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JOURNAL AND REPERTORY
Arts, Sciences, and manufactures.
To John Clay, of Cottingham, in the county of York, Gent.,
and FREDERICK ROSENBORG, of Sculcoates, in the county of York, Gent., for improvements in arranging and settingup types for printing.—[Sealed 21st March, 1842.]
These improvements in arranging and setting-up types for printing, consist in the construction and employment of peculiar combinations of mechanisın, hereafter explained ; the first of which is for arranging the types, that is, performing the operation commonly called " distributing, in a peculiar manner, so that they are arranged, after they have been used for printing, according to their several characters, in distinct columns, ready for insertion into the second, or composing, or setting-up machine; which machine is also peculiarly constructed, as will be hereinafter explained. By means of these improvements, the several types are first arranged, and then selected and brought into lines, forming words and sentences.
In Plate XVII., fig. 1, represents a side elevation of the arranging or distributing machine. A, a, a, are the VOL. XXII.
standards and frame-work, supporting the mechanism ; B, is the main horizontal rotary shaft, carrying a pulley C, from whence (passing over guide-pullies D, D,) an endless band is conducted up to a pulley E, upon the end of another horizontal shaft F, F, in front of the machine, and by means of which endless band that shaft is made to revolve. Rotary motion may be given to the main shaft B, by a winch, or other means; and there is a fly-wheel G, fixed upon the main shaft, for regulating the motions. Fig. 2, is a horizontal view of a portion of the top of the machine, drawn upon an enlarged scale, in order to shew the principal working parts more clearly. Fig. 3, is a view of part of the front of the machine. Fig. 4, represents, in vertical section, a portion of the machine, near the pulley E, in fig. 1; and fig. 5, is an elevation of the back part of what may be denominated the sliding frame, seen extending horizontally upon the top of the machine, at h, , , in figs. 1, and 2.
In order to arrange or distribute, that is, select the types, and place all those of one letter or character in a distinct column or row, in its own particular groove of the horizontal plate, shewn at I, 1, 1, in fig. 2, a page, or other convenient quantity of the types or matter, is brought from the printing-press in a galley, and placed in the machine, as at k, in the two detached figures 6, and 7. This galley is supported by a bracket L, at the left-hand side of the machine, and is made fast thereto by a pin, passed through an ear, fixed to the under part of the galley. A small sliding piece or block a, is brought up by hand against the end of the page of types, for the purpose of keeping the types together, and forcing them forward. At the front end of the galley there is affixed an upright piece b, in which a sliding plate c, works vertically; the under edge of this sliding plate is covered with leather, or other soft substance, to prevent it from injuring the type.
A portion of the page of types to be distributed is represented at d. These types stand in lines, as when in use on the table of the printing-press; they are to be slidden forward in the galley, by pushing up the block a, in order to bring the lines of types, in succession, over a long slot or opening e, cut across the bottom of the galley, at its end. When the types arrive at this position, the slider c, must be raised, as shewn in the drawing; and upon the depression of the slider, the front line of types will be forced down through the opening e, out of the galley, and into the groove of the sliding frame h, placed beneath to receive them. Here the types are held and constantly pressed forward along the groove in the frame h, by a small sliding pusher f. This pusher f, is, by a pin, connected to an endless chain g, attached to the periphery of a pulley m, the axle of which pulley is made fast to the inner end of a convolute spring, contained in the box n, affixed to the side of the sliding frame h. Hence it will be perceived, that by the power of the spring, continually acting, the chain g, will be made to carry the pusher f, forward, and force the types up against a stop-plate h, at the end of the groove of the sliding frame h. The first type in the line will thus be brought immediately over one of the apertures i, i, i, fig. 2, formed by vertical grooves in the face of a horizontal plate P, P, which is fixed upon standards k, and extends across the machine, over the front part of the grooved plate i. This plate P, has two rebated ledges l, l, forming a groove, in which the carriage m, m, of the frame H, containing the line of types, may be slidden to and fro, across the machine. For the convenience of moving this sliding frame , on the plate P, a handle e, is affixed to the carriage, by which the workman shifts, laterally, the position of the sliding frame, for the purpose of bringing the front type of the line, held in the groove, over any one of the apertures i, as may be required. The form of these vertical grooves i, e, i, is partially exposed to view in the perpendicular face or front of the plate P, at fig. 3. In order to admit the type freely, the grooves are made wide at top, but toward the lower part the space is contracted to nearly the size of the type, in order to conduct it accurately to the bottom of the groove; and these grooves are severally cut to different depths, according to the thickness of the bodies of the respective types intended to be slidden down
them. The grooves i, are covered, except at their lower parts, by a face-plate n, n.
The shaft F, is mounted in brackets, affixed to the vertical part or front edge of the plate 1, and carries a series of cams or excentrics p, p, p, best seen in figs. 3, and 4. Each of these cams works in the lower or open part of one of the vertical grooves i, i, i, for the purpose of pushing back any type that may have passed down its groove, and for forcing the type into the horizontal groove of the plate 1; which will be best seen in fig. 2, and in the detached section, fig. 4.
In front of the machine, a semi-cylindrical bar R, R, is affixed, which carries the axle of a series of bent levers or keys 9, 9, 9; each of which keys has reference to a certain letter or type, as marked thereon in figs. 2, and 3; and a rack, or series of notches, cut in the said bar, forms the guides in which these levers or keys work. On the side near the end of the carriage m, of the sliding frame, a piece
is affixed, having a perpendicular descending arm; and to the front end of this piece, against the descending arm, is appended a bent lever s, hanging upon a fulcrum-pin, inserted therein, as seen best in fig. 3. To the upper end of this bent lever, a rod t, is attached, by a joint; and the reverse end of this rod t, is connected in a similar way to a horizontal slider u, acting at the back of the stop-plate h, as seen in fig. 2. A little in advance of the piece r, there is also affixed to the carriage m, a stud, upon which is mounted a bent lever v. The end of this lever », as the carriage m, m, slides to and fro in the groove of the plate P, P, works upon the upper edge of an indented rib w, w, extended along the plate. This rib w, is formed, on its upper edge, with certain elevations, corresponding in height to the thickness of the bodies of the respective types to which such elevations relate; and the end of the said lever v, acts upwards against the tail of a crank-lever x, mounted upon a stud, fixed in the side of the carriage m, as seen in figs. 2, and 5. The vertical arm of this crank-lever x, is connected, by a joint-pin, to a rod y; which rod, at its reverse end, is in like manner attached to a slider 2,
Let it now be supposed that a line of types has been forced down from the end of the galley K, by the depression of the slider c, as described above, and that the said line of types is situate in the groove of the sliding frame y, as shewn in fig. 2; the workman reads the line of types so situate, and finding the first type of the line to be the letter (h), he applies a finger of his left-hand under the lever or key, marked (h), and lifts that key; by doing which, the upper part of the lever comes against the faceplate n, and forms a stop to the sliding frame n. The right-hand of the workman having hold of the handle, now slides the carriage and frame h, toward the left, until the vertical part of the piece r, strikes against the side of the projected key (h), by which the progress of the frame , is arrested. The same movement brings also the lower end of the pendant lever s, against the stop, and thereby causes it to move the slider u, forward, and to push the first type of the line sideways, out of the groove in the frame , into a small recess, formed opposite to the end of the slider u. But before this type can be so detached from the groove of the frame, the recess must be formed to receive it; and this is done by the end of the lever v, having passed on to an elevation of the rib w, which has raised it, and thereby lifted the crank-lever x, and drawn back the slider 2, to such a distance as shall leave a sufficient recess for the body of the type to be passed into; the capacity of this recess depending upon the height of that part of the rib w, which is then acting upon the lever v; and this is so formed as to correspond, in its height, to the thickness of the particular type or letter to which it belongs. The type, thus brought into the situation described, now slides down the vertical groove i, in the face of the plate P, and is conducted, in an erect position, to the bottom of the groove, as described and shewn in fig. 3. Whilst this is going on, the shaft F, is kept constantly revolving, by the means before explained, and the cam or excentric p, coming round, forces the type back from the vertical groove i, into the horizontal groove of the plate 1. Supposing the next letter of the line of types to be (o), the workman, having