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and agreeable picture of the state of Mr Windham, on his return to Enge his mind during this expedition. land, continued to support, by his elo.
quence in parliament, the cause which 6 Berlikom, near Bois le Duc, Sept. he was promoting by his counsels in 12, 1794.
the cabinet ; and on some occasions it 6 We are, as you will have learned appears that the warmth of his feeling from one of my former letters, near betrayed him into expressions of vioBois le Duc, which is rather a large lence which his cooler reason would town, and a strong fortress, belonging scarcely have justified. The politics to the Dutch. About three miles of the day ran high, and there was from this place, are the duke's head hardly a middle course. On both quarters, and at four or five miles fur- sides, all was irritation, jealousy, and ther is the camp. The immediate invective. The enemies of Mr Wind. place of my residence is the village ham did not fail to take every advan. where head-quarters are, and I am tage which the ardour of his temperalodged in the house of a Dutch attor- ment afforded them ; and there was no ney. The country about is light and ambiguous or hasty phrase which drop. sandy, affording very pleasant rides, ped from his lips, that was not immedi. which are not the less so from your ately converted to his injury. Someoccasionally meeting bodies of troops, times, when facts furnished no handle of different dresses, establishments, and for attack, the aid of invention was countries. The variety in this respect called in to supply pretences of abuse. is not so great as it was last year, nor, The most remarkable of all the offen. from a number of circumstances, is the sive phrases ascribed to him, the ex. scene so interesting, after allowing clamation of “ Perish commerce, let even for the difference of its not being the constitution live," was uttered, not seen, as that was, for the first time. by him, but avowedly by Mr Har. The relief which all this gives, after dinge. The odium of this sentiment confinement, during the summer, to was first charged upon Mr Windham, London, and to such business as that in a pamphlet bearing the signature of the War-office, is more than you can (we believe a fictitious one) of Jasper conceive. It has given me a new stock Wilson ; and, when Mr Windham was of health ; and the beauty of the au- taxed with the offence, he very man. tumn mornings, joined to the general fully affirmed, that, although he had idleness in which one lives, by neces- not in fact employed the obnoxious sity, and therefore, without self-re- expression, yet, if it merely meant, proach, has given me a feeling of that of the two, the constitution of youthful enjoyment, such as I now but the country was a more valuable posrarely know. You cannot conceive session than her mere traffic, it conhow you would like a ride here, with veyed a sentiment which he had no the idea that if you wandered too far, hesitation in adopting, avowing, and and went beyond the outposts, you defending. might be carried off by a French pa. The attention of Mr Windham had trole. It is the enjoyment that George been carefully bent upon the warwhich Faulknor was supposed to describe, of the French royalists were maintaining a scene near Dublin, where “the de« in La Vendeé against the powers of lighted spectator expects every mo- the new republic. Upon the effectual ment to be crushed by the impending support of those brave soldiers he rocks."
deemed it the policy of this country
to bestow every possible exertion. He tion to Mr Windham. It was his cus conceived that they had been unwisely tom to harangue the populace in the and cruelly neglected ; and he describes market-place, in a course of violent them, in a pamphlet which he publish- invective against the secretary at war, ed after the peace of Amiens, as a and the ministry in general ; and not. body " who, with an army of immense withstanding the precise and affected force in point of numbers, perfect in sententiousness of his style, and the the mode of its composition, animated impurity and vulgarity of his propunby the most heroic courage, headed ciation, he obtained, by the mere inby officers of great ability and expea temperance of his zeal, some attention, rience, but still weak to a great degree even from persons, whose knowledge by the extreme deficiency and total and education ought to have deterred want of all the ordinary means of war, them from lending their countenance were left to prosecute, as well as they · to so low and ignorant a strain of de. could, the desperate and unequal con- clamation. test in which they were engaged, dis. The following year inflicted a heavy owned and abandoned by all the world. blow upon Mr Windham, in closing Yet in this situation they did not de- the life of his illustrious and beloved spair ; it was not in their nature to do friend Mr Burke. This loss he deeply
deplored. “I do not reckon it,'s The extent of the powers which the (says he to his nephew, Captain Lu. royalists possessed, seems to have come kin, in a letter, dated 16th November, too late to the knowledge of the Bri. 1797) « among the least calamities of tish government. Mr Windham was the times,certainly not among those firmly of opinion, that, if the tide had that affect me the least, that the world been taken at the flood, the family of has now lost Mr Burke. Oh how Bourbon might have been restored to much may we rue that his counsela the throne of their ancestors; and he were not followed! Oh how exactly was in hopes that, even on his acces. do we see verified all that he has presion to the ministry, the time was not dicted !” quite gone by, for a useful and ener. On the 10th of July, in the follow. getic effort in behalf of the gallant ining year, Mr Windham married Cecilia, surgents. By his advice, in July, 1795, daughter of the late Admiral Arthur an expedition, composed of emigrants, Forrest, an officer of distinguished gal. set sail for the bay of Quiberon ; but lantry and high reputation. We have the plan was wholly unsuccessful, The related one event of his life, in which responsibility of this failure he uni- his affections were lamentably blight. formly took upon himself; and it was, ed ; and we ought not to omit, that: no doubt, a responsibility of oppres, some years before his marriage with sive magnitude.
Miss Forrest, he had had a second at-, Parliament was again dissolved in tachment. A lady residing in or near 1796 ; and Mr Windham, after a se- the county of Oxford, had attracted vere contest against Mr Bartlett Gur- his attention, and, after ascertaining ney, was re-elected for the city of her worth, he made her an offer. She Norwich. The lecturer Thelwall, was greatly agitated by the proposal ; a person of considerable energy and for she was herself-attached to a genegregious conceit, but of little talent, tleman intended for the church, whose made himself extremely conspicuous small fortune gave her reason to appre-. throughout this contest, in his opposi- hend, that, if Mr Windham's offer
should be communicated to her parents, His domestic comforts, however, dict their whole authority would be exert. not withdraw him from his public ed in forcing her to relinquish her lo. duty. He laboured diligently in his ver. Under these circumstances, she office, as well as in parliament, and resolved to throw herself upon Mr effected many regulations, by which Windham's generosity, by entrusting the army was essentially benefited. him with the secret of her heart. She He afforded additional facilities to the judged most wisely ; Mr Windham not families of soldiers serving abroad for only forbore to urge his suit, but pro. the acquisition of intelligence respectmised his interest in procuring some ing them; and abolished the fee which preferment for the more fortunate lo- had been customary upon such enquiver. The lady was happily united to ries. He increased the pay of subalhim, and Mr Windham, we believe, terns, non-commissioned officers, and had already taken measures to procure privates; and was a principal contrihim a living, when an illness, contract. butor, both by his suggestions and by ed in a charitable visit to a parishion. his exertions, to the establishment of er, carried off this excellent and pious the Royal Military Asylum. man, within a few months after his In these and similar pursuits he cone marriage. We have heard it reported, tinued to employ himself ; till, in the that Mr Windham now renewed his beginning of the year 1801, the differ offer to the widow ; but that she, feel. ences upon the measure of Catholic ing her heart to be for ever buried in Emancipation occasioned the dissolu. the grave of her husband, found it ne- tion of the ministry. He then resigncessary once more to decline the ho. ed his office, and was accompanied, in nour of his hand. Mr Windham, how- his retirement, by Mr Pitt, Lord Grenever, did not relax his exertions in her ville, and Lord Spencer, the Chancelbehalf. The presentation which he lor, and Mr Dundas. " I was only had solicited for her late husband, he reconciled to the union with Ireland," now transferred to another clergyman, says he in one of his speeches, “ upon on the condition of his paying a por. the idea that all disabilities attaching tion of the revenue to the amiable and on the catholics of Ireland were to unfortunate widow.
be removed, and that the whole popu. Such a man deserved to be made lation would be united in interests and happy in marriage, and this happiness affections. Believing this to be the he seems to have uninterruptedly en case, and finding that impediments joyed, in his union with Miss Forrest. were stated to this measure much The amiable qualities and fascinating stronger than I was prepared to apmanners of Mrs Windham, the culti.' prehend, I relinquished the adminis. vation of her mind, the gentleness of tration, because I thought the mea. her demeanour, and the affectionate sure indispensable to the safety of this warmth of her heart, could scarcely empire.” have failed to conciliate and attach'a It had happened, in some instances husband of a much less generous and that the opinion of Mr Windham open temper. It will therefore be rea. had varied from that of his colleagues dily conceived how tenderly her worth in the cabinet ; and it has been frewas appreciated by Mr Windham, a quently made a ground of accusation man himself endowed with taste to ap. against him, that he nevertheless conprove, with affection to cherish, and tinued to co-operate with them in with almost chivalrous gallantry to these instances, and to support in love.
the House of Commons what he had
opposed in the cabinet. Persons who sanction of his individual voice and urge such objections seem to us to take vote in parliament. When he heard the too narrow a view of the duty of a pub- opposition declaiming against plans, lic man; and as a right understanding which he, in common with them, disupon such subjects is indispensable to liked and distrusted, he might at least the formation of a just estimate of Mr have maintained a dignified neutrality. Windham's character,' we shall take We are not of that opinion : for it leave to state, very shortly, what seem will be remembered, that his ground to us the real merits of the case, both of difference from his colleagues was in fact and in conscience.
not so much a hostility to their mea. The opinions of Mr Burke and Mr sures as a preference for others of his Windham ever were, that the legiti own ;-not that he disapproved what mate object of the war was the resto. they did, but that he thought they did ration of the house of Bourbon ; and not do enough : while the opposition, that this object could be accomplished on the contrary, conceived, that every only by a liberal encouragement to the thing was too much, and that the fault exertions of the royalists upon the con- of government consisted, not in doing tinent. The accuracy of these opi- too little, but in doing any thing at all. nions we shall not controvert, although Neutrality, therefore, in a man prothey are not exactly our own; but it fessing Mr Windham's opinions, would is at least quite manifest, that, with have been in manifest violation of that buch sentiments, Mr Windham was clear and salutary maxim in ethics, pledged against every step which should 6 Of two evils chuse the less." tend to an acknowledgement of the But we will venture to go further. new dynasty in France. The war We will venture to say, that a statesmight not seem to him to be carried man, with perfect purity of conscience, on with sufficient attention to those often may and ought to lend his active points; he might and did consider it to support to a measure, which his party be a war of shifts and expedients; a pronounce to be requisite, even though contest for petty and remote objects, he himself entirely disapprove the very rather than for near and vital ones ; principle on which it is grounded ; just but, upon his principles, any war what. as a soldier may execute the order of ever was better than a peace, which, his officeragainst his own private judgewhatever should be its terms, must ir- mentandconviction. Whenamanenters revocably preclude the possibility of into public life, if he has the intention restoring the Bourbons, and might of ever being officially useful to his deluge this country with a flood of country, he must make up his mind to French principles, to stagnate on the enlist himself regularly under the ban. healthy soil, and propagate putrefac- ner of some acknowledged party. It tion and disease. He had no choice is of no avail to object, that party is of parties, but either to adhere to those "the madness of many for the gain of a with whom he was now acting, and few:” nor to urge that party is another whose ends in some degree coincided term for mischievous faction: nor to with his own, or to return to men utter any other of those moral, satiri. whose whole aim was to negociate a cal, or epigrammatical aphorisms, with peace, almost on any terms, and almost which we have been deluged, for these at any hazard.
dozen years, at public meetings and Still, say his enemies, it was unne- in Sunday newspapers While each sessary for him to lend, to the specific house of parliament contains seve, measures which he disapproved, the ral hundred members, a single vote
was this the only question of national most rational opinion we have ever defence on which he differed from met with on the hackneyed topic of the ministers. They had lent the coalitions, will show in how fair a countenance and pecuniary aid of their light an union of this nature was con. government, to those numerous bodies templated by his upright and honour. of patriotic individuals, who, under the able mind. name of volunteers, had associated
« Pall Mall, January 1st, 1804. themselves in arms from one extremity
« All that I can do, is to point out of the island to the other. Mr Wind. ham was of opinion that these self
the odd inconsistency of persons, who, raised regiments, organized as they
while they are declaiming continually were, could be of little real service,
against party, and exhorting people and were sure to occasion enormous
to forget their former differences, and
to unite for the general interest, are expence. He thought it improper to train them after the fashion of regular
ready to fall, with all possible violence, troops, conceiving the usefulness of
upon those who take the first steps in up
obedience to that call. This inconsise such levies to consist only in the light operations of forage, annoyance, and
tency indeed is so obvious, that it hard. ambuscade. He regarded the distri.
Microp ly seems to require being pointed out. bution of rank to volunteer officers as
Do they mean only to say, that you offensive to the regular army, and
ought to unite with those with whom likely, in the hour of invasion, to en
you are already united ? This would danger the country; and he disap
seem to be an exhortation not very ne.
cessary. And if you are to go beyond proved the exemptions granted to vo
that, is the union to be with those with lunteer privates, as tending to withhold them from more valuable descrip
whom, disagreeing formerly, you now tions of service.
agree; or are you to take for your asIn the autumn of this year he be
sociates those with whom you agreed stowed peculiar attention upon the
formerly, but now disagree? The na
ture of the thing seems to admit no defence of the county of Norfolk, attended meetings of the deputy lieu
other choice." , tenants, and personally surveyed a
" January 5th, 1804 considerable district of the coast. "If Mr Fox has either been taught
An opinion soon arose, and rapidly by experience that his system is wrong, gained ground, that the administration, or rather, (putting all change on his which had been competent to a peace, part out of the question, which is the was not competent to a war; and, in truer way,) if, on the questions of the the beginning of March, the three present moment, he thinks as one great opposition parties, commanded would wish him, is one not to co-operespectively by Mr Pitt, Mr Fox, and rate with him, is one not to concert, Lord Grenville, (for whom Mr Wind. to communicate with him, for giving ham was the leader in the House of effect to the opinions thus held in Commons) effected a coalition, by common? Upon what principle of which, in the spring of 1804, the ad. common sense, or of common honesty, ministration of Mr Addington was is this to be refused? Or how is the finally overthrown. The following state ever to be served, or public busiextracts, from two letters which were ness ever to be carried on, if this is written to Mr Amyot in the beginning not the case ? Men who have once of the year by Mr Windham himself, differed upon any great question must and which seem to us to contain the continue to differ for ever; till, in the