Popular Astronomy

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Macmillan, 1878 - 566 Seiten
 

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ECLIPSE OF THE MOON IN THE SHADOW OF THE EARTH
27
SHOWING THE APPARENT ORBIT OF A PLANET
38
APPARENT ORBITS OF JUPITER AND SATURN
39
ARRANGEMENT OF THE SEVEN PLANETS IN THE PTOLEMAIC SYSTEM
41
The ECCENTRIC
42
SHOWING THE ASTROLOGICAL DivisiON OF THE SEVEN PLANETS AMONG THE DAYS OF THE WEEK
46
CHAPTER II
51
APPARENT ANNUAL MOTION OF THE SUN EXPLAINED
55
SHOWING HOW THE APPARENT EPICYCLIC MOTION OF THE PLANETS 18 ACCOUNTED FOR
56
RELATION OF THE TERRESTRIAL AND CELESTIAL POLES AND EQUATORS
62
CAUSES OF CHANGES OF SEASONS ON THE COPERNICAN SYSTEM
63
ENLARGED VIEW OF THE EARTH SHOWING WINTER IN THE North ERN HEMISPHERE AND SUMMER IN THE SOUTHERN
65
ILLUSTRATING KEPLERs First Two LAWS OF PLANETARY Motion
69
UNIVERSAL GRAVITATION
74
ILLUSTRATING THE FALL OF THE MOON TOWARDS THE Earth
78
Gravitation of Small Masses Density of the Earth
81
Ballys APPARATUS FOR DETERMINING THE DENSITY OF THE Earth
83
View of Ballys APPARATUS
84
DIAGRAM ILLUSTRATING THE ATTRACTION OF MOUNTAINS
85
Figure of the Earth
86
Precession of the Equinoxes
88
The Tides
90
ATTRACTION OF THE MOON TENDING TO PRODUCE Tides
91
Inequalities in the Motions of the Planets produced by their Mutual Attraction
93
Relation of the Planets to the Stars
101
PART II
103
ARMILLARY SPHERE AS DESCRIBED BY PTOLEMY
105
CHAPTER I
106
THE GALILEAN TELESCOPE
108
FORMATION OF AN IMAGE BY A LENS
109
GREAT TELESCOPE OF THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY
112
The Achromatic Telescope
114
32 SECTION OF AN ACHROMATIC OBJECTIVE
115
The Mounting of the Telescope
118
MODE OF MOUNTING A TELESCOPE
119
The Reflecting Telescope
121
SPECULUM BRINGING Rays To A SINGLE Focus by REFLECTION
122
HERSCHELIAN TELESCOPE
123
SECTION OF THE GREGORIAN TELESCOPE
124
The Principal Great Reflecting Telescopes of Modern Times
125
HERSCHELS GREAT TELESCOPE
127
LORD Rosses GREAT TELESCOPE
130
MR LASSELLS GREAT FOURFOOT REFLECTOR
132
THE New PARIS REFLECTOR
134
Great Refracting Telescopes
135
THE GREAT MELBOURNE REFLECTOR
136
The Magnifying Powers of the Two Classes of Telescopes
139
CHAPTER II
146
CIRCLES OF THE CELESTIAL SPHERE
147
THE WASHINGTON TRANSIT CIRCLE
153
SPIDER LINES IN FIELD OF VIEW OF A MERIDIAN CIRCLE
154
The Meridian Circle and its Use
155
Determination of Terrestrial Longitudes
157
Mean or Clock Time
162
MEASURING DISTANCES IN THE HEAVENS
165
DIAGRAM ILLUSTRATING PARALLAX
166
VARIATION OF PARALLAX WITH THE ALTITUDE
167
APPARENT PATHS OF VENUS ACROSS THE SUN
176
VENUS APPROACHING INTERNAL CONTACT ON THE FACE OF THE SUN
178
THE BLACK DROP OR LIGAMENT
179
METHOD OF PHOTOGRAPHING THE TRANSIT OF VENUS
186
ARTIFICIAL TRANSIT OF VENUS
188
MAP OF THE EARTH SHOWING THE AREAS OF VISIBILITY OF THE TRANSIT OF 1874
191
MAP OF THE WORLD SHOWING THE REGIONS IN WHICH THE TRAN sit of VENUS WILL BE VISIBLE ON DECEMBER 6TH 1882
195
EFFECT OF STELLAR PARALLAX
202
CHAPTER IV
210
ABERRATION OF Light
212
REVOLVING WHEEL FOR MEASURING THE VELOCITY OF Ligut
216
ILLUSTRATING Foucaults METHOD OF MEASURING THE VELOCITY OF LIGHT
218
CHAPTER V
222
COURSE OF RAYS THROUGH A SPECTROSCOPE
224
PART III
231
PIG PAGE 63 RELATIVE SIZE OF SUN AND PLANETS
232
ORBITS OF THE PLANETS FROM THE EARTH OUTWARD
236
SOLAR SPOT AFTER LANGLEY
281
THE INNER GROUP OF PLANETS
283
The Supposed IntraMercurial Planets
286
The Planet Venus
289
PAASES OF VENUS
291
The Earth
298
SHOWING THE THICKNESS OF THE EARTHs Crust
299
DISTRIBUTION OF AURORAS
302
VIEW OF AURORA
303
SPECTRUM OF Two OF THE GREAT AURORAS OF 1871
305
The Moon
306
VIEW OF MOON NEAR THE THIRD QUARTER
313
LUNAR CRATER COPERNICUS
315
The Planet Mars
320
THE PLANET MARS ON JUNE 23D 1875
322
The Small Planets
323
CHAPTER IV
331
VIEW OF JUPITER AS BEEN IN LORD Rosses Great TELESCOPE FEBRUARY 27TH 1861
333
The Satellites of Jupiter
336
Saturn and its System Physical Aspect Belts Rotation
338
VIEW OF SATURN AND HIS Rings
339
The Rings of Saturn
341
SPECIMENS OF DRAWINGS OF SATURN BY VARIOUS OBSERVERS
343
Constitution of the Ring
349
The Satellites of Saturn
351
Uranus and its Satellites
353
Neptune and its Satellite
358
CHAPTER V
365
VIEWS OF Enckes COMET IN 1871
367
HEAD OF Donatis GREAT COMET OF 1858
368
Motions Origin and Number of Comets
369
PARABOLIC AND ELLIPTIC ORBIT OF A Comet
370
Remarkable Comets
374
ORBIT OF HALLEYS COMET
377
Great ComeT OF 1858
380
Enckes Comet and the Resisting Medium
381
Meteors and Shootingstars
384
METEOR Paths ILLUSTRATING THE Radiant Point
390
Relations of Comets and Meteoroids
391
ORBIT OF NOVEMBER METEORS AND THE COMET OF 1861
394
The Physical Constitution of Comets
398
The Zodiacal Light
405
PART IV
407
THE STARS AS THEY ARE SEEN
410
Number and Orders of Stars and Nebulæ
411
Description of the Principal Constellations
417
New and Variable Stars
426
Double Stars
436
Clusters of Stars
441
Nebulæ
444
Proper Motions of the Stars
452
CHAPTER II
460
Views of Astronomers before Herschel
461
Researches of Herschel and his Successors
465
Probable Arrangement of the Visible Universe
478
Do the Stars really form a System ?
483
CHAPTER III
491
The Modern Nebular Hypothesis
493
Progressive Changes in our System
499
The Sources of the Suns Heat
505
Secular Cooling of the Earth
511
General Conclusions respecting the Nebular Hypothesis
514
The Plurality of Worlds
516
ADDENDUM TO Part III CHAPTER II
520
LIST OF THE PRINCIPAL GREAT TELESCOPES OF THE WORLD
521
LIST OF THE MORE REMARKABLE DOUBLE STARS
523
LIST OF THE MORE INTERESTING AND REMARKABLE NEBULÆ AND STAR CLUSTERS
525
PERIODIC COMETS SEEN AT MORE THAN ONE RETURN
527
ELEMENTS OF THE ORBITS OF THE Eight MAJOR PLANETS FOR 1850
528
SYNOPSIS OF PAPERS ON THE SOLAR PARALLAX 185177
538
INDEX
559
THE SATELLITES OF MARS
565
EXPLANATION OF THE STAR MAPS

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Seite 485 - Their lighter wings. To whom these most adhere, He rules a moment : Chaos umpire sits, And by decision more embroils the fray, By which he reigns : next him, high arbiter, Chance governs all.
Seite 306 - Ethereal temper, massy, large, and round, Behind him cast ; the broad circumference Hung on his shoulders like the moon, whose orb Through optic glass the Tuscan artist views At evening from the top of Fesole Or in Valdarno, to descry new lands, Rivers, or mountains, in her spotty globe.
Seite 154 - Observer' at a salary of 100£ per annum, his duty being 'forthwith to apply himself with the most exact care and diligence to the rectifying the tables of the motions of the heavens and the places of the fixed stars, so as to find out the so much desired longitude of places for the perfecting the art of navigation.
Seite 485 - Eternal anarchy, amidst the noise Of endless wars, and by confusion stand. For Hot, Cold, Moist, and Dry, four champions fierce, Strive here for mast'ry, and to battle bring Their embryon atoms; they around the flag Of each his faction, in their several clans, Light-armed or heavy, sharp, smooth, swift or slow, Swarm populous...
Seite 75 - that every particle of matter in the universe attracts every other particle, with a force whose direction is that of the line joining the two, and whose magnitude is directly as the product of their masses, and inversely as the square of their distances from each other.
Seite 440 - I know, has hitherto been noticed by no one, and, indeed, cannot be well observed except with large telescopes. In the sword of Orion are three stars quite close together. In 1656, as I chanced to be viewing the middle one of these with the telescope, instead of a single star, twelve showed themselves (a not uncommon circumstance). Three of these almost touched each other, and, with four others, shone through a nebula, so that the space around them seemed far brighter than the rest of the heavens,...
Seite 485 - And time and place are lost ; where eldest Night And Chaos, ancestors of Nature, hold Eternal anarchy, amidst the noise Of endless wars, and by confusion stand : For hot, cold, moist and dry, four champions fierce, Strive here for mastery...
Seite 502 - The principle in question may be readily shown in the following way: if a globular, gaseous mass is condensed to one-half its primitive diameter, the central attraction upon any part of its mass will be increased fourfold, while the surface upon which this attraction is exercised will be reduced to one-fourth. Hence the pressure per unit of surface will be increased sixteen times, while the density will be increased only eight times.
Seite 509 - At the present time we can only say that the nebular hypothesis is indicated by the general tendencies of the laws of nature, that it has not been proved to be inconsistent with any fact, that it is almost a necessary consequence of the only theory by which we can account for the origin and conservation of the sun's heat, but that it rests on the assumption that this conservation is to be explained by the laws of nature as we now see them in operation. Should any one be skeptical as to the sufficiency...
Seite 257 - coming down upon us from the north, would, in thirty seconds after they bad crossed the St. Lawrence, be in the Gulf of Mexico, carrying with them the whole surface of the continent in a mass, not simply of ruin, but of glowing vapor, in which the vapors arising from the dissolution of the materials composing the cities of Boston, New York, and Chicago would be mixed in a single indistinguishable cloud.

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