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one crore and 80 lacks for the second, and to that of their old masters. This could one crore and 88 lacks for the third (inde- not be done, he was sure, without exciting pendent of the profit derivable from a mo- much discontent, and, perhaps, not withnopoly of salt estimated at eleven lacks); out considerable resistance on their part. and that the said Mr. Henry Wellesley,

If the noble lord meant that the compensalieut. governor, stated, that he had no tion should be made in the form of subdoubt that the settlement of the Land Re- sidy, he ought to have stated the mode venue for the second period of 3 years, of doing it, and to have shewn himself prewould not be less than two crores of ru-pared to solve all the difficulties which pees, and that the Land Revenue of the must present themselves to every one as Provinces when fully cultivated would to the manner of giving effect to his Resoamount to two crores and fifty lacks of ru- sultion. The noble lord had not gone

into pees,' which is nearly double the amount any detail to prove that the nabob had of subsidy payable by the nabob under been called upon to contribute more than the former Treaty of 1798.' 5. That the he was bound to do by the treaty of 1798; said nabob Saadut Ali did positively and but, he was ready to contend, that the narepeatedly reject and resist the said Cession bob had not been obliged to contribute Treaty of 1801, during a negociation pro- more than under that treaty he would have tracted for many months; and that it was been bound to do, when the number of not till a declaration was made to him, in troops employed upon his frontier: was the most explicit terms, that in case of his taken into consideration, Upon these refusal it was the resolution of the British grounds, therefore, he should feel it his government to assume the entire civil and duty to move the previous question upon military government of the province of all the Resolutions but the last; which Oude, that his assent was obtained. 6. called for a revision of a treaty that had That the British government in India are the sanction of the Commissioners for the bound in honour, in justice, and policy, to Affairs of India, and this he was prepared reconsider and revise the above-mentioned to meet with a direct negative. Treaty of 1801, in order to ascertain whe- Mr. H. Martin took a view of the state ther it will not admit of such modification of the parties in 1801, and of the circumas may ultimately prove more satisfactory stances which led to the treaty. to the nabob of Oude, and at the same tended, that there was not the smallest time be productive of reciprocal advan- ground at that time for the interference of tage to his highness and the Company." the governor-general in the affairs of the

Mr. R. Dundas said, that he was sur- nabob, who had religiously observed all prised that the house should now be called the stipulations of the treaty concluded upon to discuss the same question which in 1798, by sir John Shore. He expected, had been already decided on, by a resolu- at least, that some necessity for the violation, in which the last resolution of the tion of this treaty would have been atnoble lord was not only negatived, but tempted to be established; but no such on which the house pronounced an opi- attempt had been made, and it appeared nion, approving of lord Wellesley's ad- to be infringed merely to give effect to a ministration. He should, therefore, do little system of aggrandisement which : lord more than refer the noble lord to that de- Wellesley had adopted, and was detercision, convinced, that were he now to mined at all events to pursue. The kists go over again the arguments formerly were not even in arrear, and the company adduced, he should be trespassing un- had derived all the advantage from the necessarily upon the time and patience of treaty of 1798 that ever was expected the house. Were the house of commons from it. It was said, indeed, that by this now to agree to the noble lord's resolutions, treaty the nabob would have contributed they would contradict their own decision, as much as he did at present. But, in The noble lords did not shew, in any part of answer to this he stated, that the company his speech, how this inconsistency could be were obliged to keep up a force of not avoided. The noble lord had not stated less than 11, and not more than 13,000 to the house how he intended that the nabob troops for 75 lacs of rupees, to be paid by should be indemnified. If he meant that the the nabob; and till the subsidy was reterritory which had been taken from him fused to be paid, which it never was, we should be restored, he would find it very certainly had no right whatever to seize difficult to transfer the people of India from upon his territory. We were called upon the governor of the East India Company to consult the feelings of the natives of

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India, but we ought also to consider what | support, if I govern ill, use it against me.' must have been their feelings on seeing a So it was with the people of India; if we solemn treaty so unnecessarily and wan governed them with justice and moderatonly violated. And when it was stated, tion we may expect their support, but if that the country was in such a state of we oppress and tyrannize over them we disorder, that all sorts of crimes were com- must expect revolt and resistance. The miited with impunity, it ought also to be hon. gent. denied that the treaty had ever shewn, that ihe security of the British go- been approved of by the court of directors, Virnent in India was endangered by for it was one of their grounds of comtiese disorders. He concluded by declar- plaint that the treaty had never been subing bis intention to support the Resolu- mitted to the court. All that he indivition of his noble friend.

dually ever did was to put his name to a Mr. R. Thornton lamented to see so thin letter, in which pleasure was expressed an attendance upon a discussion so inter- that the treaty had given satisfaction ; but esting to the national character. He at that time he was quite ignorant of the thought the house on a former night had circumstances under which it was conbehaved worse even than lord Wellesleycluded. himself, in the manner in which they had Mr. Howarth.Sir, I am not accustomed got rid of the charges brought against him. to address this house, or to speak in pubHe was not fond of renewed debates upon lic, and therefore I should do it with the same question, but he thought there great embarrassment at any time, but parwas better grounds for renewing the de- ticularly now, when many gentlemen are bate on the present question, than on calling for the question, and seem to wish many others, though he did not flatter to put an end to the debate. I shall, therehimself that the result would be different fore, contract the little I intended to say from what it had been. The treaty which on this occasion, and yield as soon and was now under discussion, he declared, as much as I can, to the impatience of did not deserve that name, for to a treaty the house. Even that little is exposed the assent of-two parties was requisite, and to so many discouragements, that I should the nabob certainly never had voluntarily probably have confined myself to votgiven his assent to that of 1801. It was ing on the question, if my long resialledged, that it would be difficult to re- dence in India had not furnished me scind the treaty, but nothing should ever with information, which I hope will be be considered as difficult which was right, thought to deserve some attention.— I am and if we had any regard to justice or na- not surprised that the hon. President of tional character, certainly some compen- the Board of Controul should have shewn sation ought to be granted to the nabob a vigorous disinclination to any fur. for the wrong he had sustained, however ther discussion of the subject. I have no difficult it might be to find out the proper doubt that, if the whole of the transactions mode of compensation. The treaty was in Oude were to be buried in oblivion, it .said to have originated in friendship, but would afford peculiar satisfaction to the if it began in friendship it ended in cruel- friends of the noble marquis. Sir, we ty and injustice. The noble marquis must look to the exhausted state of the seemed to have carried a sample of French treasury in Calcutta for the secret spring fraternization to India. The treaty was and first movement of his lordship in really a sort of Gallican hug, in which the Oude. Beggary begot necessity, and noble marquis had squeezed the nabob to necessity created the measure of quarterdeath. One might as well call a robbery ing a great part of the Bengal army on committed by a footpad on a traveller on the country, or providing for it at the exHounslow-Heath, a treaty! If the tyrant pence of the nabob. Want of

money,

and who had desolated Europe should ever no other, was the true cause of this and reach our East India possessions, and find every other injustice done to the nabob. the hearts of the people alienated from all manner of pretences have been set up us, and our name connected with injustice in defence of these measures, except the and oppression, he called upon the house true one. Distress drove you into these to reflect what an advantage he would courses, and who was the author of the have over us. When Trajan put a sword distress? who, but the noble marquis himinto the hands of the prefect of the Preto- self ? Extravagance produces violence, rian Bands; he made use of these words, and then you defend the violence by the • As long as I govern - well, use it in my extravagance. When political necessity was pleaded, I did expect that reasons of of all these frauds and cruelties, which are an over-ruling nature, some imminent dan- called policy; see into what a situation ger, some instant cause of apprehension, they have brought you at last. Have you admitting of no debate, would have been extended

your

dominions? Yes, in violastated to palliate at least, if not to justify: tion of the resolutions of this house, conthe atrocious cruelty, the injustice, and firmed and made law by two acts of parthe indignities more galling than injustice, liament. You have a frontier, which you with which the nabob of Oude, as well as cannot riefend, and you have alienated the many other Indian princes, have been affections of the native powers, who wait treated. Instead of such a case made out only for an opportunity to make you

feel or even alledged, what has the President their hatred, and I am afraid that issue of the Board of Controul advanced? Why, will be tried at no very distant period. In first he gianced at the supposition of an the meantime, what profit have you

deinvasion of Oude by Zemaun Shah, and, rived from this boasted increase of your in glancing at it only, I confess he has dominions? Your establishments have shewn his discretion. Why, sir, at the grown much faster than even your terrivery period allotted to this pretended in- tory; with all your immense acquisitions, vasion, Zemaun Shah was in his grave. with all your subsidiary treaties, with the Lord Wellesley in his letter of Jan. I, Mysore, the Decan, the Carnatic and 1802, says to the Directors, “ The danger Oade, with four kingdoms added to your of invasion from Candahar is entirely re- possessions, your annual expences exceed moved by the destruction of the power of your revenues by two millions and a half. Zemaun Shah, and by the actual state of Not a rupee in your treasury at Calcutta, his dominions; while our north-western at Fort St. George, or Bombay; in genefrontier has been considerably strengthen-ral circulation, nothing but paper, and ed by the recent arrangements effected in thus, sir, have all those extortions, which Oude." The arrangements alluded to are termed policy, ended in your own consisted of nothing but the exaction of beggary. I state the general effect of the money and territory from the nabob, con- policy I allude to, as embracing all India. trary to the most solemn treaties, and in the treatment of the nabob of Oude is a violation not only of every principle of sample of that policy, and a striking exgood faith but of common humanity; and ample of its effect. --But perhaps it may for what purpose ? To provide against a be said, that this commercial sovereign, danger, which was entirely removed, if the India Company, though not very wise ever it existed. But the hon. President or fortunate in the exercise of their sovesays, · The French were in Alexandria ;' reignty, have been prudent and successful and this was another necessity for taxing in their character of merchants? In an the nabob of Oude. My conviction is, evil hour for themselves, they departed that, if they had remained in undisturbed from the only occupation it was possible possession of Alexandria to the present day, for them to understand. Look at their sithey could not have invaded India from tuation in Leaden-Hall Street. There you that quarter, nor did they ever intend it. see them overwhelmed with debts, and in They had no fleet or transports in the Red arrear to government:even for the duties Sea, nor had they the means or materials on their teas, the only article they can for building ships there, or, to find provi- sell; loaded with enormous establishments, sions or even fresh water at Suez, equal to which it is impossible for them to defray so great an embarkation, and so long a otherwise than by running more and more voyage, of which the navigation for a fleet into debt, and with a multitude of other from Suez to the Indian sea is perhaps the demands upon them, active and growing most difficult and dangerous in the world. every day, and against which they have And even then, unless the French could nothing to set up but an accumulation of obtain a naval superiority in the Indian dead or dormant property,

locked

up

and seas, how could they possibly get to India rotting in their warehouses for want of a from Egypt? The hon. President seems sale; which does not however prevent averse to further discussion on the profest their constantly taking up more and more principle of lord Wellesley's conduct. ships at an intolerable expence of freight Perhaps he will have no objection to an- and charges, to bring home more cargoes swer a few questions upon the effect of it. of the same quality, and to take away all What has been gained by these acts of in- chance or even the possibility of selling justice and oppression ? Look at the result what they have already in England. Add Vol. X.

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to all this, that every shilling of their capi-th tal is gone. And will this house neyer ask, by whose fraud or misconduct, by whose treachery or whose folly, all this mass of ey mischief has accumulated ? Have we been taken by surprise ? Flave the India Com-fo pany till very lately been quite unaware fin of their situation? Has no warning voice q been heard in this house ? Have no powerful appeals been made to the public in m writing on this subject? Yes, sir, some of the worthy directors have now and then the gently hinted at the mismanagement of di their governments, and at the misconduct of their servants in India, over whom they had no controul. But these intimations were rare and feeble, in comparison with the information given us by an hon. friend of mine (Sir Philip Francis) who is no long-th er a member of this house. to year as the mischiefs increased his al speeches kept pace with them.

From ci year to year, I might almost say from day th to day, his talents and his industry were jer employed in exposing the fatal folly of an that destructive system, which has been adopted by your government in India, un and encouraged and protected in England, and the ruinous consequences which would result from it. His performance of this invidious duty was not confined to his speeches here. His writings addressed to the public predicted every thing that has happened ; writings, sir, as remarkable for fic the elearness, the purity, and precision of de their style, as they are for the comprehen-pl sive knowledge they contain of the sub-fo jects on which they treated; and I believe, es sir, it would be as difficult to find a person, pe who has displayed in your Indian affairs ti more ability, more perseverance, and more of integrity, as it would be to find another lin instance of a man, who has deserved more of his country, and whose merits have been so ill rewarded, as those of the hon. gent. of I allude to. Now, sir, on a full conside- of ration of the injustice which has marked of the conduct of the noble lord in Oude, the harshness with which the nabob has been ti treated, and the cruel circumstances of lic galling aggravation with which it has tie been accompanied, and above all, sir, on bu the effect which it has produced in the fu minds of the native powers in India, I feel entirely disposed to agree with the noble of lord who has brought forward this motion, ha for every reparation or restitution which the circumstances of the case will admit pe of.—The security of the British dominion pi in India depends greatly on opinion, and

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sufferings of the people, but created a per-) in reversion as otherwise, as the best means
nicious and dangerous influence, corrupt- of consolidating the strength of the em-
ing and undermining the pure and free pire, and calling forth the united energies
principles of the British constitution ; and and exertions of the people at a time só
that after the enormous abuses brought to necessary for the safety and security of
light by the various Commissions of En- his majesty's dominions.”-Ordered to lie
quiry, it is a matter of deep concern to upon the table.
the petitioners that the offenders thereby [AssessED TAXES AND GAME DUTIES.]
discovered have not been brought to jus- The Chancellor of the Erchequer, in a com-
tice, and those who so grossly misapplied mittee of ways and means, rose, to submit
the public money have hitherto escaped the propositions, of which he had given
with impunity, and the petitioners did notice, respecting the transfer of the duty
therefore rely upon parliament that speedy for licences to shoot game, from the Stamp
and effectual measures would have been Duty to the Assessed Taxes, and for con-
adopted to reform such abuses, and detect solidating the additional 10 per cent. with
and punish the offenders in, future; and the Assessed Taxes, to the consideration
that the petitioners viewed with much sa- of the committee. As to the first point,
tisfaction the formation of a Committee of he should only observe, that it was noto-
Finance, and hailed the introduction into rious that the duty was evaded in a va-
the house of a Bill to prevent the granting riety of cases, a circumstance which
of places in reversion as the first step to- could not take place when the duty was
wards these salutary reformations ; they transferred to the Assessed Taxes, in con-
beheld with increased satisfaction, the sequence of the mode in which the As-
measures taken by the house, both during sessed Taxes were collected. Upon this
the late and present sessions of parliament, head, therefore, he should propose a Re-
to carry the same into effect; and that it solution to the committee, that the pre-
was with grief and disappointment they sent duties on Game licences do cease, in
observed the views and intentions of the order that others should be granted in the
house unhappily frustrated'; and they Assessed Taxes in lieu of them. When
have too much reason to apprehend that the Bill that was to be founded

upon

this the defeat of this measure has arisen from resolution, should be brought in, gentlethat baneful and predominating influence men would have an opportunity of conwhich such abuses must necessarily create, sidering how far the provisions it was to and which this Bill was interded to cor- contain would be efficient to its object. rect; and that it appears to the petiti-. Under the present system, much incononers at all times essential that a rigid, venience was felt by those gentlemen who economy should be observed in the ex- 'happened to reside at a distance from the penditure of the public money, and that county town, in obtaining their certifino places or pensions should be bestowed | cates from the clerk of the peace. This but for real public services, more particu- inconvenience would be wholly removed Jarly so at the present moment, when it is by the arrangement which he proposed, declared, that this country is at the very for the certificates would be forwarded to crisis of its fate,' and the people are called the collector of the district, to be issued upon for such unexampled sacrifices and on the production, by the person requiring exertions; they beg further to suggest to it

, of the receipt for the payment of the the house, the serious consequences likely duty. Since the subject had been under to result should a disposition be evinced his consideration, several communications by either branch of the legislature, at a had been received, which represented period so awful and momentous, not to that the evasions were chiefly practised participate with the people in their dan- by persons pretending that they were gers, sacrifices, and privations; and there shooting woodcocks and snipes, whilst, in fore praying the house not to relax in reality, they were engaged in pursuit of their endeavours in carrying so necessary game.

In order to remove this source of and beneficial a measure into eflect, and evasion, therefore, it was deemed desircausing enquiries to be made into the re- able to include woodcocks and snipes in ceipt, management, and expenditure of the enumeration of game. The other prothe public money, adopting measures position that he had to submit to the comwhich may eftectually guard against such mittee, was a resolution for the consoliabuses in future, and for abolishing all dation of the 10 per cent. additional to unnecessary places and pensions, as well the Assessed Taxes granted the year be

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