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aware of the difficulty. I found the attention since my arrival have been expence of native teachers would prove Arabic, Persic, Hindostani, Mahratalmost insurmountable to a mere assist- ta, Tamal, Telinga, Canara, Sanscrit, ant surgeon, whose pay is seldom Malayalam, Malay, and Armenian. equal to his absolutely necessary ex. You will be ready to ask where the pences; and, besides, that it was ne- devil I picked up these hard names, but cessary to form a library of MSS. at I assure you it is infinitely more difficult a most terrible expence, in every lan to pick up the languages themselves; guage to which I should apply, if I in. Several of which include dialects as tended to proceed beyond a mere smat. different from each other as French or tering. After much consideration, I de- Italian from Spanish or Portugueze; termined on this plan at all events, and and in all these, I flatter myself, I have was fortunate enough in a few months made considerable progress. What to secure an appointment, which fur- would you say, were I to add the nished me with the means of doing so, Maldivian and Mapella languages to though the tasks and exertions it im- these? Besides, I have decyphered posed on me were a good deal more ar- the inscriptions of Mavalipoorani, duous than the common duties of a sur- which were written in an ancient Cageon even in a Mahratta campaign. nara character, which had hitherto deI was appointed medical assistant to fied all attempts at understanding it, the Mysore survey, and at the same and also several Lada Lippi inscriptime directed to carry on enquiries tions, which is an ancient Tamal dia. concerning the natural history of the lect and character, in addition to the country, and the manners and langua- Jewish tablets of Cochin, which were ges, &c. of the natives of Mysore. in the ancient Malayalam, generally This, you would imagine, was the very termed Malabar. I enter into these situation I wished for, and so it would, details merely to show you that I have had I previously had time to acquire not been idle, and that my time has neithe country languages. But I had ther been dissipated, nor devoid of plan, them now to acquire after severe mar- though that plan is not sufficiently un. ches and counter-marches in the heat folded. To what I have told you of, of the sun, night-marches and day- you are to add constant and necessary marches, and amid the disgusting de exposure to the sun, damps and dews tails of a field hospital, the duties of from the jungles, and putrid exhalawhich were considerably arduous. tions of marshes; before I had been However, I wrought incessantly and properly accustomed to the climate, steadily, and without being discoura- constant rambling in the haunts of ti. ged by any kind of difficulty, till my gers, leopards, bears, and serpents of health absolutely gave way, and when 30 or 40 feet long, that make nothing I could keep the field no longer, I of swallowing a buffalo, by way of dewrought on my couch, as I generally monstrating their appetite, in a morndo still, though I am much better than ing, together with smaller and more I have been. As I had the assistance dangerous snakes, whose haunts are of no intelligent Europeans, I was dangerous, and bite deadly; and you obliged long to grope my way; but I have a faint idea of a situation, in which, have now acquired a pretty correct with health, I lived as happy as the idea of India in all its departments, day was long. It was occasionally diwhich increases in geometrical progres- versified with rapid jaunts of a hundred sion as I advance in the languages. miles or so, as fast as horses or bearers The languages that have attracted my could carry me, by night or day, swim. ming through rivers, afloat in an old to commend mekindly to your goodmo. brass kettle, at midnight! 0 I could therly mother, and tell her I wish I saw tell you adventures tooutrival the witch her oftener, and then to your brother of Endor, or any witch that ever swam Alexander, and request him sometimes, in egg-shell or sieve ; but you would on a Saturday night, precisely at eight undoubtedly imagine I wanted to im- o'clock, for my sake, to play “ Gingpose on you were I to relate what I ling Johnnie" on his flageolet. If I have seen and passed through. No! I had you both in my tent, you should certainly shall never repent of having drink yourself drunk with wine of Shi. come to India. It has awakened ener, raz, which is our eastern Falernian, in gies in me that I scarcely imagined I honour of Hafez, our Persian Anacrepossessed, though I could gnaw my li- on. As for me, I often drink your ving nails with pure vexation to think health in water, (ohon a ree!) having how much I have been thwarted by long abandoned both wine and animal indisposition. If, however, I get over food, not from choice, but dire necesit, I shall think the better of my con- sity.--Adieu, dear Ballantyne, and bestitution as long as I live. It is not lieve me, in the Malay isle, to be ever every constitution that can resist the yours sincerely, John LEYDEN." combined attack ofliver, spleen, bloody flux, and jungle fever, which is very Leyden became soon reconciled to much akin to the plague of Egypt, and Puloo Penang, (or Prince of Wales yellow fever of America. It is true island) where he found many valuable I have been five times given up by the friends, and enjoyed the regard of the most skilful physicians in these parts ; late Philip Dundas, Esq. then goverbut in spite of that, I am firmly con. nor of the island. He resided in that vinced that “my doom is not to die this island for some time, and visited Achi, day,'' and that you shall see me emerge with some other places on the coasts from this tribulation like gold purified of Sumatra, and the Malayan peninsuby the fire ; and when that happens, la. Here he amassed the curious inforegad I may boast that I have been mation concerning the language, literefined by the very same menstruum rature, and descent of the Indi-Chi-too, even the universal solvent mercu- nese tribes, which afterwards enabled ry, which is almost the only cure for him to lay before the Asiatic society the liver, though I have been obliged to at Calcutta a most valuable dissertation -try another, and make an issue in my on so obscure a subject. Yet that his right side. Now. pray, my dear Bal- heart was sad, and his spirits depresslantyne, if. this ever comes to hand, in- ed, is evident from the following lines, stantly sit down, and write me a letter written for new-year's-day, 1806, and a mile long, and tell me of all our com- which appeared in the Government mon friends, and if you see any of them Gazette of Prince of Wales' Island. that have the least spark of friendly recollection, assure them how vexatious Malaya's woods and mountains ring their silence is, and how very unjust, if With voices strange and sad to hear,

And dark unbodied spirits sing they have received my letters; and,

* The dirge of the departed year. lest I should forget, I shall add, that

Lo! now, methinks, in tones sublime, you must direct to me, to the care of

As viewless o'er our heads they bend, Messrs Binnie and Dennison, Madras, "They whisper, “ Thus we steal your time, who are myagents, and generally know weak mortals, till your days shall end." in what part of this hemisphere I am Then wake the dance, and wake the song, to be found. But, particularly, you are Resound the festive mirth and glee;

Alas! the days have passed along,

Dr Leyden. I only know that he rose, The days we never more shall see,

by the power of native genius, from the But let me brush the nightly dews,

humblest origin to a very distinguishBeside the shell-depainted shore,

ed rank in the literary world. His And mid the sea-weed sit to muse,

studies included almost every branch On days that shall return no more.

of human science, and he was alike ar. Olivia, ah! forgive the bard,

dent in the pursuit of all. The greatIf sprightly strains alone are dear; His notes are sad, for he has heard

est power of his mind was perhaps The footsteps of the parting year. shewn in his acquisition of modern and Mid friends of youth beloved in vain, ancient languages. He exhibited an

Oft have I hailed the jocund day; unexampled facility, not merely in acIf pleasure brought a thought of pain,

quiring them, but in tracing their af. I charmed it with a passing lay.

finity and connection with each other, Friends of my youth for ever dear,

and from that talent, combined with Where are you from this bosom fled ?

his taste and general knowledge, we A lonely man í linger here, Like one that has been long time dead.

had a right to expect, from what he Foredoomed to seek an early tomb,

did in a very few years, that he would, · For whom the pallid grave-flowers blow, if he had lived, have thrown the greatest I hasten on my destined doom,

light upon the more abstruse parts of And sternly mock at joy or woe! the history of the East. In this curi

ous but intricate and rugged path we In 1806, he took leave of Penang,

cannot hope to see his equal... regretted by many friends, whom his ec

“ Dr Leyden had from his earliest centricities amused, his talents enlight

years cultivated the muses with a sucened, and his virtues conciliated. His cess, which will make many regret that reception at Calcutta, and the effect

poetry did not occupy a larger portion which he produced upon society there, of his time. The first of his essays are so admirably illustrated by his inge. which appeared in a separate form was nious and well-known countryman, Ge- " The Scenes of Infancy,” a descripneral Sir John Malcolm, that it would tive poem, in which he sung, in no unbe impossible to present a more living pleasing strains, the charms of his na. picture of his manners and mind, and tive mountains and streams in Teviote the reader will pardon some repetition dale. He contributed several small for the sake of observing how the pieces to that collection of poems call. same individual was regarded in two ed the Minstrelsy of the Scottish Bor. distant hemispheres.

der, which he published with his cele

brated friend Walter Scott. Among TO THE EDITOR OF THE BOMBAY these the Mermaid is certainly the most COURIER.

beautiful. In it he has shown all the “Sir, I inclose some lines, * which creative fancy of a real genius. His have no value but what they derive from Ode on the Death of Nelson is undoubt. the subject : they are an unworthy, but edly the best of those poetical effusincere, tribute toone whom I have long sions that he has published since he regarded with sentiments of esteem and came to India. The following aposaffection, and whose loss I regret with trophe to the blood of that hero, has the most unfeigned sorrow. It will re- a sublimity of thought, and happiness main with those who are better qualified of expression, which never could have than I am, todo justice to the memory of been attained but by a true poet:

* General Malcolm's elegant and affectionate tribute to the memory of his friend 'is to be found in the Poctical Department,

So Blood of the brave, thou art not lost, tive in private life to the duties of mo Amid the waste of waters blue,

rality and religion, The tide that rolls to Albion's coast,

" It is not easy to convey an idea of Shall proudly boast its sanguine hue:

the method which Dr Leyden used in And thou shalt be the vernal dew To foster valour's daring seeds;

his studies, or to describe the unconThe generous plant shall still its stock re querable ardour with which these were new,

pursued. During his early residence And hosts of heroes rise when one shall in India, I had a particular opportubleed.'

nity of observing both. When he read “Itis pleasing to find him, on whomna- a lesson in Persian, a person near him, ture has bestowed eminent genius, pos- whom he had taught, wrote down each sessed of those more essentialand intrin word on a long slip of paper, which sic qualities which give the truest ex was afterwards divided into as many cellence to the human character. The pieces as there were words, and pasted manners of Dr Leyden were uncourt. in alphabetical order, under different ly, more perhaps from his detestation heads of verbs, nouns, &c. into a blank of the vices too generally attendant book that formed a vocabulary of each on refinement, and a wish (indulged to day's lesson. All this he had in a few excess from his youth) to keep at à hours instructed a very ignorant na. marked distance from them, than from tive to do; and this man he used, in any ignorance of the rules of good his broad accent, to call “ one of his breeding. He was fond of talking, mechanical aids.” He was so ill at his voice was loud, and had little or no Mysore, soon after his arrivalfrom Eng. modulation, and he spoke in the pro- land, that Mr Anderson, the surgeon vincial dialect of his native country; it who attended him, despaired of his cannot be surprising, therefore, that life; but though all his friends endea. even his information and knowledge, voured at this period to prevail upon when se conveyed, should be felt by a him to relax in his application to study, number of his hearers as unpleasant, if it was in vain. He used, when unable not oppressive. But with all these dis- to sit upright, to prop himself up with advantages (and they were great) the pillows, and continue his translations. admiration and esteem in which he was One day that I was sitting by his bedalways held by those who could appre- side the surgeon came in.-" I am glad ciate his qualities, became general you are here,” said Mr Anderson, ad. wherever he was long known; they dressing himself to me, “ you will be even who could not understand the va- able to persuade Leyden to attend to lue of his knowledge, loved his virtues. my advice. I have told him before, Though he was distinguished by his and now I repeat, that he will die if he love of liberty, and almost haughty in- does not leave off his studies and re. dependence, his ardent feelings, and main quiet." " Very well, doctor," proud genius, never led him into any exclaimed Leyden, “ you have done licentious or extravagant speculation your duty, but you must now hear me: on political subjects. He never soli- I cannot be idle, and whether I die or cited favour, but he was raised by the live, the wheel must go round till the liberal discernment of his noble friend last;' and he actually continued, under and patron Lord Minto, to situations the depression of a fever and a liver that afforded him an opportunity of complaint, to study more than ten showing that he was as scrupulous and hours each day. as inflexibly virtuous in the discharge “The temper of Dr Leyden was mild of his public duties, as he was atten- and generous, and he could hear with perfect good humour, raillery on his sage which described the condact of toibles. When he arrived at Calcutta our volunteers on a fire being kindled in 1805, I was most solicitous regard. by mistake at one of the beacons. This ing his reception in the society of the letter mentioned that the moment the Indian capital. “ I entreat you, my blaze, which was the signal of invasion, dear friend, (I said to him the day he was seen, the mountaineers hastened to landed,) to be careful of the impression their rendezvous, and those of Liddesyou make on your entering this com- dale swam the Liddle river to reach munity; for God's sake learn a little it.—They were assembled (though se. English, and be silent upon literary veral of their houses were at a distance subjects, except among literary men.” of six and seven miles) in two hours, “ Learn English !” he exclaimed, “no, and at break of day the party march. never ; it was trying to learn that lan. ed into the town of Hawick (at a dis. guage that spoilt my Scotch ; and as tance of twenty miles from the place to being silent, I will promise to hold of assembly) to the border tune of my tongue, if you will make fools hold “Wha dar meddle wi' me.Leyden's theirs."

countenance became animated as I pro“ His memory was most tenacious, ceeded with this detail, and at its close and he sometimes loaded it with lum. he sprung from his sick-bed, and, with ber. When he was at Mysore, an ar- strange melody, and still stranger ges. gument occurred upon a point of Eng. ticulations, sung aloud, “ Wha dar lish history; it was agreed to refer it meddle wi' me, wha dar meddle wil to Leyden, and to the astonishment of me."-Several of those who witnessed all parties, he repeated verbatim the this scene looked at him as one that whole of an act of parliament in the was raving in the delirium of a fever. reign of James relative to Ireland, which “ These anecdotes will display more decided the point in dispute.- On be- fully than any description I can give, ing asked how he came to charge his the lesser shades of the character of memory with such extraordinary mat- this extraordinary man. An external ter, he said that several years before, manner, certainly not agreeable, and a when he was writing on the changes disposition to egotism, were his only that had taken place in the English defects. How trivial do these appear, language, this act was one of the do- at a moment when we are lamenting cuments to which he had referred as a the loss of such a rare combination of specimen of the style of that age, and virtues, learning, and genius, as were that he had retained every word in his concentrated in the late Dr Leyden! memory.

John MALCOLM." 6. His love of the place of his nativity We have little to add to General was a passion in which he had always Malcolm's luminous and characteristic a pride, and which in India he cherish- sketch. The efficient and active pa. ed with the fondest enthusiasm. I tronage of Lord Minto, himself a man once went to see him when he was very of letters, a poet, and a native of Tivi. ill, and had been confined to his bed otdale, was of the most essential importfor many days; there were several gen- ance to Leyden, and no less honouratlemen in the room; he enquired if I ble to the governor-general. Leyden's had any news ; I told him I had a let. first appointment as a professor in the ier from Eskdale ; and what are they Bengal college might appear the sort of about in the borders ? he asked. A promotion best suited to his studies, but curious circumstance, I replied, is sta. was soon exchanged for that of a judge Led in my letter ; and I read him a pase of the twenty-four Purgunnahs of Cal.

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