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poorer soils, and in less favourable si- preserved. The fine quality of such I tuations, with rough and woody stems, ascertained last autumn, and found the and have many lateral branches, run height of them to average three feet much to seed, are stubborn, and work and a half; they were gathered the less kindly ; they produce lint more latter end of November. The followcoarse, harsh, and thin. In every si. ing are the processes adopted by me. tuation and different soil I have expe
“ After the nettles are gathered rienced the most productive nettles to they should be exposed to the atmobe those which have the smoothest and sphere till they gain some firmness, in most concave tubes, the largest joints, order to prevent the skin from being the fewest leaves, and which produce damaged in the operations of dressing the least quantity of seed.
off the leaves, the lateral branches, and “In gathering them, as they are pe- seeds. This should be done a handful rennial plants, I have preferred the at a time; and afterward they should mode of cutting them down, instead of be sorted, viz. those which are long pulling them up by the roots. This I and fine by themselves ; those which recommend to be the practice, with a are long and coarse by themselves, view to obtain a second crop where the and those which are short and coarse situations will allow of it, and to secure by themselves ; then made up into bunthe propagation of them the subsequent dies as large as can be grasped with year.
both hands, a convenient size for put“ The most favourable time for col. ting them into the water, and taking lecting them is from the beginning of them out ; a place for this purpose beJuly to the end of August, but it may ing previously prepared, either a pond, be continued even to the end of Octo. or a pit free from mud, or a brook or ber, only the lint of those which re. river. The bundles should then be main growing to that time will be less immersed, and placed aslant with the supple, and will not work so freely; root end uppermost, and, to prevent and if the season happens to be unfa- their floating upon the surface, some vourable, it is probable there would weight should be laid upon
them. not be sufficient time to steep and " The time required for steeping grass them, in which case they should them is from five to eight days; but it be dried by the heat of the atmosphere, is better they should remain rather too or if the state of the weather would not long in the water than too short a time, permit of this, then by means of arti- yet great care should be taken that ficial heat; and when dried they should they are not overdone. When the fibre be housed or stacked till the spring, approaches to a pulp, and will easily when they might successfully un- separate from the reed, and the reed dergo the same operation of steeping becomes brittle and assumes a white as those of the first collection. Such appearance, this operation is finished. as grow in grass fields, where the grass 6. The bundles should then be taken is intended for hay, should be cut out singly, very carefully, to avoid dawhen the hay is cut, in order to pre- maging the fibres, and be rinsed as they vent their being spoiled by the cattle are taken out of the water to cleanse when feeding ; the harls of which them from the filth they may have would be fine in quality, and well suit- contracted ; they must then be strew. ed to be wrought up with the second ed very thin upon the grass, and be crop, and which crop may be obtained gently handled. When the surface of after those of the first cutting, where them is become sufficiently dry, and the situation will admit of their being the harl has obtained a degree of firm
VOL. IV, PART II.
ness, they should be turned repeatedly, are used. Another source of productill they are sufficiently grassed ; the tive labour of great magnitude would time required is known only by expe- be derived from a new substance, caprience, so much depends on the state able of being converted into so many of the weather during the process ; beneficial uses, if my speculations when they are sufficiently done, the should be finally accomplished. In harl blisters, and the stems become contemplating these subjects, I was brittle ; they must then be taken up induced to believe the refuse and underand made into bundles, and secured growth might be converted into paper from the weather.
of various sorts, according to the “The harl is now to be separated changes they might be made to under from the reed, afterthe manner practised go from the several operations reces. on flax and hemp, either by manual la- sary to reduce them to a proper state bour or machinery now in use in those for this use ; having frequently obser: manufactories. This operation was ved, with regret, the deterioration in performed in my experiments by hand, the quality of writing and printing and with implements constructed by paper, occasioned by the use of cotton myself, but which I consider too simple rags in the paper manufactory; which here to describe.
evinces itself even to the most super “ The harl being separated from ficial observer, who may only casually the reed, it requires next to be beaten, open many of the modern publications, that it may become more ductile for and which it must be admitted is of the the operation of dressing, which may utmost moment, as it endangers the be performed with such implements preservation of works of literature. Beas are used for dressing flax or hemp. ing convinced of the superior strength
“ This operation being accomplish- of nettle substance, I thought, could ed, the produce of the nettles is arri. my speculations be reduced successved at a state ready for spioning, and fully to practice, it would not only re. may be spun into various qualities of medy this great evil, and operate as an yarn, either by hand, or by machinery antidote to the use of cotton rags in constructed for the purposes of spin- that part of the paper manufactory, ning flax or hemp ; and this yarn may but eventually effect a reduction in the be successfully substituted for the ma. prices of books, which for some years nufacturing every sort of cloth, cord. have been rapidly increasing, and are age, rope, &c. which is usually made now become excessive, to the great obfrom hemp or flax, and is particularly struction of disseminating useful know. calculated for making
twine for fish- ledge among mankind, and contribute ing.nets equal to the Dutch twine im- tothe diminution of our exports in that ported for that purpose, the fibres of material branch of commerce. the nettles being stronger than those « In addition to the above incenof flax, and not so harsh as the fibres tives, the consideration of the high
price of paper, chiefly occasioned, as “In the course of my experiments conclude, from the extravagant price on nettles it often occurred to me, that of linen rags, and impediments to the the refuse, and such parts as were da- procuring a foreign supply of them, maged in different processes with the arising from the circumstances of the undergrowth, might be applied to use. times ; and seeing that the use of linen ful purposes, and in addition to the cloth is in a great measure superseded nettle manufactory, as applicable to by the very general introduction of the purposes for which hemp and flax cloth manufactured from cotton, which
consequently must materially diminish the nettles are first gathered, should the supply of linen rags, and, proba- it, with a view to saving of labour, be bly, in process of time, from the increa- deemed necessary; but the practicasing substitution of cotton cloth for bility of this I leave to the experience linen, linen rags, particularly of the fi- which time may hereafter afford. ner qualities, may be totally annihila- “ My operation of bleaching the ted. Urged by all these considerations, fibres for paper was performed on the which were forcibly impressed on my grass, which I deem preferable to the mind, and feeling assured of the
prac. new mode of bleaching with water imticability of reducing the substance of pregnated with air by means of oxigenettles to a state necessary to the pro- nated muriatic acid gas; because the duction of paper, and confident in the old mode of bleaching on grass weakens superior strength of such paper, if it the strength of the fibre, leaves it more could be manufactured from a sub- flexible, and thereby expedites the mastance so substantial, I was most power- ceration, which in some degree comfully impelled to attempt to reduce to pensates for the time it requires longer practice what in theory I had so warm- than by the chemical process. But for ly cherished. The attempt was ardu- bleaching of yarn or cloth made of ous, not only from an entire want of whatever substance, the chemical proknowledge of the manufactory, and of cess, if scientifically conducted, expethe necessary utensils, but I was desti- rience has convinced me is pre-eminent, tute of any proper implement to en- ly superior, as it gives additional gage in the undertaking with any pro- strength to the yarn, greater firmness bability of success ; hoping however to the texture of the cloth, and is an by perseverance to succeed, I proceed immense saving of time, labour, &c. ed, and found on my first rough trial “ After the lint is bleached it should my expectations realized.
be reduced to a proper length for pa" The most favourable condition of per, and then macerated in water after the lint, with a view to the paper the manner of rags, and undergo simimanufactory, is to begin with it after lar processes till the substance is conit is hackled ; in order that the fibres verted into paper, which may be easily may be divested of the skins which accomplished by manufacturers, and enclose them, as, when it is intended the substance of nettles made to proto make white paper, having gone duce paper of the first quality and the through that process, it would greatly most substantial. facilitate the bleaching, and be the “ In my process the lint was redu. more easily disencumbered of the
gross ced by scissars to particles as minute particles.
as was practicable with such an imple“When I signify as my opinion, that ment ;
then it was macerated in cold the fibres of pettles should be dressed water about ten days, and brought as the same as for yarn, previous to their much to a pulp as could be effected being prepared with a view to the ma- without the aid of grindin , &c. Beking of paper,
I wish not to be under- ing a stranger to the composition used stood to convey the idea that the ope. procure
the adhesion of the parti. ration cannot be dispensed with ; be- cles, if any is used for this
I cause I conceive, that by the aid of tried several glutinous substances, none such machinery as is in use with the of which answered so well as a solution paper manufacturers, or by some im- of gum ; but I am well aware this canprovements therein, they might be not be generally used, being too ex, brought to a pulp easily, even when pensive.
“ After the pulp was impregnated my own conceptions, and I desire iť with the solution, I then spread it thin may not be understood, that I presume on a wire frame of my own construc- to recommend them for practice, being tion, which process, except drying it, conscious, that the manufacturers of with me was final. Not being possess- paper, hemp, and flax, from analogy, ed of the means of pressing the paper are possessed of the knowledge of ope
. any more than grinding of the lint, rations and means more consonant and and for want of the film
which adheres infinitely superior. to the lint being dressed off, I could “ These several manufactures from completely destroy the colour, so as the new substance of nettles, patro. to produce a clear white without pick- nized by the stimulating approbation ing out every discoloured particle
, and recommendation of the Society of which I so well accomplished, that Arts, &c. I with all due deference when I had reduced the staple in venture to predict will rapidly increase length, in this state it was perfectly the capital of those individuals who free from colour ; the deterioration engage therein, afford new employ. which ensued when converted into pa- ment to the poorer classes of society, per was occasioned by the sòlution of and become a new source of wealth to gum.
the nation. EDWARD SMITH." “ My processes were the fruits of
April 28, 1810.
A REVIEW OF THE LIFE AND GENIUS
OF THE LATE
RIGHT HON. WILLIAM WINDHAM.
Ar a time when so much petulant Tournaments, and poisons, and prisons, folly is daily circulated amongst an and rescues, and ransoms, no longer ignorant multitude, about the extinc- diversify the secret history of the cation of public virtue, the growth of binet; and we cannot woo our reacorruption, and the utter baseness ders with a melting tale of and venality of all statesmen of all Disastrous chances, parties, we have no small satisfaction
Of moving accidents by flood and field, in communicating some record to our Or hair-breadth scapes in the imminent readers, of a life whose every act sup
deadly breach. plies some noble refutation of the ca- But we will attempt to furnish, what, lumny. Whatever may have been the in our opinion, is of a nature more inerrors of Mr Windham's judgement, teresting than a thousand corporal admalice itself can cast no aspersion upon ventures ; a review of the conduct of his honour; and it is a circumstance a great mind, under all the varieties redounding in no slight degree to the in which it displayed itself during a glory of his moral character, that, political life, fruitful, beyond all for. though there was no set of men in the mer example, in novel principles, in state, to whom his independent poli- popular alarms, and in revolutions of tics had not at some period occasion. frightful magnitude ; a survey of those ed offence, there was not an individual intellectual energies, by which the of his acquaintance, in or out of go- destinies of half the civilized world vernment, who did not uniformly re- were affected, in a mode neither indi. tain, and acknowledge, an unqualified rect nor remote. In order to this end respect for the purity of his motives we shall not confine ourselves to a and the incorruptibility of his mind. bare sketch of the private life of Mr
The time is long past when the bio- Windham, insulated from the eminent graphy of a great man was an amusing individuals, with and against whom he romance. The eminence of political distinguished himself, but rather enpower, which, in ancient days, was to deavour to present a historical picture be climbed only by a precipitous and of his time, taking care, of course, to pathless ascent, is now attained by preserve his portrait the most promian approach, of which the steps are nent figure and main object of the pretty regularly hewn, though the piece. course may be a little more tortuous, The family of Mr Windham, which
VOL. IV. PART IL