whole extent, from bank to bank dium. Very recently we had a very bold of the river. But a curious and unex announcement of the extraordinary perpected result took place, namely, when formance of the new phenomenon, the the wires were removed from the battery Almospheric steamer beating the Railthe magnetism did not immediately cease, way, and making the quickest passage as in a dry circuit, but gradually died known between iwo given points ; but, away. This, when first observed, appeared according to your correspondent “L.P.,' an insurmountable obstacle to the work it has been reserved for another new ing a telegraph through water ; but it oc prodigy, the Queen, to outstrip all former curred to us to reverse the current, which productions and compeers, and again to had the effect of immediately annihilat beat the poor Railway, and not only beat ing the magnetism, and inducing it in but cruelly to tantalize her,-just as a the opposite direction, and as often as cat with its victim mouse first lets it run this was repeated the same result follow a given distance, and then overtakes it for ed. By these means we can give signals very sport. We may therefore shortly
THE BLACKWALL RAILWAIY AND MESSRS.
expect that the feats of the celebrated Fly I think, Sir, all candid readers and ing Childers, and the trip of Mr. Green to lovers of fair play will agree with me in Wielberg to breakfast, will shortly be the conclusion that it cannot be a result, remembered as feats remarkable only for upon which the public can fully rely, the dark ages in which they were per when a boat is brought out in prime formed.
racing condition, and challenging unpreLet us just take something like a fair pared the over-worked boats on trials of glance at the performance of the Queen speed. Either let them be both loaded steamer-regarding the probable as well or both empty, both healthy or both disas the possible. That she is excellent I eased, and the expense in fuel for each do not deny-nothing less could be looked accurately taken, so that the public may for from the able hands who have turned see the real and true merit of the compeher out; but when a scientific description titors. This would render justice to each of any new scientific production is given and prevent the interested friends of to the public, it should be fully and im parties from misleading the steam-boat partially given—nought “set down in patrons and the public at large. malice, nor “aught extenuated”-I
I remain, Sir, think “L. P." admits that the victory Your most obedient Servant, was in in some measure to be attributed
VERITAS. to the number of passengers the Railway August 17, 1842. carried at the time; but he gives no size or quantity of this measure which obtained for the Queen the victory. Rather
NEWALL AND Co.'s WIRE ROPE. might “L. P.” have said, that as the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty
Sir, — We have seen your remarks in could find no measure of praise suffici
No. 993, as to our patent wire rope, used ently large for the Queen, neither could
on the Blackwall Railway, and beg to say
that you have been misinformed, if he find any measure of right dimensions
it to be understood that we have supplied to account for the Railway's defeat, nor
that Company with a full set of ropes.
We any comparative measure between carry
have supplied them with several miles in ading a load and no load. There, is how
dition to what they had of ours at work this ever, I think, another measure, if it could
time last year, and beg to refer your readers be correctly ascertained, to which a share
to Mr. Stephenson's opinion of our “innof the Queen's victory might in some proved wire rope," as given in the Railway degree be attributed; it is this—the very Times of 5th March last, in the Report of nice and excellent condition in which the the Blackwall Railway Company's meeting. Queen would be prepared for the occa We are, your obedient Servants, sion of an experimental trip with Her
R. S. NEWALL Co. Majesty's Commissioners of the Admi Gateshead, August 22, 1842. rally on board, in comparison with a boat of a public company making three
SMITH'S WIRE ROPE. or four trips daily between London and
Sir,— The only answer I think it necesGravesend for hire, and not being al
sary to give to your remarks on the late lowed to stop for any adjustment. The
trials at Liverpool in vindication of my paimprobability of a boat of this description
tent for wire rope, is, that I am using all being in first-rate order is sufficiently possible expedition to bring Mr. Newall and apparent.
the Blackwall Railway Company, and many On Tuesday last the Queen fell in other infringers of my patent before the with another of the steamers belonging same tribunals, when they shall have an opto the Railway Company (the Black portunity of answering for themselves. Mr. wall), the result of which passage has left
Newall has got service of our proceedings her steam majesty no room at the top of
already; and it will not be the first time if the list. The Blackwall followed the
the Blackwall Railway Company, after setQueen from Blackwall, and, notwith
ting me at defiance, come the day before standing her being freighted with 160 to
trial, and submit without showing themselves
in Court. 170 passengers, and making one stop
I am, Sir, your obedient Servant, page, gained from 3 to 4 minutes upon
ANDREW SMITH. the Queen (which never stopped) to
2, White Lion Court, Cornhill, Gravesend.
August 25, 1842.