« ZurückWeiter »
tion,* such as grinding corn, spinning, &c. these experiments I jump from an angle of If the rotative engine, under these circum 90 degrees to one of 30 degrees. Now it is stances, is found to do more work,-if the surprising to me that he could not perceive larger quantity of work performed by that that my doing so was a circumstance in his engine shows that the whole power is not favour, and against myself; for had the legiven out by the crank, which it receives verage of the cross-bar been gradually refrom the first mover,-then, I say, there is duced, as it is in the crank, from 90 to 30, a loss of power in the crank. I think it the weights which, to support his views, unnecessary to answer those who require to should have moved over a greater space, know what becomes of the loss; that loss would, in that case, have moved over a less as certainly takes place, whether it be from
space. loss of effect or destruction of power : and I will give another example of my meanthis is clearly the meaning of the term “ loss ing of the term “ loss of power,' and one of power” made use of by Mr. Russell, which, I presume, will not be found fault Mr. Sang, and many others, whose writings with as being of an imaginary character. I on the subject are to be found in your Ma allude to the experiments described by your gazine. If the case were otherwise, why Aberdeen correspondent, published some should these gentlemen contend that a per time back in your Magazine, where the same son who would endeavour to contrive a ma boiler was made use of, and the same quanchine for ordinary works, such as grinding tity of fuel to work the engine at one time corn, &c. &c., without the intervention of with a crank, and at another time without it. a crank, must be ignorant of the first prin Your correspondent's admission that the ciples of mechanics ? When I mentioned crank-engine did not do one-half the work the circumstance of drawing a spike out of of the other, I call “ loss of power." I call a piece of timber, the pulleys, screws, that loss of power also (though your correlevers, wedges, or any other mechanical spondent seems to be at a loss to comprecontrivance to effect that purpose might be hend it) where, in the experiment with the assumed to have no friction; but your cor non-momentum apparatus, as well as in respondent cannot dispense with the friction the other experiments, 37 lbs. could not of the spike; one pound might lift the be drawn over a space of six inches. spike, but it might require one ton to draw a suitable apparatus,” says your corresponit! Now your correspondent is disposed dent, “ and it can be done." Very true to turn round and to cavil with me about or take away the crank, he might have said, this friction, on the ground of a misunder. and almost any other contrivance would do standing about words, and that this friction it. 74 x 3 will not answer the conditions, was excepted,—that is, the very work re as your correspondent will discover, if he quired to be done was excepted. How else will examine these experiments a little more am I to understand him, when he says, in particularly. Moreover, the space required the latter part of his letter, that the work to be passed over was 6 inches, not 3 inches. must be such as will answer for a crank R. W. T. observes, that he might safely engine? Does he mean that grinding corn undertake, with the addition of another is not proper work? He admits, almost in cross-bar (so as to suit it to the work to be as many words, that such work cannot be performed), to make it re-produce the lost well done without a fly,-his crank will not power-(What lost power, if none had been move without momentum. And thus he lost?)—and make it move the 36 lbs. six supports my argument, which is corrobo. inches. And he thinks I could easily find rated by the experiment. The spring in my out how this could be done. There could experiment did not require momentum. be no contrivance of the kind placed between
Your correspondent objects to my experi the cross-bar and the power, or between the ments because there is no similarity between crank and the first mover, in any case, that them and a crank; but I need not remind would have the effect he alludes to, without him, that if the doctrine of virtual velocities changing the principle altogether of the applies to the crank, in cases where there is action of the crank. much friction, it must equally apply to my Your correspondent complains that I do experiments. Moreover, he objects, that in not notice his experiment with a model,
which he thinks more like a working crank, • The word friction, as used in all these papers,
and affects not to understand what I mean, is not confined to the rubbing surfaces of the ma when speaking of its limited effect. It was chinery, but embraces every thing connected with the work to be done that retards or opposes motion.
not its dimensions which I alluded to, but The resistance of paddle-wheels is as much an the impossibility of trying the necessary exelement of friction as the axle friction of the periments with different descriptions of wheels, according to the view taken of it in these papers, and by such unscientific authorities as
work with sufficient accuracy, and with the Smeaton,
same facility, as in my experiments.
I will now allude, in a few words, to some
of the British Association, through the other circumstances connected with these medium of Sir David Brewster, and pubexperiments. It will be observed that, in
lished in the Athenæum. these experiments, the crank is represented as moving in one of two quarters of its revolution, and that its motion in that quarter A black plate of horn, or agate, is placed is from a state of the greatest leverage to below a polished surface of silver, at the the dead point; and, consequently, a quar distance of one-twentieth of an inch, and reter of its revolution most favourable to the mains there for ten minutes. The surface action of the crank. The other two quar of the silver receives an impression of the ters of its revolution, namely, from the dead figure, writing, or crest, which may be cut point in the circle to the point of greatest upon the agate or horn. The figures, &c. leverage, would have been one more in my do not appear on the silver at the expiration favour, and against the crank; as the de. of the ten minutes, but are rendered visible struction of momentum in the first case was by exposing the silver plate to vapour, either applied in performing the work, whereas of amber, water, mercury, or any other fluid. the restoring the momentum was done at Sir D. Brewster stated that he had heard the expense of the power. Moreover, it Prof. Bessel say, that the vapours of different will be observed, that at the termination of fluids were analogous to the different coloured all these experiments, where the cross-bar rays of the spectrum ; that the different fluids was made use of to represent the crank, the had different effects, corresponding
to those of power would not have been sufficient to the spectrum; and that they could, in conmove the weight the smallest quantity be sequence of such correspondence, produce a yond the assigned distance on the table, even red, blue, or violet colour. The image of had it been able to reach it, which it was the camera obscura might be projected on not. But in all the cases where the cross any surface-glass, silver, or the smooth bar was removed, the power would have leather cover of a book-without any prebeen sufficient to carry on the motion beyond vious preparation; and the effects would be these points, if required. Again, it will be the same as those produced on a silver plate seen that the spaces passed over on the table covered with iodine. by the weight, are not equal on each side of This paper gave rise to an animated conthe line drawn across the table, although versation, in the course of which M. Bessel the work done on each side was equal; there said that he had seen some of the pictures was, consequently, unequal work done in taken by this process, which were nearly, equal times, but the uniform motion of the but not quite, as good as those obtained by fly-wheel must interfere, and cause an ap
Mr. Talbot's process.
Sir D. Brewster proach to what, under the circumstances, said, this was the germ of one of the most would be impossible--equal work to be per extraordinary discoveries of modern days; formed in equal times; and therefore must by it there seemed to be some thermal effect injuriously interfere with the action of the which became fixed in the black substance ; crank.
and not only so, but M. Bessel informed I am, Sir, yours, &c. him, that different lights seemed to affect
different vapours variously, so that there seemed to be something like a power of rendering light latent; a circumstance which, if
it turned out so, would open up very new PHOTOGRAPHY-AND SOMETHING MORE. and curious conceptions of the physical naA very remarkable discovery, with respect
ture of light; on the emission theory, it to the self-transmitting property of figured
would be easy to account for this ; on the
undulatory theory, he could not conceive surfaces, under certain circumstances, has
how it could be possible. Prof. M'Cullagh been recently made by Dr. Moser, of Ko said, he believed Newton had somewhere nigsberg, which would seem to indicate that thrown out a suggestion, that luminous parthere is something else than light concerned
ticles, as they entered into bodies, might be in the production of such effects, and that
caught and retained, within certain bounds,
by continual attractions.—Sir D. Brewster we must look for some fitter term than said, that the experiments which he had perPhoto-graphy to designate the branch of formed with nitrous gas seemed to strengthen science or art to which they belong. The
some such view as this, for, at certain temfollowing is the account of this discovery,
peratures, we had here an instance of a
gaseous body as impervious to light as a brought to this country by Professor Bessel, piece of iron.-Sir J. Herschell thought it as communicated by him to the late meeting
a pity to encumber this new and extensive
RECENT AMERICAN PATENTS.
field of discovery now laid open to them by hoped that Sir W. Hamilton would develope any speculations connected with the theory, and publish this speculation, in order that it either of undulations or emissions. He had may be sifted, scrutinized, and rejected, if found that paper could be so prepared, as merely ideal; or established and adopted, if that the impressions of some colours might solidly founded in nature and fact. become permanent upon it, while others were not; and thus it became possible to impress on it coloured figures by the action of light. He exhibited a piece of paper so prepared, which, at present, had no form or (Selected and abridged from the Franklin Journal.] picture impressed on it, but which was so METHOD OF WETTING FLANNELS prepared, that, by holding it in strong light, OTHER CLOTHS PREVIOUS TO SCOURING a red picture would become developed upon OR MILLING; Joseph W. Hale.--A colanit. He wished much he could prevail on der, pierced with numerous small holes, is Sir W. Hamilton to explain to the meeting attached to a reservoir, or tank, of water, by a metaphysical conception, which he had means of a pipe, the orifice of which is redisclosed to him, and which seemed to him, gulated by a valve, to which a cord is at. though darkly, he owned, to shadow forth a tached, having a weight at its opposite end, possible explanation of many difficulties. for the purpose of keeping the valve opened Sir W. Hamilton said, that, appealed to by when desired. A roller is placed at one end Sir J. Herschel in this manner, he could not of the frame, and two at the other end, and avoid placing before the meeting the theory the cloth, in going from the single roller to alluded to, however imperfect and obscure. the double set, by which it is drawn through He then explained it; but we regret our in regularly, passes under the colander, and ability to express it adequately. It appeared receives the spray from it. to depend on the conception of points, abso IMPROVEMENT IN THE JOINTS OF SPEClutely fixed in space, and endowed with cer TACLE FRAMES; Thomas Eltonhead." It tain properties and powers of transmission, has heretofore been the practice, in forming according to determined laws.-Professor the frames of spectacles of metal, to divide M Cullagh had indulged in speculations al the end-pieces, which are soldered to the lied to, and, as he conceived, involving this rims containing the glasses, into two parts, very conception of Sir W. Hamilton, and and to connect these two parts together by had even followed out some of its conse means of a screw. The joint-pin has been quences, by reducing it to a mathematical affixed to one of these parts, and the side, or form--the conception was of double points, temple pieces, have had the tubes through or poles, transmitting powers—but he had which the joint-pin passes soldered to them. abandoned it as a mere speculation.—Sir D. In my improved construction, I make the Brewster thought these speculations tended end-pieces solid, instead of dividing them to repress experimental research, and to turn into two parts, and into this solid piece I men's minds from what was solid to what file a notch, to receive the end of the temple was fanciful. He conceived, also, that in piece, which is to be adapted thereto, and a dulgence in them, and mere abstract mathe. hole drilled through for receiving the jointmatical research, by rendering men averse pin.” from the more humble and laborious pur. ROTARY STEAM ENGINE ; Isaac N. Whit. soits of experiment, absolutely produced a tlesay. “The general construction of my distaste for these subjects; and to this he improved engine," the patentee says, “ is attributed the fact that, while learned socie. similar to that of some others which have ties frequently overlooked, and even refused been heretofore constructed, but I have made to publish in their Transactions experimental such improvements thereon as are intended papers, the transcendental flights were always and calculated to obviate some of the diffi. sure to find a welcome place.—Sir J. Her. culties which have been experienced in its schel considered that there could be no true action. The principal of these improvements philosophy, without a certain degree of bold. consist in the employment of the steam to ness in guessing; and such guessing, or open and close the sliding valves, and in the hypothesis, was always necessary in the early arrangement of some of the other parts by stages of philosophy, before a theory has be which its action is governed." come an established certainty; and these Within a hollow case, of the usual conbold guesses, in their proper places, he con struction, “revolves a drum, which carries ceived, should be encouraged, and not re two valves, to be operated by the action of pressed. Sir W. Hamilton's conception he the steam, which action causes the said inner thought perfectly clear in its metaphysics, drum, with its shaft, to revolve in the ordiand should not be thrown overboard, merely nary way. The valves, which are connected because it was metaphysical. The President together by a rod, slide into recesses made
for them in the drum, which is hollow to. above; we have no doubt that this machine wards the shaft, for the reception of a disk, will be equally good with some of the preattached to one of the heads of the outer viously patented feather-dressers, which have drum. This disk is at some distance from had their day, and are almost forgotten. the head plate to which it is attached, and IMPROVEMENTS IN LAMPS FOR BURNING the space between them is divided by a par CHEMICAL MIXTURES, OR COMPOSITIONS tition, so as to divide the induction from the
ALCOHOL, SPIRITS TURPENTINE, eduction pipes. The steam introduced &c.; Benjamin F. Greenough.The claims through the induction pipe passes into the express the character of the improvements hollow space of the inner drum, acts against sufficiently to enable any one acquainted the inner end of one of the valves, which is with the construction of lamps to understand thus forced out, and then passes through a them. They are as follows: hole by the side of the valve into the steam “ Having described my invention, I shall chamber, and impels the valve and inner claim-first, the placing of a shoulder on the drum by its reaction on a stop attached to rod by which the button is supported, said the inner periphery of the outer drum. The shoulder being so constructed as to set openings which admit the steam into, and loosely on, and adapting the button to a allow it to escape from, the drum, must be projection on said shoulder in a similar so regulated as to correspond with the posi. manner, by means of which combined artion of the stop. The steam may be made rangement the rapid oxidation of the disk, to enter the space between the two drums on (which is made of platina,) is prevented, as either side of the valves by a shifting plate, described. Second, guiding the adjustingwhich opens an aperture on one side as it rod of the button, by passing the same closes the one on the other side, so that by through a tube, whose lower end is attached shifting this plate, the motion of the engine to the bottom of the oil-cup, or otherwise may be reversed.
similarly arranged, the said tube extending The claim is confined to the manner of upwards into and through the central part protruding the valves by the elastic force of the interior of the burner, the whole being of the steam, acting behind them; and also for the purpose of permitting an uninterto the manner of reversing the motion of the rupted current of air to act on the inner engine by shifting the plate.
surface of the flame. Third, the combinaMACHINE FOR CLEANING AND DRYING tion of an adjusting cone, (applied to the exFEATHERS; Nathaniel L. Manning. The terior tube of the burner by a circular spring, patentee says: “I claim as my invention or other contrivance substantially the same, the mode berein described of drying and by which its altitude is regulated,) with the cleansing feathers, by means of carbonic acid adjusting button, or one whose elevation may gas, hot air, and other products of the com be varied at pleasure ; the whole being arbustion of charcoal, or other suitable fuel, ranged substantially in the manner and for introduced among the feathers during the the purpose described. Lastly, I claim a process of whipping and separating them cone constructed with an extended cylindrical from each other, in the manner described. base, having a series of radial holes through Second, I claim whipping and separating the the circumference of the same, and made so feathers from each other, by means of bows as to be adjusted in height on the exterior and sails applied to a revolving shaft, which tube of the burner by means of a circular shaft shall remain in one position, while re shelf and spring, in combination with a volving, and the feathers be brought under moveable button, whose rod is supported the action of the same, in the box in which and guided by a tube connected with the said shaft revolves, in any convenient man oil-cup, and whose elevation can be reguner, or said shaft may be moved over the lated by a screw, or other suitable contrivmass of feathers, and back and forth through ance, the whole being construrted and arout the box, by means of a band and pulley, ranged for the purpose and in the manner or a chain belt and cogged pinion. Third, described." I claim closing the elongated slots, or aper A NEW MODE OF PRODUCING A BLACK tures, in the sides of the box, so that none COLOUR IN DYEING. John D. Prince. of the feathers may escape, or impede the The common mordant used in dyeing vari. operations of the machinery, as the revolving ous articles of a black colour is, as is well shaft is moved to and fro, by means of a known, an acetate of iron; and the best band lying over the same, and travelling effect of this mordant is obtained when, by over drums, or pulleys, and operated by the the action of the air, a mixture, or comrevolving shaft, as set forth.”
pound, of the protoxide of iron is formed on We deem it unnecessary to add any ex. the substance to be dyed. “I have ascer. planatory remarks, as the alleged improve. tained,” says the patentee, “by repeated ments are sufficiently pointed out in the trials, that the proto-sulphate of iron (cop
The plaintiff offered to bring an action at law, but contended that in the mean time the injunction ought to stand.—The Vice-Chancellor was of opinion that the articles made by the defendants were a clear infringement of the plaintiff's patent, and refused to dissolve the injunction.
peras) may be advantageously substituted for the acetate of iron, as a mordant, by bringing it into that state which shall coerce it to deposit these two ingredients, the protoxide and peroxide of iron, on the goods under treatment. There are various articles which effect this purpose to a certain extent, but that which I found to do so in the most perfect manner, is the arsenious acid (arsenic) mixed, or combined, with the proto-sulphate. The proportions of the two ingredients admit of considerable latitude, but the following has been found to answer well. I dissolve one pound of copper in a gallon of water, and in another gallon of water I dissolve four ounces of white arsenic, and then mix the two solutions, which mixture constitutes my iron liquor. For the purpose of transportation it is desirable to obtain the ingredients from which the solution is to be made, in a dry state ; for this purpose I take copperas, and drive off its water of crystallization by exposing it to heat upon iron, or in any other convenient mode, and to the dried mass I add four ounces of white arsenic for every pound of copperas first taken ; the whole is then reduced to powder, and may be readily converted into iron liquor by adding the proper quantity of water. The tendency of the protoxide, in copperas, is to pass too rapidly and completely into the state of peroxide, by which the object of obtaining a good black colour is defeated, an injurious brown tint being produced. The arsenious acid has the property of preventing the peroxidation, and of inducing that state of mixed oxide upon which the perfection of the black is dependant; and this combination of arsenious acid, and its application to the purpose of producing a black colour are, as I believe, entirely new."
PIRACY OF DESIGNS.
August 6. Mr. Johnson, of Bow-lane, agent to Messrs. Pratt and Son, carpet manufacturers, Barnardcastle, attended before Mr. Alderman T. Wood and Mr. Alderman Farebrother, to answer a complaint lodged against him for selling a carpet whereon had been used a part of a design which had been registered as copyright, knowing that the proprietor thereof had not consented to such use of his design. Mr. Jones, a solicitor, attended on behalf of the defendant.
Mr. Clarkson opened the case on the part of the complainant, Messrs. Kipling, of Darlington, carpet manufacturers. The complaint was laid under the 2d Victoria, c. 17, to secure to proprietors of designs for articles of manufacture the copyright of such designs for a limited time. The first clause gives the proprietor a right to the sole use of his design for one year from the day of registration. Then the proprietor is entitled to sell and convey his right to another person, and a penalty not exceeding 301. is attached to pirating a registered design, or selling any article whereon the whole or any original part of a design has been copied. The proprietor of a registered design is bound to aftix to every article sold a notice that he is the owner thereof, with number and date of registration. The seventh clause is a very sweeping one, declaring that the production of the registrar's certificate shall be evidence, in the absence of proof to the contrary, of the design being duly registered, of the proprietor thereof, of its originality, and the commenceinent of the period of registry. Mr. Rothery, the town agent of Messrs. Kipling, would give evidence that their design had been copied pretty closely as to the appearance of the whole pattern, though, in fact, there was a deviation by extending a little a scroll in the border, and in two other places altering a flower into a square. Mr. Clarkson exhibited two lengths--one the registered pattern, the other the defendant's imitation. He observed that the peculiar fabric, a sort of Venetian, as to the mode of weaving the cloth, while it had the richness of colour and style of the Brussels, was also copied, so that seeing the two apart the public generally would take one for the other.
Alderman Wood observed that it would be convenient to the magistrates to understand clearly the case and the nature of the answer to it, before they went into evidenre, as it was the first case of the kind. There was no appeal, and if it were desirable that the matter should go before a superior court, it would be better that the magistrates should refuse to hear the evidence, and then the question could be raised before the judges by moving for a mandamus to compel the justices to hear the charge. He and Mr. Alderman Farebrother would feel great reluctance in deciding, as there was no appeal, unless they saw their way clearly. Was Mr. Clarkson calling upon them to decide what amount of varia: tion might be allowed!
It was then explained by Mr. Jones that their answer was that the design was not original, and was not protected by the registration. It was made up of parts which had long been known, and by re
INFRINGEMENT OF PATENT RIGHT, Before the Vice Chancellor of England.
July 30, 1842. Rodgers v. Stocker and others. The plaintiff, Mr. John Henry Rodgers, of Birmingham, obtained letters patent, May 13, 1839, for “certain improvements in clasps or fastenings, principally applicable to certain articles of dress," which he alleges have been pirated by the defendants. Hay. ing obtained the usual injunction ex parte, the case now came before the Court on a Dotion by the defendants to dissolve the injunction. It appeared that the defendants bad a licence to manufacture hooks and eyes, from Messrs. Barnett and Armfield, who were possessed of a patent granted July 10, 1840, subsequently to the date of the plain