Introduction to Chemical Physics: Designed for the Use of Academies, High Schools, and Colleges. Illus. with Numerous Engravings, and Containing Copious Lists of Experiments with Directions for Preparing Them

Cover
D. Van Nostrand, 1873 - 550 Seiten
 

Was andere dazu sagen - Rezension schreiben

Es wurden keine Rezensionen gefunden.

Inhalt

Chemistry explains Respiration
11
Chemistry explains the extraction of Metals
12
Importance of Chemistry 13 24 Chemistry exhibits striking proofs of Design
13
Cheinistry depends upon the Balance
14
Apparatus required in Chernistry
15
Simple and Coinpound substances distinguished
16
The number of the Elements
17
Chemical Affinity defined
18
The active Agents of Chemistry
19
The Chemical AgentsHeat Light Electricity why called
20
The study of Chemistry begins with the Chemical Agents
21
CHAPTER II
22
Heat present in all bodies
23
Heat the repulsive principle of Matter 42 Heat tends to an Equilibrium
24
Three modes in which Heat seeks an Equilibriu
25
First mode Conduction
26
Density favorable to Conduction
27
Porous bodies bad conductors
29
Illustrations of Conduction
30
Applications in the Arts
31
PAR PAGв 58 The second mode of diffusion Convection
37
Convection in Gases 61 Illustrations of Convection
38
What makes heated Water and Air ascend
40
The ascension of heated Liquids and Gases illustrated
41
The third mode of diffusionRadiation
42
Radiant Heat follows the same laws as Radiant Light
43
Nature of surface affects the rate of Radiation 433
45
Radiation takes place from points beneath the surface
46
The radiation of the Earth 47 70 The radiation of the Earth 71 The theory of Radiation
48
The Law of the reflection of Heat 74 Concave Mirrors
49
Experiments with two Concave Mirrors
50
The different reflecting powers of different substances
52
The apparent radiation and reflection of Cold
53
Animals and Plants protected by nonconducting coverings
54
The reflection of Heat by Fireplaces
55
The absorption of Radiant Heat
56
The absorption of Hoat affected by Color
57
Transmission of Heat depends upon the source from which it proceeds
58
Transmission of Heat from different sources of equal intensity different for the same substance
59
Transmission of Radiant Heat from the same source different for diferent substancesDiathermancy
61
Diathermancy not proportioned to Transparency
62
The diathermancy of Liquids 644
64
The diathermancy of Gases
65
Diathermancy explained on the supposition that there are differ ent kinds of Heat
66
The different kinds of Heat separated from each other
69
Different kinds of Heat emitted by different sources of Heat
70
The double refraction and polarization of Heat
75
99
76
100
79
101
80
The expansion of Metals
82
Metallic instruments injured by Expansion
88
The expansion of Air the cause of the dranght of chimneys
95
Water expands in freezing
98
Illustrations of this Force in Nature
99
Other substances also expand in Solidifying 127 The Thermometer
100
The Air Thermometer
101
The Differential Thermometer
102
The Mercurial Thermonie er 131 Construction of the Therinometer
104
Fahrenheits Scale
105
Other Thermometric Scales
106
Different forms of the Thermometer 135 Register Thermometers
108
Metallic Thermometers
109
Pyrometer
110
Effects of HeatLiquefaction 138 Heat of Composition
112
Liquefaction produced by Heatmelting point
113
The amount of Heat absorbed during the melting of Ice
114
The amount of Heat thus absorbed shown by experiment
115
Solids cannot be heated above their point of fusion until the whole of the solid is melted
116
The Heat absorbed in Liquefaction is given out in solidification
117
Liquefaction always produces a reduction of Temperature
118
Freezing Mixtures
119
Salts and Acids dissolved in Water lower the freezing point
120
Two substances mixed often melt at a lower temperature than either separatelyFluxes
121
Important effects of this exception
122
The beneficial effects of this Constitution
124
EXPERIMENTS EFFECTS OF HEATLIQUEFAction125
125
Effects of HeatLballition 155 Vaporization
126
The physical properties of Vajors
127
Absorption of Heat in Ebullition
128
The heat absorbed in Vaporization given out again in Condensa tion
129
The amount of Heat absorbed not the same for all Vapors
130
The Boiling point variableinfluenced by atmospheric pressure
131
Wollastons Hypsometer
133
Solids dissolved in a Liquid elevate its boiling point
134
Elevation of the boiling point indicates increase of pressure 155
135
Explosion of Boilers
151
The Boilers of Locomotives
152
3
153
Steam may be used expansively 155 186 The expansive power of Steam increases with its Temperature
155
No economy of fuel in boiling Water at a low Temperature
156
No economy in using Liquids which boil at a lower Temperature than Water
158
Papins Digester
159
The Spheroidal state
160
The Spheroidal state explains the explosions of Boilers 193 Distillation
164
Uses of Distillation
166
EXPERIMENTS EFFECTS OF HEAT EBULLITION167 168
167
Effects of HeatEvaporation
169
The amount of Vapor formed and its elasticity proportioned to Temperature
170
These trutis illustrated by Experiment
171
The rapidity of Evaporation varies with the pressure In a vacuum it is instantancous
172
The amount of Evaporation of different Liquids in a vacuum at the same Temperature is unequal
173
The elastic force of Vapor in a confined space does not vary with pressure but with Temperature
174
The elastic force of Vapor in two connecting vessels cannot rise above the elastic force proper to the colder vessel
177
The rate of Evaporation of different Liquids in Air is unequal
179
The presence of Vapor in Air affects its bulk and density
180
The circumstances which influence Evaporation
181
Removal of Atmospheric Pressure hastens Evaporation and in creases Cold
183
Cause of the Cold produced by Evaporation 18+ 210 The Cryophorus
184
The Pulse Glass
186
Effect of Evaporation on Climate
187
Constitution of Gasesdifference between Vapors and Gases
194
226 Natterers process for liquefying gases improved by Ritchie
200
The pressure exerted by liquefied gases
207
Specific Heat determined by rate of cooling
213
Regnaults determination of the Specific Heat of Gases
219
The distribution of temperature in the atmosphere explained
226
The Sources of Heat
232
Heat not the sole cause of Motion while Motion is the sole
240
The convertibility of the Forces and their indestructibility
244
The reflection of Light
250
The number of vibrations required to produce the different col
256
The spectra produced by Artificial light and colored flames
262
The Spectroscope 2 8
268
The dark lines of the Solar Spectrum explained
272
The effects of Solar Light on Chemical compounds
279
Practical importance of distinguishing between the Illuminating
285
The sources of Electricity
291
The intervention of solid matter no obstacle to Induction
297
Mode of charging the Leyden Jar
304
Galvanic Electricity
311
Proof that Chemical decomposition is the source of Galvanic
317
Proof that a state of electrical Tension exists in the plates before
323
The Galvanic Battery
329
Batteries of Intensity and Batteries of Quantity
330
Bunsens Battery
336
Heating effects of the Galvanic current
343
The decomposition of Water by the Battery
349
Secondary decomposition
355
The protection of the Copper sheathing of ships
366
The induction of Magnetism
372
The successive action of the same current on different vessels
375
Molecular movements during the magnetization of bars
378
401
380
The Magnetic Telegraph
387
The Telegraphic manipulator and Morses alphabet
391
Caillauds Battery
397
The Atlantic Telegraph Cable
403
Application of Electromagnetisın to the production of Motion
409
Electric Gaslighting
420
The inductive effect of the Primary current often takes place
427
Induction of a Secondary current in the primary wire itself
433
Magneto electric Induction
439
History of the discovery of Magnetoelectricity
442
The magnetism of the Earth induces secondary currents of Elec
448
Ruhmkorffs Coil for inducing secondary electrical currents
454
The management of Ruhmkorffs Coil
462
The Light intermittent and affected by the Magnet
470
Conversion of Carbon into the Diamond by the long continued
477
Pages Magnetoelectric Machine
483
Wildes Magnetoelectric Machine 469 Improvements of 49
495
Points of resemblance between the electricity of the Machine
502
Progress of discovery in the induction of electricity and
508
Thermomultiplier of Melloni
514
Various sources of Electricity and its relations to the other
522
The convertibility and equivalency of Forces true of all
528
EXPERIMENTS ON GALVANIC ELECTRICITY ELECTROMAGNETISM
543
Liquids poor conductors
547
This peculiar constitution of water proved by experiment 07
7
The Gases poor conductors 34
34
The conducting power of different Gases different 36
36

Andere Ausgaben - Alle anzeigen

Häufige Begriffe und Wortgruppen

Beliebte Passagen

Seite 466 - The effect of a current going through the coil of wire is to turn the coil in one direction or the other according to the direction of the current...
Seite 550 - THE THEORY OF STRAINS IN GIRDERS —and Similar Structures— with Observations on the Application of Theory to Practice, and Tables of Strength and other Properties of Materials.
Seite 34 - BLAKE, WP Report upon the Precious Metals. Being Statistical Notices of the Principal Gold and Silver producing regions of the world, represented at the Paris Universal Exposition. 8vo, cloth $2.00 BLAKESLEY, TH Alternating Currents of Electricity.
Seite 17 - ... in disclosing the relative weights of the ultimate atoms of matter. Thus an atom of oxygen uniting with an atom of hydrogen forms the compound water ; but as every drop of water however small consists of eight parts by weight of oxygen and one part by weight of hydrogen, it follows that an atom of oxygen is eight times heavier than an atom of hydrogen.
Seite 35 - Paper. 25 cents. MONTANA AS IT IS. Being a general description of its Resources, both Mineral and Agricultural ; including a complete description of the face of the country, its climate, etc. Illustrated with a Map of the Territory, showing the different Roads and the location of the different Mining Districts.
Seite 34 - CLEVENGER (SR). A Treatise on the Method of Government Surveying as prescribed by the US Congress and Commissioner of the General Land Office, with complete Mathematical, Astronomical and Practical Instructions for the use of the United States Surveyors in the field.
Seite 424 - ... made when the inductive effect was required ; but as the particular action might be supposed to be exerted only at the moments of making and breaking contact, the induction was produced in another way. Several feet of copper wire were stretched in wide zigzag forms, representing the letter W, on one surface of a broad board ; a second wire was stretched in precisely similar forms on a second board, so that when brought near the first, the wires should everywhere touch, except that a sheet of...
Seite 519 - What do you say to the light of the sun?" "How can that be?" asked the doctor. " It is nothing else," said the engineer; "it is light bottled up in the earth for tens of thousands of years — light, absorbed by plants and vegetables, being necessary for the condensation of carbon during the process of their growth, if it be not carbon in another form — and now, after being buried in the earth for long ages in fields of coal, that latent light is again brought forth and liberated, made to work,...
Seite 500 - ... tartaric acid is considered. Tartaric and malic acids are closely related to each other, and both are related to succinic acid, as will appear from the reactions. Malic acid is a solid substance which crystallizes with difficulty. It is very easily soluble in water and in alcohol. 'Its solutions turn ike plane of polarization to the right or to the left, according to the concentration.
Seite 5 - APPLICATION OF THE SLIDE VALVE and Link Motion to Stationary, Portable, Locomotive and Marine Engines. By WILLIAM S.

Bibliografische Informationen