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slidden back the carriage and frame n, towards the right, now lifts the key (o), and brings the piece r, as before, up to the stop, when the type is in the same way delivered into one of the vertical grooves i, and then, by its rotary cam, pushed back into its horizontal groove, in the plate i. By these means, all the types of the line are, in succession, brought up and stopped by the key answering to its letter or character; and thus the letters, of the same character, are successively distributed and introduced into their own proper groove in the horizontal plate, and by that means are "arranged" in columns, ready to be placed in the composing machine, and to be operated upon in the manner about to be explained.

It is only necessary further to say, that on inserting every fresh line of types into the groove of the sliding frame 1, the pusher must be brought back, which will wind the convolute spring, in the box, up to tension; the spring will thereby acquire the power of turning the pulley, and working the chain, so as to force the pusher forward, and keep the types up against the stop plate h, as long as any remain in the groove of the slide.

If thought desirable, the sliding carriage of this distributing machine may be dispensed with, and the types distributed into a case, by hand, in the ordinary manner; and by making the bottom of each compartment of the case in the form of a funnel, the types will be carried down by their own gravity through an aperture, made for that purpose, of the proper shape and size, at the bottom of the funnel. When the types pass through these apertures, they are conveyed, by channels or grooves, into the grooves of the plate 1, where they are ranged in columns or rows, in the manner above described. Or the following method may be employed, the sliding carriage and the keys being dispensed with:-Instead of placing the plate P, fig. 3, (in which the grooves i, e, i, are made,) in a vertical position, this plate may be placed in an inclined position, as seen in figs. 8, and 9; fig. 8, being a front view, and fig. 9, a sectional view of this arrangement of the distributing machine. It will be seen, upon referring to these figures,

that instead of placing the openings of the grooves i, i, all in one row, as in figs. 2, and 3, there are two rows, one placed behind and above the other. By this means, the apertures, in which the types are deposited, can be made of greater dimensions, so that the distribution may be effected by hand. When the workman drops a type on to the face-plate, in one of the compartments, the type descends by its own gravity, as in the other machine, and is forced along the groove in the plate i, by excentrics, mounted on a longitudinal shaft, as at figs. 3, and 4.

The machine for "composing," that is, setting-up types, in the order of words, lines, and pages, is shewn in the following figures of the drawings :-Fig. 10, is a front elevation of the machine, complete, and in working order; fig. 11, is an elevation of the same, as it would appear if viewed at the left-hand end of the machine; fig. 12, is a horizontal view of the same, as seen from above, a portion of the cover being removed, for the purpose of exposing parts of the works beneath; fig. 13, is a vertical section, taken longitudinally through about the middle of the machine, in the dotted line A, B, of fig. 12, parallel to the front; and fig. 14, is a vertical section, taken transversely in the line C, D, of the same figure.

The frame-work of the machine is represented at A, A, A, upon which are fixed two horizontal standards B, B, and upon these are mounted two parallel longitudinal plates c, c, placed edgeways, with their upright framings carrying a horizontal longitudinal bar d, having a groove along the middle of its upper surface, in which groove the types are slidden, when the machinery is in operation. On the upper edges of this bar D, two flat longitudinal plates a, a, are affixed, which carry the two upright rack-frames b, b, that contain the types intended to be operated upon. These types are arranged in vertical columns; each compartment of the rack being respectively filled with a column of types of a certain letter or character; and the columns of types descend by their own gravity, as the single types are severally driven out of the column, at its lower end, by the operations of the machinery about to be explained.

The rack-frames b, b, are formed by a series of upright grooved rails, which, upon referring to fig. 13, will be seen to have a space, about the thickness and length of the type in each column, cut away at the bottom of the grooves, formed by the rails b, b, in order to allow the types to be pushed out on to the endless belt or chain. The height of these spaces in the grooves must correspond with the thickness of each type, so that not more than one type may be pushed out of the column at one time. When a number of these rails are ranged together, side by side, so as to form the rack-frame, shewn in fig. 13, a number of compartments are formed, which are wider than the length of a type ; so that when a column of type is placed in one of these compartments, the types descend, as above mentioned, by their own gravity. Two series of keys E, E, E, and F, F, P, are ranged horizontally in front of the machine, as seen in figs. 10, and 12. These keys severally hang, as levers, upon fulcrum-rods c, c, extending along the machine, as shewn in fig. 14; and the inner extremities of these keys are severally connected, by upright rods d, d, to one of the small T-formed levers e, hanging upon fulcrumrods in brackets f, affixed to the longitudinal plates c, c. The upper end of the cross of each T-formed lever e, acts through a slot in a horizontal sliding pusher g. These pushers move transversely to and from the several columns of types upon the plates a, a. It will hence be perceived, that on the compositor striking one of the keys with his finger, the depression of the front part of the key will cause the rod d, at its reverse end, to rise, and vibrate the small lever e; thereby forcing inward the upper end of its cross, and consequently sliding the pusher g, against the lowest type in the column corresponding to that key. The type, thus acted upon, will, by these means, be pushed out of its column, in the rack, into the longitudinal groove, cut in the bar D, where it is to be slidden along into the receiver.

In the receiver the types are formed into lines, by the following means :-An axle g, mounted in the lower part of the frame-work, seen in figs. 13, and 14, carries two pullies H, and 1, and also a fly-wheel J. Over the pulley h, an

endless belt or chain h, h, h, is passed, and also over a series of carrier-pullies i, i, i. This belt or chain, as the pullies revolve, is made to travel, horizontally, along the lower part of the groove in the longitudinal bar D; and hence, whenever a type is projected, as above described, from one of the columns into this groove, it necessarily falls upon the upper surface of the band or chain, and is, by the longitudinal progress of the band or chain, carried onward to the receiver, at the left-hand end of the machine. It will be perceived that there are two series of keys, E, and F, and also two series of T-formed levers, e, e,-the one series of levers in front of the bar D, the other series at the back of the bar,-and that there are likewise two series of columns of types, ranged in the double rack-frame b, b; consequently, by striking the keys E, the front series of levers e, and the types of the front columns, will be projected into the groove of the longitudinal bar D; and by striking the keys F, the back series of levers e, and the types of the back columns, will be acted upon in a like manner. In the middle of the double rack-frame, between the front and back columns of type, there are, loosely pendant, a series of thin strips of tin k, k, k, (see figs. 13, and 14,) the lower extremities of which extend into the groove of the bar D, a little above the upper surface of the belt or chain h. These pendant strips are for the purpose of stops, preventing the types being pushed beyond the groove; and there are small pins, extending across the groove, on a level with the plates a, a, to support one end of each of the types, when so projected, and prevent its turning over; the other ends of the types falling on to the travelling chain or belt h; by the progress of which, they are drawn off the pins, and conducted onward toward the receiver, in the proper positions for depositing them correctly in line, with the face of each type in the same direction.

The several types, for forming words, and for forming the spaces between the words, having thus been successively brought out from the columns of the racks, by the means described, and deposited upon the travelling endless belt or chain h, h, they are conducted onward, by the progress of the belt or chain, to the carrier-pulley ;*, and over a transverse triangular guide-bar or bridge, on to a roller k*, seen near the left-hand end of fig. 13; by which last-mentioned roller, the type is deposited upon the top of a T. formed vertical slider l; and as the several types, in succession, come into this situation, they are piled one upon another, forming a line of types, the slider l, receding as the types accumulate thereon. In order that the successive types may thus be accurately deposited upon the top of the slider 1, a roller m, mounted in a bracket, is placed over the slider, to act as a presser-roller. A small endless chain n, n, n, which is distended over the roller m, and over the pullies o, and p, also assists this operation. On the axle of the pulley p, a spring-lever q, hangs loosely, carrying a roller at its end, which presses the chain down upon the roller k* ; and also another spring-lever r, carrying a roller, by its pressure keeps the endless chain n, always tightly distended. Rotary motion is given to the endless chain n, by an endless band s, s, s, passed over the pulley o, and over carrier pullies t, t; which band is actuated by the pulley I, upon the main axle g; and the roller k*, receives a simultaneous rotary motion, by a small endless band, from a pulley u, on the same shaft as that of o, represented in figs. 11, and 12.

Another arrangement of this part of the machine is shewn, on an enlarged scale, in the detached figure 20; in which the endless chain n, instead of passing round the pullies m, o, and p, as seen in fig. 13, merely passes round the two pullies p, and p*. The types are brought on to the T-shaped slider l, by the endless chain h, in the same manner as that described in reference to fig. 13; but instead of being forced down to their proper position on the slider 1, by means of the chain n, passing round the pulley m, a small snail or wiper m*, is used ; this wiper is mounted on the axle of a band-pulley, and receives a rapid rotary motion from the pulley o, by means of a band, and thereby forces the line down, as each type is brought forward and piled on the slider 1, by the endless chains h, and n. The endless chain n, is also actuated by a band from the pulley

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