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Mr William Clerk, Edinburgh, for sundry apparatus or machinery for a newly constructed grate for prevent the manufacture of felt or stuff hats. ing smoke, and regulating heat. Mr Bundy, Camden-Town, for å · Mr David Meade Randolph, Gol. new method of heading pins. Jos den-square, London, for a method of . James Frost and Son, Sutton-street, manufacturing all kinds of boots,shoes, Clerkenwell, for an improvement on &c. by means of a substitute for cocks, or an improved lock-cock." thread 'made of hemp, flax, or other Mr Richard Woodman, Hammeryarns.
s smith, for a method of manufacturing Mr John Kent, Southampton, for a all kinds of boots, shoes, and other new method of moving all kinds of articles. . goods or materials to high buildings, Mr Henry Stubbs, Piccadilly, for a or from deep places.
new-invented grand imperial Aulæum, Mr Winsor, Pall Mall, London, for from three to twenty feet wide, with improvement upon his former oven out seam, and to any length or colour, stove for carbonizing all kinds of raw for decorating rooms, &c. ;. ' fuel, and for extracting the oil, acid, Mr John Isaac Hawkins, Great tar, gas, &c.
Titchfield-street, for a certain instru. Mr Thomas Meade, Yorkshire, for ment applicable in mechanics as a bamethods of making circular or rotative lance or equipoise steam-engines upon an entire new prin- - Mr Thomas Pott, Hackney, for a ciple.
new process of freeing tarred rope from Mr Edward Shorter, Wapping, for tar, and of rendering it of use to the an apparatus for working pumps..
Mr Bryan Donkin, Bermondsey, for Mr Johann George Deyerlein, Long. a pen of new construction. , acre, for a machine, new principle, or : Mr David Matthew, Rotherhithe, method, of making bricks and tiles, for an improved method of building and other kinds of pottery. locks, and for opening and shutting 'Mr Peter Stuart, Fleet-street, for the same.
a new method of engraving and printMr John White, Westminster, for ing maps, &c. the discovery of a certain substance Mr John Lindsay, Grove-house, which is capable of being converted Middlesex, for a boat and various apinto statues, artificial stone, melting- paratus, whereby heavy burdens can pots, bricks, tiles, and every descrip- be conveyed in shallow water. tion of pottery.
Mr Winsor, Pall-mall, for a fixed Mr Richard Wilson, Lambeth, for telegraphic light-house, &c. for signals.
and intelligence, to serve by night and for certain improvements in apparatus by day.
for the combination and condensation Mr John Deakin, St John's-street, of gasses and vapours applicable to Middlesex, for improvements in the processes of distillation. kitchen range.
Mr Richard Jackson, Southwark, Mr John Bradley, Old Swinford, for an improved method of making Staffordshire, for a new method of the shanks of anchors and other large making gun-skelps.
bodies of wrought iron. Sir Isaac Coffin, for a new inven- Mr Samuel Hill, Serle-street, for a tion of a perpetual oven for baking more effectual method of joining stone bread.
Mr Ralph Wedgewood, Oxford Mr David Loeschman, Newmanstreet, for a new character for lan- street, for improvements in the musical guage, numbers, and music, and the scales of keyed instruments with fixed method of applying the same.
tones. Mr William Doughty, Birmingham, Mr Joseph Dyer, Gray's-inn, for for a method of combining wheels for improvements in the construction and gaining mechanical powers.
method of using plates and presses for Mr George Lowe, Cheapside, for copper-plate printing. British shirting cloth.
Mr Hall, Walthamstow, for a meMr Egerton Smith, Liverpool, for thod of manufacturing from twigs or a binnacle and compass.
branches of broom, mallows, rushes, Mr James Bell, Whitechapel, for and other plants of like species, to improvements in refining sugar, and in serve instead of flax or hemp.. . forming sugar-houses of a certain de Mr Thomas Wade, Nelson-place, scription.
Surrey, for a method of imitating lapis Mr John Gregory, Islington, for a lazuli, porphyry, jasper, &c. method of tunning and cleansing ales Mr John Statter, Birmingham and and beers into casks.
Holborn, for a steam kitchen and Mr Arthur Wolf, Lambeth, for im- roaster. provements in the construction and Mr Walter Roch fort, Bishopgateworking of steam-engines, calculated street, for an improved method of preto lessen the consumption of fuel.
Mr Peter Durand, Hoxton-square, Mr John Turmeau and Charles Se. for a method of preserving animal and ward, Cheapside, for a new lamp, callvegetable food, &c. a long time from ed the Liverpool Lamp perishing.
Mr Joseph Dyer, London, for a Mr John Cragg, Liverpool, for im- machine for cutting and removing all provements in the casting of iron roofs the kinds of furs used in hat-making for houses, &c.
from skins, and for cutting the skins Mr William Muller, London, for into strips or small pieces. improvements in the construction of Mr John. Frazer, Sloane-street, for pumps.
a discovery of certain vegetables, and Mrs Sarah Guppy, Bristol, for a a way of preparing them to be manu. mode of erecting and constructing factured into hats, bonnets, chair-botþridges and rail-roads, without arches toms, baskets, &c. or starlings, by which the danger of Mr William Bundy, Camden-town, being washed away by floods is avoided. for an improvement on stringed instru** Mr John Stancliffe, Tooke's-court, ments.
VOL. IV. PART II.
PROJECTS AND USEFUL INVENTIONS.
Proposed Drainage of the Bogs in bogs of less extent than 500 acres ; in Ireland.
its form resembling a broad belt drawn
across the centre of Ireland, with its Commissioners having been appoint- narrowest end-nearest to the capital, edin Ireland for the purpose ofenquiring and gradually extending in breadth as into the practicability of this scheme, it approaches to the western ocean. the first report on the subject was de. This great division of the island ex. livered to the House of Commons in tending from east to west, is traversed the summer of 1810, from which the by the Shannon from north to south, following particulars concerning the and is thus divided into two parts; of nature and extent of those morasses these, the division to the westward of are extracted.
the river contains more than double “ An object, on the due attainment the extent of the bogs which are to of which depended in a great degree be found in the division to the eastthe success of our undertaking, was ward ; so that if we suppose the whole the proper division of the bogs of Ire- of the bogs of Ireland (exclusive of land into the districts referred to in the mere mountain bog, and of bogs under first article of the instructions; and 500 acres) to be divided into twenty further, to determine in what part we parts, we shall find about seventeen of should first apply those means entrust- them comprized within the great divi. ed to us, and which we at once per. sion we have now described, twelve to ceived were utterly inadequate to the the westward, and five to the eastward execution of any plan that should em. of the Shannon ; and of the remaining brace the entire extent of Ireland. three parts, about two are to the south,
“ From inspection of the map execu. and one to the north of this division. ted by General Vallency, we were ena. Of the positive amount of their conbled to consider these bogs as forming tents we have as yet no data that can one connected whole, and to come to enable us to speak with any precision ; the general conclusion, that a portion but we are led to believe, from various of Ireland, of little more than one communications with our engineers, fourth of its entire superficial extent, that the bogs in the eastern division and included between a line drawn of the great district above described from Wicklow-head to Galway, and an amount toabout 260,000 English acres, other drawn from Howth-head to Sli- which, on the proportion already mengo, comprises within it about six. tioned, would give rather more than one sevenths of the bogs in the island, ex. million of English acres as the total clusive of mere mountain-bogs and contents of the bogs of Ireland ; ex
aluding, however, from consideration considerable obstacles to improvement, mere mountain bogs, and also all bogs the overcoming of which would in itof less extent than 500 acres, of each self demonstrate the practicability of of which description the amount is the improvement of the bogs of Írevery considerable; of the extent of the land in most other cases." latter some idea may be formed from The commissioners then proceed to a fact which we have learned from Mr state the particulars of their parcelling Larkin ; that in the single county of out the bogs to be surveyed, to differCavan, which he has surveyed, there ent engineers, with the pay allotted to are above 90 bogs, no one of which them and the persons employed unexceeds 500 Irish acres, but which ta- der them; and they then give some ob. ken collectively contain about 11,000 servations derived from the first report Irish, which is equivalent to above delivered in, that of Mr Griffith, to 17,600 English acres, besides many whom was consigned a district formsmaller bogs varying in size from five ing the eastern end of the Bog of Allen, to twenty acres.
and containing 36,430 English acres “ Most of the bogs which lie to the of bog. Of these we shall transcribe eastward of the Shannon, and which some of the most instructive. occupy a considerable portion of the “ There are many, we believe, wha King's county and county of Kildare, consider the bogs of Ireland to be low are generally known by the name of and marshy tracts of country, not very the Bog of Allen: it must not how dissimilar in their composition from ever be supposed that this name is ap- the fens of Lincolnshire; others, aware plied to any one great morass ; on the that the substance of which they are contrary, the bogs to which it is ap- formed greatly differs from that of the plied are perfectly distinct from each fen districts, attribute nevertheless the other, often separated by high ridges origin of both to pretty nearly the same of dry country, and inclining towards causes; while an opinion, more preva. different rivers, as their natural direc. lent, and perhaps not less erroneous, tions for drainage, so intersected by than either of the foregoing, attributes dry and cultivated land, that it may their formation to fallen forests, which be affirmed generally, there is no spot are supposed at some former period of these bogs, to the eastward of the to have covered these districts, and to Shannon, so much as two Irish miles have been destroyed either by the ef. distant from the upland and cultivated fects of time, or by hostile armies in districts.
the early wars of Ireland. “With this first and general view of “ The facts stated in Mr Griffith's the subject, we had no hesitation in se report are obviously inconsistent with lecting at once the whole of the east- any of these suppositions ; the bogs ern portion of the great district above which he has surveyed being every referred to, as the object of our first where in elevated situations ; and the enquiries, forming in itself one whole, trees which have hitherto been so conwhose parts had more or less connec- stantly found buried in the edges of tion with each other, lying in the cen- these bogs, where alone it is probable tre of Ireland, in the immediate vicini. they have generally been sought for, ty of some of the richest and best cul- are very rarely to be found in the intetivated counties; intersected also by rior parts, at least of this district. the two great lines of navigation, the “Without entering in this report in. Grand and the Royal canals, and pre- to any enquiry as to the origin of these senting in common apprehension very peat bogs, we are however anxious te
give such persons as have not had an ness from one to six feet; in some opportunity of examining them, some places the peat rests on a thinner stra. idea of the general appearances which tum of yellowish white marl, containthey actually present.
ing upon an average about 60 per cent. “ It appears from Mr Griffith, that of calcarious matter. This stratun each of the four bogs included in the of clay in this district universally rests subject of his report, is a mass of the on a solid mass of clay and limestone peculiar substance called peat, of the gravel mixed together, and extending average thickness of 25 feet, no where to an unknown depth. less than 12, nor found to exceed 42; “We should furtherconsider the peat this substance varying materially in its moss as partaking in its general nature appearance and properties, in propor- of the property of sponge, completely tion to the depth at which it lies; on saturated with water, and giving rise the upper surface, covered with moss to different streams and rivers for the of various species, and to the depth of discharge of the surplus waters which about ten feet composed of a mass of it receives from rain or snow. These the fibres of different vegetables in dif- streams in this district almost universally ferent stages of decomposition propor- have worn their channels through the tioned to their depth from the surface, substance of the bog down to the clay generally, however, too open in their or limestone gravel underneath, divi. texture to be applied to the purposes ding the bog into distinct masses, and of fuel : below this, generally lies a presenting in themselves the most prolight blackish-brown turf, containing per situations for the main drains, and the fibres of moss still visible, though which, with the assistance of art, may not perfect, and extending to a further be rendered effectual for that purpose. depth of perhaps ten feet under this. " Such is the internal structure of In the instance exhibited in the sec- the bogs in this district. tion at the close of Mr Griffith's re- " Viewing them externally they pre. port, are found small branches and sent surfaces by no means level, but twigs of alder and birch ; but we do with planes of inclinations amply suf. not understand him as being of opi. ficient for their drainage. The highnion that such is by any means ge- est summit of any part of the bogs in nerally the case. At a greater depth this district is 298 feet above the level the fibres of vegetable matter cease to of the sea, taken at an ordinary springbe visible, the colour of the turf be- tide in the bay of Dublin ; while the comes blacker, and the substance much lowest point any where on their sur more compact, its properties as fuel face is 84 feet lower than the highest, more valuable, and gradually increa. and therefore 214 feet above the level sing in the degree of blackness and com- of the sea. It requires a mere inspec. pactness proportionate to its depth. tion of the map and sections to be Near the bottom of the bog it forms convinced that there is no part of these a black mass, which, when dry, has a bogs from which the water may not strong resemblance to pitch, or bitu. be discharged into rivers in their imminous coal, and having a conchoidal mediate vicinity, and with falls ade. fracture in every direction, with a quate to their drainage ; and we obblack shining lustre, and susceptible serve, in the instance of the bog of of receiving a considerable polish. Im. Timahoe, that a part of its water is mediately below this lower stratum discharged into the sea at Drogheda, there is generally found a thin stratum and another part below Waterford.” af yellow or blue clay, varying in thick. .