« ZurückWeiter »
DR. PAYERNE'S PROCESS FOR PRESERVING LIFE UNDER WATER. Dr. Payerne has been lately making a range of the air pipe attached to their number of experiments in the diving habiliments. bell belonging to the East and West In “By Dr. Payerne's process submarine redia Dock Company, to prove the prac
searches may be prosecuted with nearly as tical application of his process (now pa
much facility as similar works upon land so tented) for supporting life under water
far as regards supplying the crew with the without communication with the external
means of existence during an indefinite period air. The doctor has several times de
in a submarine boat, which can be directed at scended in the bell at the West India
any depths like other vessels upon the surface
of the water. His method is to place glass Import Dock, accompanied each time by
illuminators in the boat by means of which, an engineer of the Company, and some
and by the aid of a lamp which gives a brilof the divers usually employed in their
liant light, burning as well though sursub-marine operations, to the bottom of rounded by the water, as in the atmosphere, the dock, a depth of about 25 feet; and of which it consumes not the minutest quansucceeded to the perfect satisfaction of tity, its progress is illumined, and any object all present, not only in confirming the that is near may be distinctly observed. fact of his being able to render the air This boat by mechanism fixed in the interior contained in the bell (after the air-tube may be propelled at the rate of from 1 to 10 had been detached and left on the barge)
miles an hour; it is under the government pure and respirable for the inmates, but
of the helm, and is so constructed as to be in obtaining the very important advan
made stationary at will, at the greatest depths, tage (which will be duly appreciated by
the divers quitting it to perform their opera
tions with no more cause for alarm at the practical men) of restraining the water from rising in the bell as it descends to
tempest that may be raging above and agitat
ing the surface, than at the most delightful a great depth, and thus allowing the
calm, drawing a sufficient supply of the vital workmen to carry on their operations fluid for respiration through pipes communiwith the greatest facility. The engineers cating with the interior of the boat. By of the Company have given Dr. Payerne's the same means, they can re-enter the vessel certificates expressing their perfect satis without once being obliged to ascend to the faction with the result of these experi surface. ments, and have kindly offered every fa “ Under the present system of salvage cility for carrying out the invention. operations, difficulties are met with which A fact worthy of notice may here be
are frequently insurmountable—always very mentioned. At the last experiment,
expensive and very dangerous. A derangewhen four parties, unaccompanied by
ment in the apparatus of the air pump, the the doctor, descended in the bell, the
twisting or breaking of the air pipes, &c. &c. small apparatus used for renovating the
inevitably give rise to many accidents of a
most serious character. Such operations, air was ceased to be worked for about
indeed, are not only difficult and dangerous, five minutes, when a dense vapour, causa but when required to be performed at very ed by the vitiated air, immediately filled
profound depths, are altogether impossible ; the bell. The apparatus was then brought
and they are so for these reasons. Ist. Beinto action, and in a few moments the
cause a man cannot descend in a diving bell vapour was entirely dissipated, and the to more than 120 feet below the surface of air again rendered pure and fresh. the water, as he is unable to support the
The following interesting exposition pressure. 2ndly. Because, the air-pump is of some of the more prominent of the incapable, when the bell is at a greater depth, advantages to be derived from Dr. Pay of conveying fresh air of a greater density erpe's discovery we extract from a paper
than two or three atmospheres ; the air thus which he has circulated among his
conveyed would only serve to repel that friends.
which had been vitiated by respiration, and
that, thus confined, would immediately suf" It has, to the present day, been impos focate the unfortuuate diver. It cannot be sible to make researches in the depths of the otherwise, for, as it is well known, one part Ocean, because there have been no means of of vitiated air renders unfit for respiration existence for the crew of a submarine boat, ten parts of pure air ; when this deleterious without communication with the atmosphere. mixture has taken place, and that under a The employment of diving bells, or driving pressure of several atmospheres, the pump dresses, for the purpose of submarine surveys, would be required to furnish the divers with has been impracticable inasmuch as the divers at least fifteen times the quantity of air that cannot go out of the bell, or beyond the they respire, or vearly 12,000 quarts per
hour, instead of 800, that is 480 cubic feet WRECK OF THE TELEMAQUE," instead of 32. The dangers thus indicated
We have received a copy of a Report adare so real and formidable, that but few men can be found with nerve sufficient to encoun
dressed by Mr. R. B. Grantham, C. E. " to ter them.
the Subscribers to the Enquiry relative to the “ In the new method, to which attention Telemaque,” pursuant to whose instructions is now invited, the divers are exposed to
that gentleman appears to have been desnone of these evils, nor to any of the inconveniences inseparable from the old system;
patched, on a tour of inquiry into Normandy, the air in the bell is renovated in proportion
in order to ascertain all the circumstances of as the original supply becomes impure: the case. After stating that he has “ occupied there are no pipes conducting air from the
himself in procuring the best information water's surface, consequently there can be no accident from the twisting or rending of
upon the points specially pointed out by the such, or a derangement of the pump. Fur instructions, and any other which seemed to ther than the depth of 120 feet, the divers' him to be necessary to put the subscribers in operations are carried on by the aid of a
possession of all the facts," Mr. Grantham sub-marine boat; and to the diving dress a double tube is attached, in length only a few
proceeds to give " a short history of the feet, for inhaling and exhaling, communi vessel,” which differs, however, in no macating with the interior of the boat, and terial respect from the report previously which conveys to the divers, whatever may
drawn up on the subject by Mr. F. R. Conbe their number, the purest fluid for respiration. The apparatus is so disposed, that the
der; C. E., who first directed attention to pressure of the air in the diving dress never the subject in this country, and planned and surpasses that degree which it is proper he directed those operations which now appear should have. This facility of respiring and
on the verge of success. With the substance working in the lowest depths of the ocean permits the application of enormous cramp
of Mr. Conder's report our readers are alirons, or other machinery, to the foundered ready familiar. Mr.Grantham's enquiries convessel, by which it may be raised to the sur firm, in every respect, the opinion of Mr.Conface entire, with the whole of its cargo.
der, and substantiate to a degree little short of “ The improved diving-bell has advantage, we will venture to repeat, of af
positive verification, these points :-that the fording air to several divers in diving dresses, Telemaque was secretly loaded with specie, bulwhile they are at a distance from it at one lion, and other valuables to a large amount ; and the same time, and to others in the in
--that she was lost at Quillebeuf, on the 3rd terior a perfect security from the intrusion of the water, which is restrained at the very
of January, 1790 ;-that it is physically imedge of the bell, thus enabling them to pro
possible that she can have been robbed of ceed without interruption in recovering her treasures, either before or after the wrecks, cleansing harbours, laying the foun
wreck ;-and that the operations which are dations of bridges, docks, or other places surrounded by water.
now so nearly completed, are, beyond ques“ In a national point of view, the subma.
tion, directed to this identical wreck. rine boat adapted to this process must be of After dwelling on these particulars at some the highest importance, as its application length, Mr. Grantham states, that from the extends to the examining of sunken rocks, shoals, reefs ; to the ascertaining of under
vigour with which the operations are now becurrents, surveying the bottoms of rivers,
ing pushed on, and the safe and ingenious harbours, the outline of coasts, &c. &c. ; mode in which the works are planned, he and to the forming of submarine charts, which hitherto has been deemed an impos
sees every reason to expect that within sibility, owing to the very defective means
twenty days the salvage will be effected. employed.
In conclusion, he describes the legal ar“ In time of war, this submarine boat rangements in virtue of which shares in the must become one of the most formidable
salvage are offered for sale, and recommends engines of destruction which modern science has given forth ; but, in the hands of a
to his constituents to appoint a local direcpowerful and peace-seeking nation, the most
tor, who should communicate weekly with effectual for repelling foreign aggression, the parties at Havre, who have the active and preserving the universe from the evils of warfare."
direction of the affair.
The following paragraph on this subject neous, because the sea shore is the line of we find in the Moniteur.
least, or non-resistance, not opposing, but " The Seine near the town of Quillebeuf,
yielding to the sea : he asserts that, as far as
he can ascertain, no pier or breakwater conpresents at this moment a most ani
structed with a sea slope has been found to mated appearance.
At 120 metres from resist the effects of storms, without considerthe Quay an immense scaffolding, suppor
able repairs and expense being subsequently ed by a bridge, surmounted by a tri
required. He then gives his observations
upon the several sections, and states that culour flag, rises, as if by enchantment, from
the waves have the most violent effect at the centre of the river, and marks the spot about half-tide; hence, the stones at that where the Telemaque rests, for a few days
line are first disturbed, and then are carried longer, buried beneath the waves.
down into the deep water: to parry this This
evil, nearly 200,000 tons of stone have been bridge, forming actually a portion of the
deposited on the fore-shore of Kingstown wreck, serves as a platform for a numerous Eastern Pier,-yet more must still be added. crew, who are incessantly occupied in passing
Similar additions have been repeatedly made round the hull the chains destined to raise
to Plyinouth Breakwater, with no better ef.
fect. At Dunmore, iron chains have been it. The works have been hitherto carried
fixed in the face of the walls to secure thein. on with remarkable activity and success, and At Howth, a slope of 3 to l has been found we have every reason to hope that in three insufficient. At Ardglass, the pier-head and weeks, at the latest, the solution of a prob
lighthouse have been washed away. From
these and numerous other examples it is lem at once historical, financial, and me
argued, that piers in exposed situations, with chanical will be definitely known.”
a considerable inclination of the sea face, do not resist the violence of the waves, whereas
there are many instances of upright walls INSTITUTION OF CIVIL ENGINEERS.
having resisted perfectly. As instances of
this, Old Dunleary Pier is adduced, as being APRIL 5, 1842.
nearly perpendicular, yet never having been "Observations upon the Sections of Break
injured during a long series of years, alwaters as heretofore constructed, with sug though quite as much exposed as the New gestions as to modifications of their
Pier, now called Kingstown: Kilrush Pier, forms." By Lieut. - Col. H. D. Jones,
although not built of heavy materials, has R.E., Assoc. Inst. C.E.
resisted all the shocks of the heavy seas This communication is the result of seve which break upon it from the Atlantic. ral years' observation of the effect of storms From these considerations Colonel Jones upon the sea faces of breakwaters and piers : proposes upon the “pierre perdue” to rise those principally alluded to, and of which a perpendicular wall from a little below the drawings were exhibited, were Plymouth, level of low-water spring-tides; this forrr, Kingstown, Howth, Ardglass, and Dun he contends, would resist the upward presmore; a section was also given of the sea sure of the sea upon the broad bases of the wall of the Kingstown Railway, and of the stones, and prevent their being removed. mole of St. Jean de Luz.
He argues that although the proposed walls The mode of building with “ pierre per- 'would require to be built with squared stones, due" appears to have been brought into no instead of “pierre perdue,” that the cost tice about the time of Louis XV., when the would not be greater than at present, as the cones at Cherbourg were sunk and filled area of the section of his proposed wall if with stones as a foundation for a wall; applied at Kingstown would be only 4860 since then, the general method of construct square feet, whereas the sectional area of the ing sea-defences has been to throw down present pier is 10,085 square feet. The masses of stone, allowing them to form their French appear to have partially adopted this own angle, subject to the effect of the sea in form at the new works at Cherbourg; but giving them a greater or less slope. In many he considers this mode of construction obinstances this rough foundation has been jectionable, inasmuch as it leaves in front of pared down to below the low-water mark the outer face that part of the breakwater with squared blocks of stone, secured with which is most subjected to injury. much care, and above this a wall is built of An extensive series of drawings, containsolid masonry, generally with a considerable ing the plans and sections of existing breakslope on the sea face.
waters, and piers showing the icjury susThe author contends, that the system of tained from storms, accompanied the same. assimilating the sea face of breakwaters to the form of the shore at low water is erro. Colonel Jones explained by the various sec.
tions of breakwaters shown in the drawings, the ashlar joints with oakum: this kind of the changes of form and the additions to work was very durable. their cubic content which had been made at In answer to a remark by General Paley, different periods in consequence of the violent Colonel Jones believed that the greatest inaction of storms.
jury was done by receding waves, particularly The Plymouth Breakwater has had its if the joints of the work were not well closed. form altered three times ; each time the base Mr. Rennie took a hasty review of the has been extended and the sectional area in. moles and breakwaters mentioned by the creased.
early writers, as being thrown out for the At the Howth Pier the sections showed
purpose of forming harbours ; Vitruvius parthree distinct forms assumed by the mass of ticularly described, among other similar materials, in consequence of the varied ac works, a mole constructed with a kind of tion of the waves. The damage done is now concrete composed of “pozzuolana." so extensive, that the sea threatens to make Mr. Rennie contended that engineers a clear breach through the works.
were not in error in taking as their guide the The sections of the Kingstown Pier showed natural inclination of the sea-shore opposite the original form to have been a slope of 4 the situation where the breakwater was into 1 and 5 to 1, covered with heavy pitching, tended to be placed: it would be found in which had been repeatedly torn up, and following the coast of England from the persome of the stones weighing 10 tons were pendicular primitive cliffs of Cornwall to the carried to considerable distances : an exter flat shingle beach of Norfolk, between which nal mole of rough work containing nearly places is found almost every variety of geo200,000 tons of stone which had been de logical formation, that the profile of the seaposited upon the foreshore was almost all
shore differed according to the material of washed away; while the toe of the work be which it was composed and the peculiar acneath low-water mark, although at a greater tion of the sea upon it from local circumangle than the other parts, remained un stances. It had been shown that the force disturbed.
of the waves acted more prejudicially upon At Dunmore Harbour, although the long the point above low-water than below it; glacis with a slope of 5 to 1 is protected by that the work would stand at a great inclinapitching composed of square stones of from tion at the latter point, indeed that it was 21 to 6 tons weight, and above 12,0001. has rarely injured even when all above it was been expended, it has received very extensive carried away ; that if the water was deep, damage.
the action of the waves would extend deeper : Many other cases of injury to sloped works all these and many other points required to were mentioned, and it was stated that from be considered in fixing upon the slope for these examples, coupled with observations any sea-wall; and therefore he could not upon some ancient piers in Cornwall and accord with Colonel Jones's views in adoptother exposed situations, which although ing an arbitrary form for all situations, withbuilt of rough materials and with a nearly out considering the exigencies of peculiar lovertical sea face, had resisted the action of calities. He had been particularly struck heavy seas, the Shannon Commissioners had with the regularity of the slope assumed by determined to try, at Kilrush, a sea wall the materials at the Kingstown pier after a with a very slight inclination, and up to the storm : but in that and all similar positions, present time it had sustained no injury, al the inclination of the face varied with cirthough previously the sloped work had been cumstances and with the degree of violence destroyed.
of the action of the waves. Colonel Jones, being convinced of the Among the many arguments against the superiority of this form, had devoted much
proposed perpendicular form, might be mentime to observations of the action of the tioned the increased expense ; for if built of waves upon works of all kinds, as well as squared stones below low-water mark, the to the various modes of using the materials work must be done from a diving-bell; and composing the sea-walls; and he felt assured also that the form is objectionable for a pier, that if the stones were of an average size, as the wave is thrown up in a mass, instead square-jointed, and well laid, even without of expending its force in rolling over the cement, forming an almost vertical wall of long slope of the fore-shore. moderate thickness, springing from a point Mr. Telford had abandoned vertical seaas much below low-water mark as could be walls on these and other accounts. conveniently attained, the work would be Mr. Vignoles agreed, to a certain extent, more durable. “ Béton” (concrete) was (but not fully,) with the form proposed by now much used in France for the construc Colonel Jones : he believed that, although tion of sea desences : it was generally done the construction might be rather more costly, by building caissons of ashlar, filling them it would be amply compensated for by the in solid with “béton" and then caulking all greater durability; and he saw no difficulty
in doing the work; the proposed plan he though strictly speaking it may not be understood to be by commencing the foot of wanted, it must nevertheless assist in conso. the wall only at such a depth below low lidating the mass; and the vacant spaces can water as should prevent the violent action of easily be filled up. Under similar circumthe waves upon it.
stances a perpendicular wall would suffer At Ardglass, the upper portion only of more severely, and probably would have the pier is destroyed; all that part below fallen entirely. He therefore considerd, that low-water remains perfectly sound : it is of in situations like that of the Plymouth ashlar of large dimensions, placed from a Breakwater, which was exposed to a heavier bell.
sea than Cherbourg, a long slope for the Mr. Gordon had seen sections of the works sea face was essential. Still, there were si. which were commenced for forming a break tuations where the form proposed by Colonel water at Madras : the materials reached, at Jones would no doubt be available, and the the highest point, to within about ten feet of members were much indebted to him for the low-water, and amidst the violence of the suggestion, as also for the valuable observa. surf of that coast, the work stood undis tions shown in the sections accompanying turbed at an angle of 45°: it was composed the paper : he hoped that he would continue of “ pierre perdue.”
them, and that other members, who had At Algiers the French engineers had used equal opportunities and less arduous duties extensively masses of concrete, (blocks de to perform than the author, would give the béton,) but at first they were displaced and
Institution the benefit of their observations. destroyed by the force of the seas; the cubic capacity of the masses had, however, been increased to the extent of 2 metres square INFRINGEMENT OF PATENT RIGHT. by 3 metres long; they were floated out, and allowed to drop into their places from
Northern Circuit, Liverpool. slings; and now they succeeded perfectly.
August 10. The upper part of the work is intended to be
Smith v. Watson. of concrete cast in caissons, the section below
This was an action for the infringement of two low-water is at an angle of 45°, and above it patents granted to the plaintiff, Mr. Andrew Smith, like an ordinary quay wall, with a curved
engineer and patentee of a wire rope, in the years * batter."
1835 and 1836, the first patent being for an inven
tion of a new standing rigging, composed of iron In allusion to the depth of the wave and wire, and the second patent for an invention of an the power of its action at Madras, Sir John
improvement on the first. Robison said that, during a violent storm, a
The defendant pleaded-Ist, that the plaintiff was
not the true inventor; 2d, that the inventions were quantity of pigs of lead had been cast ashore not manufactures; 3d, that the inventions were of near the fort, and it was proved that they no use; 4th, that the inventions were not new as had come from a vessel which had been
to the public use; 5th, that the specifications were
not sufficient; 6th, that the specifications were not wrecked at more than a mile from the shore, duly enrolled; and, 7th, that the defendant did not during the siege by La Bourdonnaye.
infringe the patents.-Mr. Hindmarsh appeared on The President observed, that at the Ply
behali of the plaintiff, and Mr. Corrie for the de
fendant. mouth Breakwater the largest blocks, (some Mr. Hindmarsh, in opening the proceedings, of them weighing from 6 to 8 tons,) and the entered generally into the properties of the standgreatest number have been washed from the
ing rigging inade of heinp, as compared with that sea face over into the Sound ; the square
composed of wire under the patents which the
plaintiff had secured, pointing out the superiority stones with which the fore shore is paved of the latter, both as regards lightness of weight, are placed with the utmost care, and little
and diminution of bulk or space in standing rigcomparative injury has been done since that
ging, which was important, in presenting less sur
face to the wind. Anoiher advantage which the method has been adopted. Engineers now wire rope, or rigging, possessed, was that of not generally recommend a deep paving of
being atfected, in like manner as the hempen rope,
by moisture-in the former case the rope only being squared stone in bond courses as the best
influenced by the atmosphere, which was trivial mode of construction. In order to insure and unimportant; while in the latter, the hempen the stability of the light-house now erecting
rope, in wet weather, by absorbing the wet, exat the extremity of the Plymouth Break
pands or swells the strands, and thus contracts the
rope, which, on again becoming dry, is considerably water, a foundation of squared stones has extended, and thus slackened, requiring, under been carried up from the natural rock, and
such circumstances, to be rendered more " taut,' an inverted arch turned below the level of
while, in many instances, breakages arise.
gards the comparative weights of equal strengths the top of the work; and, for its further se of hempen and wire rope, the latter was not more, curity, a buttress is now thrown out upon on an average, than one-half of the former--thus the foot of the south slope, in order to pre
lightening the vessel to that extent above the line
of notation, so far as relates to the rigging. With vent the stones from being carried away. reference to the size of the ropes used, the hempen
It is evident, that if the materials are de. rope was of double the circumference of that of posited at an inclination, any portion being
wire, while the expense would be found to be con
siderably less in the application of the latter, as well displaced is only carried down to where, al
as economy secured, from its being less affected by