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crushing the clods of earth, and rendering the surface of the ground of a more uniform character, the improvement is in the means of lowering or raising the crushing or scarifying-roller or rollers, in the frame or carriage that supports them; in order that the roller or rollers may be made to cut or press more or less deep into the ground, and to lift it, or them, entirely off the ground, when out of operation, and moving from place to place.

The improvement in drag-rakes consists in a method of shifting and regulating the positions of the tines; that is, placing them more or less erect, or at a greater or lesser angle with the surface of the ground, as may be required to suit different work.

The first feature of improvement in drills, for cultivating land, is a mode of steering their carriage, independently of the course of the horse, for the purpose of causing them to pass over the required tracks, so that the rows of seed may be placed parallel to each other, in the successive courses of the drill. The improvements consist, secondly, in an apparatus for agitating the manure in the box of the drill, in order that it may descend in uniform quantities with the seeds; thirdly, an apparatus, by means of which two kinds of grass, or other seed, may be delivered at the same time, through the respective spouts or tubes, and which apparatus may be adapted to an ordinary drill, if required; fourthly, a mode of guiding the coulters, and depositingtubes, accurately, so as to keep them constantly upon the middle parts of the ridges; and fifthly, the means of adapting rollers upon a stationary axle, for forming and regulating the shape and height of the ridges.

Fig. 1, is an end elevation of the horse-hoe, and fig. 2, is a transverse section, taken near the axes of the runningwheels. As many of the parts of the frame-work are not new, it will be unnecessary to refer to them particularly. The several levers, of which there are a series shewn at a, a, a, are each attached at one end, by a joint, to a horizontal bar b, b, and at the reverse end they are weighted, and hang loosely in a staple or slotted socket c, c, c, affixed to a back horizontal bar d, d. These levers a, a, a, severally

carry the stems f, f,f, of the hoes, which are secured to the levers by wedges. The front horizontal bar b, is held by bracket-arms g, g, affixed to the front of the carriage, and the back horizontal bar d, d, is suspended by chains h, h, attached to and passing partly over excentric pullies i, i, fixed on a transverse shaft j, supported in stationary bracketarms k, k, extending from the back of the frame-work. In order to raise or lower the hoes, the workman applies his hand to the winch l, for the purpose of turning the shaft j; by which means the pullies i, i, are made to turn and draw up or let down the chains h, and bar d, that support the back parts of the levers a.

The frame, that carries the levers a, a, (consisting of the two bars b, and d, connected together by braces m, m,) is capable of lateral movements, by swinging from the chains h, behind, and hanging on the bracket-arms g, g, in front, which arms are jointed. These lateral movements, however, are governed and directed by the workman applying his hands to the handles n, n, by which he is enabled to turn the longitudinal shaft p, supported by stationary brackets. From this shaft there extends downwards an arm q, to the ends of which chains r, r, are attached; the outer extremities of the chains being made fast to the ends of the bar b, b. Hence, as the longitudinal shaft p, is turned, the arm q, vibrates, and the chains r, r, are caused to draw the bars, with the levers and hoes, to the right or left, as may be required for guiding the hoes in the proper course, independently of the track of the horse.

For the purpose of occasionally widening the distance between the running wheels, to suit the breadths of different rows upon the land, the axes of the wheels are formed by studs or pins, extending from angular pieces or brackets s, s, attached to the hinder rail of the frame-work. In fig. 2, this will be seen most clearly. That part of the bracket-piece which lies immediately in contact with the under part of the frame, is held thereto by a metal strap or staple t, and bolt u. This bolt is passed perpendicularly through a long slot, formed in the rail; and when the nut of the bolt is loosened, the bracket of the axle may be slidden, so as to move the wheels outward to any required distance, and the nut being again made tight, the wheel will retain its position.

In the figures of the horse-hoe referred to, the stems f, of the hoes stand nearly in perpendicular positions, and the cutting edges of the hoes at certain acute angles or inclinations to the surface ; but should the ground be particularly hard, it will be desirable to cause the cutting edges of the hoes to form greater or more obtuse angles with the ground; and this is done by lowering the bracket-arms g, in the front frame-work, which will cause the bar b, and the front or jointed ends of the levers a, to be depressed, and consequently the stems f, to incline from their erect positions, and thereby set the cutting edges of the hoes at a greater angle with the surface of the ground.

In order to afford the means of readily changing the hoes, when worn, the cutting parts are formed in distinct pieces from the stems, to which they are attached by bolts and screws, as shewn in the detached figures 3. These cutting tools are made of iron, and converted into steel after they have been so formed.

The scarifiers, to which these improvements particularly apply, are those formed by a series of indented wheels, fitted loosely upon a square shaft; which wheels, in passing over the ground, break the clods of earth, and loosen the surface. The improvement consists in mounting the axle or shaft of the crushers or scarifiers in a frame, supported upon running-wheels, as shewn in the two end elevations, figs. 4, and 5. a, a, are the crushing-rollers; b, b, the iron frame-work or carriage, in which the axle of the crushing-rollers is mounted, and turns freely. On the sides of the end-frames there are bosses c, through which a perpendicular rod d, slides. The lower part of this rod is turned horizontally at a right angle, forming a stud for the running-wheel e, to resolve upon; and the upper end of the rod has a worm or thread cut round it, which works in a screw-box f. In order to regulate the depth to which the crushing roller shall be permitted to penetrate into the ground, or to raise it completely off the ground, a sufficient VOL. XXII.

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height for transporting the machine upon ordinary roads, the screw-box must be turned by a winch, or other means, which will draw up or let down the running-wheels, as shewn in the figures 4, and 5.

Fig. 6, represents a sectional elevation of a drag-rake. a, a, are the tines of the rake, fixed in a wooden lever or arm b.

These levers and tines, of which there are to be a series, have their fulcra or joints upon a horizontal rod c, supported by bracket-pieces d, and upright stems e, made capable of sliding in sockets, fixed to the wooden frame-work. When the tines a, are required to stand in nearly upright positions, as shewn in the figure, the rod c, of the levers, must be depressed; but when the tines are required to stand in inclined positions, the rod is raised, by sliding up the brackets d, and stems e, in their sockets. The outer ends of the levers a, are severally connected, by chains, to a transverse bar f, fixed upon levers, turning on the same fulcrum-rod c; and to this transverse bar, two other chains g, are attached, which are made fast to excentric pullies h. By drawing down the lever i, the pullies are made to turn, and hence draw up the levers, with the tines, sufficiently off the ground to discharge the accumulated grass, stubble, or other material. .

For the purpose of steering the drills with greater certainty than can be attained by the draught of the horse, the shafts are attached to the frame of the carriage by a joint-pin, and the carriage, with the drills, is turned horizontally upon that pin, by means of toothed gear. Fig. 7, is a horizontal view of the carriage, the drill being removed. a, a, are the shafts, the back parts of which are connected by a curved bar of iron b, and in the centre of this bar, passed through an eye, is a vertical pin c, fixed into the transverse rail d, or axletree of the carriage. To the sides of the drawing-shafts chains e, e, are affixed, which pass round guide-pullies, set under the frame-work, to wheels f, f, firmly fixed upon a transverse axle g. The ends of the chains e, e, are secured to the wheels f, f, but they pass over the wheels in opposite directions, so that, by turning the axle g, the chains e, e, will draw the carriage a little

toward one side. The steering is effected by the attendant applying his hand to one of the winches or handles of the axle h, which causes the bevilled toothed wheel i, to work the bevilled wheel and longitudinal spindle k; at the end of which spindle there is a worm, or endless screw, taking into a wheel on the axle g, carrying the pulley-wheels f, f. Fig. 8, is a side elevation of the same arrangement. This effect may also be produced by means of a rack and pinion connecting the shafts with the carriage, instead of the chains.

The manure, required to be deposited with the seed, being apt to adhere together in the box of the drills commonly used, and consequently fall very irregularly, the patentee has introduced, as an improvement, an extra stirrer or agitator, which, being worked by an excentric, keeps the material continually in motion. Fig. 9, is a side view of the drill; fig. 10, a partial section of the box containing the manure; and fig. 11, is a front view of the drill; part of the box being removed, to exhibit the interior. A horizontal shaft a, carries the ordinary forked arms or prongs, wbich, being made to revolve, stirs up the material. Upon the axle of this shaft, two excentrics b, b, are affixed, which, as the shaft revolves, raise and depress the arms c, c. To the upper ends of these arms a horizontal bar d, is attached, carrying another series of prongs, of any form suited to the kind of manure to be discharged. As the ordinary stirring-shaft a, revolves, the excentric b, raises and depresses the bar d, and thereby causes the upper portion of the manure to be kept in continual agitation, which prevents it from forming into masses.

When two different sorts of small grass seed are required to be sown together, they will, if previously mixed, be very apt to separate by the motion of the drill, and the heavier descend to the bottom; in order, therefore, to ensure a regular delivery, the two kinds of grass seed are placed in separate compartments, as shewn at a, and b, in the sectional figure 12; and the following contrivance is adopted for depositing them in the ground:--At the same time that the seeds from the compartment a, are let fall into the spout c, by the rotation of the cups on the wheel d,

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