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new iron steamer, the machinery for which By giving this a place in your highly is made by Messrs. Seaward and Co., the valued journal, you will greatly oblige à highly respectable engineers at Limehouse, constant subscriber, and a lover of fair play, upon what may be termed the new-old plan, anxious that every one should have the just or, in other words, the atmospheric principle praise due to his merit. I am, Sir, revived, I beg to observe, that, notwith Your obliged and obedient servant, standing the admirable and satisfactory man

VERITAS. ner the engines are therein stated to have

[We are obliged to our correspondent for setting performed, that there are some inaccuracies us right as to the passage of the Atmospheric from in the statement-first, as to the distance

Gravesend to Blackwall being the swiftest on refrom Blackwall to Gravesend secondly, in

cord. What the distance really is—whether 20 or

22-matters nothing, so far as the comparison with having made that passage in less time than other steamers goes.

In the trial with the Railany other steamer. The distance from way, care was taken that the Atmospheric should Blackwall to Gravesend instead of being 22

stop every time the Ra lway stopped, and not re

sume her way till after her competitor had resumed miles, as set forth by your correspondent, hers. No doubt the fact of the Atmospheric being is, I believe, generally known to be under so lightly loaded was in her favour; but some al20 miles, and this inaccuracy would, if ad.

lowance must also be made, on the other hand, for

the newness of her engines, and (we may here add) mitted, give to the Atmospheric* a fictiti for their not being very well secured to their bearous speed in her favour of two miles in the ings -a circumstance which caused palpably a great hour, and really have a tendency to make

increase in the resistance which the steam had to

As to the authority of Watt being unher appear the fastest boat, and also to mis

favourable to this application of the atmospheric lead the public mind. Of her having beaten principle, we should think it of great weight if we the Railway steamer, I cannot either admit did not remember, also, that he thought, for a long

time, the navigation of the seas, by steam power in or contradict ; if, however, it be so (not

any shape, to be impossible. withstanding the advantage, she would have, In the description which we gave of the pistons, being at present little more than a shell in and the importance we ascribed to their peculiar

form of construction, we took the enrolled specifiweight, without cabin fittings, stores, &c.,

cation of the invention, which was patented about while the Railway, in addition to the usual two years ago, for our guide; but another correfreight, was interrupted in her passage by

spondent (R. O.) informs us that the middle groove stoppages to take in, and put out passengers

is not filled with steam, but with melted tallow; and this we find on inquiry to be the case.

The on the way, which is not the case with a same writer points out an obvious typographical boat running an experimental trip) the At. error in the dimensions assigned to the floats,,

which are of course of the same area on both sides, morpheric has done well. Still the suppo

namely, 9st. 6in. x 14in. -Ed. M. M.] sition that the Atmospheric, in having made the passage from Gravesend to Blackwall in I hour 7 minutes, is the shortest time in

H.M. FRIGATE PENELOPE." which the passage has ever been made is far

The operation of cutting this frigate in wide of the fact, it being well known that

two, in order to her enlargement, and coneach of the Blackwall Railway Company's version into a steam-vessel of higher power boats, excepting the Brunswick, have several

than any yet afloat, (the intention to do times performed the distance in one hour which we were the first to announce two or and from two to four minutes; and upon one three months ago-see Mech. Mag. for occasion, it will be found upon reference to

April 9,) was performed at Chatham DockFoar Magazine of July 10, 1841, No. 935,

yard on the 18th ultimo. The following as stated by " Justice” in answer to “ Nau particulars of what took place on the octilas," on June 18, No. 933, that the Black

casion, we extract from the Hampshire trall made the passage on June 11, in 58} Telegraph. minutes, which, I believe, is the quickest

Two large booths were erected on each side of passage on record. Should the Atmospheric the Penelope, and were filled by naval and military take a station on the Thames, fully equipped officers and the genıry of the neighbourhood. The for service, and perform the passage in less

sight was novel and astonishing. Three ropes were

fastened to the gunwhale of the ship from three time than the one by the Blackwall on the

capstans, which were fixed in the ground facing the Ilth of June, 1841, she will be justly en dock, and which were worked up by windlasses by titled to be placed Al; and yet it is hardly

nearly 200 convicts. On the arrival of the Rt. Hon.

T. Cory, one of the Lords of the Admiralty, together a question whether the novelty of the adop with Sir W. Symonds, the surveyor, and Captain R. tion of atmospheric agency will answer any Brandreth, architect of the navy, Captain Superinvery great end, or warrant by the bold at tendant Shirriff, and other officers, the master build

er, Mr. Fincham, gave directions for all hands to tempe the hazard of public approval ; perilled

work. As soon as the parts were observed to separate, by the employment of a principle deemed the band of the dock-yard struck up, 'Oh dear, what by the great master mind incomplete, and

can the matter be?' amidst the cheers of the assem

bled multitude. The fore part of the vessel was obfor the remedy immortalized the name of

served easily to glide up the dock. The fore part of Watt.

the ship having been brought up to the mark allotted,

left a space between the two parts of the ship, exactly Called se for distinction, not having, as yet, 62 feet, which will lengthen her to about 190 feet." way Dame.

THE SOLAR ECLIPSE OF JULY 8. Professor Silliman's Journal of Science and Arts, for January, 1842, contains an article “on the Solar Eclipse of July, 1842," in which it is observed—" As the approaching eclipse will excite great interest throughout Europe, and especially in those places where it will be total, it is earnestly hoped that particular attention will be paid by those favourably situated and in the possession of suitable instruments, to the determi. nation of the correctness of a recent suggestion—that the irregularities so frequently noticed at the second and third contacts of nearly central eclipses, and at all the con. tacts of the transits of Venus, may be seen or not at the pleasure of the observer, according as the colour of the dark glass he applies to his telescope is red or green." The committee of the Philosophical Society of Philadelphia, in their report on this eclipse, remark, in reference to this suggestion of Professor Silliman, “The suggestion is one of the greatest importance, as it seems to furnish evidence of the existence of a lunar atmosphere, through which, as through our own, the red rays have the greatest penetrative power. It also leads to new views concerning the cause of the remarkable appearances of the beads of light and the dark lines frequently noticed, since it shows that their appearance may be completely modified by a change in the colour, and consequently in the absorbing power of the screen glass through which they are observed."

“ It is believed," Professor Silliman further remarks, “that on another account will this suggestion, if well founded, be of great importance, viz., in its obvious tendency to diminish, if not wholly remove, the discord. ances not unfrequently found in the best observations on solar eclipses, and transits of Venus, and which, with regard to the latter in 1761 and 1769, were so great as materially to diminish the value of this me. thod of determining the distance between the earth and the sun.


JUNE, 1842.

Joseph Clisild Daniel, of Tiverton Mills, near Bath, for improvements in making and preparing food for cattle. May 25.

Robert Logan, of Blackheath, Kent, Esq., for improvements in obtaining and preparing the fibres and other products of the cocoa nut and its husk. May 28.

Thomas Henry Russell, of Wednesbury, Starford, iron-tube manufacturer, and Cornelius Whitehouse, of the same place, for improvements in the manufacture of welded iron tubing. May 28.

Thomas Middleton, of Loman-street, in the borough of Southwark, Surrey, engineer, for an improved method of preparing vegetable gelatine, or size for paper, and also an improved mode of applying the same in the manufacture of paper. (Being a communication from abroad.) June 6.

John Railton, of Blackburn, Lancaster, machinemaker, for certain improvements in machinery, or apparatus for weaving. June 6.

Thomas Hedley, of the town and borough of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, gentleman, and Cuthbert Rodham, of Gateshead, Durham, millwright, for an improved apparatus for purifying the smoke gases and other noxious vapours arising from certain fires, stoves, and furnaces. June 7.

John Burnell, the younger, of High-street, Whitechapel, Middlesex, manufacturer, for improvements in the manufacture of leaves or sheets of horn, commonly called lantern leaves, and in the coustruction of horn lanterns. June 8.

Otto Rotton, of Gracechurch-street, London, doctor of medicine, for certain improvements in machinery, or apparatus for spinning cotton, wool, and other fibrous substances. (Being a communi. cation from abroad.) June 14.

John Bould, of Ovenden, Halifax, York, cottonspinner, for an improvement or improvements in condensing steam-engines. June 23.

John Cox, of Gorgie Mills, Edinburgh, tanner and glue manufacturer, for certain improved process of tanning. June 23.


IN MAY, 1842. James Hunt, for improvements in the manufacture of bricks.

William Newton, for an improved machine, or apparatus for weighing various kinds of articles or goods.

Edmund Morewood, for an improved mode of preserving iron and other metals from oxydation or rust.

Peter Kagenbusch, for an improvement in the dyeing of wool, woollen cloths, cotton, silks, and other fabrics and materials.

Henry Bewley, for an improved chalybeate water.

Sir James Murray, for an improved method of combining various materials in a manner not hitherto in use for the purposes of manure.

Edward Welch, for certain improvements in the construction of bricks.

American Horse-rake.-In some parts of the country, where labour is very dear, they use a machine for raking the hay, called "the Flexible Horse rake." It is distinguished from all others by a joint in the centre of the head, by which the rake contracts to any uneven ground, and takes the hay clean. Also, by the form of the teeth, which glide over hillocks or stones, like the runner of a sled. This rake has also a smooth back-board, on a level with the teeth which support it; and it is not liable to become entangled with the hay, when canted over to be emptied. Twenty-four acres a day are raked perfectly clean with this instrumentone man holding it, a small boy riding the horse, The labour of managing it is less than that of holding a small plough.-Le Cras.

KINTENDING PATENTEES may be supplied gratis with Instructions, by application (postpaid) to Messrs. J. C. Robertson and Co., 166, Fleet-street, by whom is kept the only COMPLETE REGISTRY OF PATENTS EXTANT (from 1617 to the present time).

LONDON: Edited, Printed, and Published by J. C. Robertson, at the Mechanics' Magazine Office,

No. 166, Fleet-street.-Sold by W. and A. Galignani, Rue Vivienne, Paris,

Machin and Co., Dublin; and W. C. Campbell and Co., Hamburgh.

[merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][graphic][subsumed][merged small][subsumed][merged small]


Sir,—The accompanying drawing re

A trial of this engine took place represents a powerful fire-engine recently cently at the Euston-square Station bebuilt for the London and Birmingham fore a number of railway directors, goRailway Company, by Mr. Merryweather, vernment officers and scientific gentleof Long Acre, London.

men; the handles were manned by 42 This engine is the largest ever con of the railway servants, when a single jet, structed for land service in this or any an inch and a quarter in diameter, was other country, the celebrated steam fire thrown in a compact form upwards of engine not excepted.

one hundred feet high; an inch and The pumps are two gun-metal cylin eighth jet was thrown considerably higher, ders, 9 inches in diameter, with a 10 inch and afterwards two jets of three-quarters stroke, and work into a spherical copper

of an inch in diameter were delivered at air-vessel, the capacity of which is nearly siinilar elevations, twenty gallons. The cistern, which is The trial took place under consider13 feet long, holds, when full, four hun. able disadvantage, from the deficiency of dred and fifty gallons of water. The the present water supply, the small main pistons and valves are of metal, the latter from the Camden-town reservoirs being being placed in separate and easily acces wholly inadequate to afford water with sible valve chambers; these excellent sufficient rapidity to meet the demands of valves were fully described at page 325 an engine of this calibre. of your xxviith volume. The water The name of “ Niagara" has been passages are 3 inches and a quarter in given to several tolerably powerful endiameter. The handles when opened out gines, but if ever it was appropriately are 23 feet long, but they fold up fore bestowed, it would be on the Railway and aft, so as not to project beyond the Fire-engine. length of the cistern; when extended The London and Birmingham Railway they are kept straight by a sliding bolt Company have been tolerably exempt of a simple and ingenious description. from accidental fires, and when they Each end of the engine is fitted with

have occurred, from the judicious precauspring buffers, attached to a buffer bar or tions taken, have been promptly exframe, which is kept up by a pin-bolt, tinguished. The capabilities of the preand hinged below so as to fall down out of sent engine, as regards working and the way of the handles and levers when travelling, are such, as to afford most sufthe engine is set to work.

ficient protection to the extensive estaIn the fore part of the engine is placed blishments of the Company at Camdena hose-reel* capable of carrying upwards town, Wolverton, and other stations, as of ten lengths (i. e. 400 feet) of riveted well as to all property adjacent to the leather hose, all joined up, the whole, or

line of railway. The performances of any portion of which can be run out and the engine, as well as the excellence of attached to the engine in a few seconds. the workmanship, and the skill displayed In the pockets on either side are stowed in adapting it to the peculiar service for away two lengths of suction-pipes, one

which it is intended, gave great and gelong and one short branch-pipe, of the neral satisfaction to all who saw it, and construction described at page 37 of vol. fully sustain the deserved reputation of xxv. ; with a complete set of nose-pipes, Mr. Merryweather in this branch of mafrom an inch and a quarter down to three nufacture. quarters of an inch in diameter. A leather

I am, Sir, portable dam, of suitable dimensions, with a proper complement of axes, crow

Yours respectfully, bars, wrenches, &c., complete the equip

WM. BADDELEY. ment of this stupendous engine.

29, Alfredestreet, Islington, June 21, 1842.

• Described in vol. xxvii. page 34.

No. of Experiment.

Area of Furnace.

Area of Flue Sur


Lbs. of Coal burned.

Hours occupied.
Lbs. of Water eva-

Lus. of Water per

lb. of Coal.
Temperature of es-

caping Products.

MR. C. W. WILLIAMS'S FORNACE AS APPLIED TO MARINE BOILERS. Sir,-In sending you the following as regards the fuel, (namely 9:30lbs of Report of experiments made by Mr. water evaporated by each pound of coal,) Parkes on a marine boiler, showing the was, in truth, the least economical, when difference between the old and new mode time was taken into account. In this of effecting combustion in furnaces by case, but 1030 lbs. of water were evapothe admission of air bebind the bridge, I rated per hour, whereas, when the ecoaccompany the tabular view of "Mr. nomy of fuel gave but 7.8lbs. of water Parkes’s results by those of two other ex per lb. of fuel, there were no less than periments with the same boiler and fur 1715 lbs. of water evaporated within the nace-the one testing the new mode, hour. under the circumstances of a slower rate Thus we see that what would here of combustion, by heavy charges, and the have been called economy, might be the other, with a reduced area of furnace. ruin of the manufacturer; for although These results are highly instructive, and each pound of coal would, per se, appear sufficiently prove the necessity of going to do the largest work of evaporation, further into the enquiry. In my next I still, as less was done within the hour, hope to be able to give you some addi it is manifest that, on the whole, less tional tables of the same character on work would be done by the engine ; and, this interesting subject, as laid before the as the weight of water evaporated within British Association in Manchester. any given time may be taken as the re

presentative of a given quantity of work done by the engine and the machinery it put in action, so the true measure of economy will depend, not on the quantity of water evaporated by each pound of coal, but on the time required for such evaporation.

The column showing the temperature

of the escaping products (which are here 17:16 300 1581 653 4:12 515°

for the first time, that I am aware of,

brought into the account) is of the high2 7:16 300 224 1 1715 7.68 1193° est importance, since we find that, exactly

in proportion as the quantity of water 37.16 300 149 1 1288/8.10 1080° evaporated per hour was increased, so

was the temperature of the products es4 6.25 300 112 1 1030 9:30 795° caping by the chimney. This, although

it is really so much extra work done by

the fuel, has hitherto been overlooked; No. 1 and 2. Experiments by Mr. yet here lies, perhaps, the greatest source Parkes—the former, on the old system of of practical available economy yet within excluding air from the gases behind the our reach. Until we learn, therefore, bridge-the latter, on Mr. Williams's how to turn this extra labour of the fuel plan of admitting the air.

to the work of evaporation, we are not No. 3. Experiment by a slower rate of in a position to determine, either the value combustion, with heavy firing—air ad of the fuel, or the description of furnace mitted on Mr. Williams's plan.

in which it may be best consumed. No. 4. Air admitted and active com In my next I hope to be able to lay bustion, the area of the fire-grate having before your readers the practical results been reduced.

of a mode of estimating the temperature These experiments show the difference of the flues of boilers, as laid before the between the old and new systems. They Association by Henry Houldsworth, Esq., also show how little dependence can be of Manchester. By this ingenious but placed on any test, drawn from the mere simple plan, Mr. Houldsworth has effectweight of water evaporated by each pound ed what has so long been a desideratum, of coal. In the above, we see that the namely, the means of ascertaining not experiment which gave what would be only the relative heating powers of differconsidered the most economical results ent kinds of coal, but of the different

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