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E I G H T E E N T H CENTURY,
bis HISTORY, down to the End of the Year 1788.
On the tenth day of February, the definitive treaty of peace was signed, and soon after ratified, between the court of Great Britain and those of France and Spain, and between the two latter crowns and that of Portugal. On the twenty-second of March following, peace was proclaimed, with the ufual solemnities, at London.
In this definitive treaty, the most material alterations from, or explanations of, the prelimi. nary articles of peace, of the third day of November, 1762, are :
1. That instead of the fifth article of the preliminaries, relating to Dunkirk, the thirteenth article of the definitive treaty ftipulates, “ That Dunkirk shall be put into the state fixed by " the last treaty of Aix la Chapelle, and by former treaties. The Cunette * shall be destroyed “ immediately after the exchange of the ratifications of the prefent treaty, as well as the forts " and batteries which defend the entrance on the fide of the fea; and provision shall be made “ at the same time for the wholesomeness of the air, and for the health of the inhabitants, by " some other means, to the satisfaction of the King of Great Britain."
* A Cunette, fometimes called a Cuvette, is generally described to be a deep trench, (mostly a wet one.) dug along the bottom of a broader or larger dry ditch, for rendering the approach to the place more difficult. Vol. IV.
1763. II. That, instead of the tenth preliminary, tlie eleventh article of the definitive treaty stipu.
lates, “ That Great Britain shall restore to France, in the condition they now are in, the “ different factories (in the preliminary article called comptoirs) which that crown possessed,
as well on the coast of Coroinandel and Orixa, as on that of Malabar, as also in Bengal, at “ the beginning of the year 1749: and France renounces all pretenfions to the acquisitions “ The had made on the coast of Coromandel and Orixa;” (i. c. Fort St. David, and its dependencies) “ And his most Christian Majesty shall restore, on his part, all that lie may have " conquered from Great Britain in the East Indies during the present war; and will expressly “ cause Nattal and Tapanoully,” i. e. Bencoolen, &c. " in the island of Sumatra, to be re« stored. And he further engages, not to erect fortifications, or to keep troops in any parts “ of the dominions of the Subah " commonly called the Nabob,“ of Bengal. And, in “ order to preserve future peace on the coast of Coromandel and Orixa, the English and “ French thall acknowlegde Mahomet Ally Khan for lawful Nabob of the Carnatic, and “ Salabat Jing for lawful Subah of the Decan; and both parties shall renounce all demands “ and pretensions of satisfaction with which they might charge each other, or their Indian “ allies, for the depredations or pillage committed on either side during the war.”
To this article, his Grace the Duke of Bedford subjoined a declaration, importing “ That, “ for the preventing of all subject of dispute, on account of the limits of the territories of the “ Subah of Bengal, as well as of the coast of Coromandel and Orixa, the said territories of the “ Subab of Bengal, shall be reputed to extend only as far as the Yanaon exclusively; and that “ the Yanaon shall be considered as included in the northern part of the coast of Coromandel " and Orixa.”
III. Instead of the fourth article of the preliminaries, by which the French King obliges himself, on his royal word only, not to fortify the islands of St. Pierre and Miquelon, that King, by the fixth article of the definitive treaty, “absolutely engages not to fortify those islands, &c. “as in the said preliminary article."
IV. Instead of the words of the nineteenth preliminary article, by which “ his Catholic
nent of North America, to the east or to the south-east of the river Missisippi ;” by the “ twentieth article of the definitive treaty, “ his Catholic Majesty cedes and guarantees, in “ full right, to his Britannic Majesty, Florida, with the fort St. Augustine, and the bay of “ Pensacola ; as well as all that Spain possesses on the continent of North America, to the east,
or to the south-east of the river Missisippi ; and, in general, every thing that depends on the “ faid countries and lands, with the sovereignty, property, and poffeffion, and all rights ac
quired by treaties, or otherwise, which the Catholic King and the crown of Spain have had, “ till now, over the said countries, &c. in the most ample manner and form, &c.".
V. Inftead of the latter part of the ninth article of the preliminaries, by which “France “ cedes, in full right, and guarantees to the King of Great Britain, Senegal ;” in the tenth “ article of the definitive treaty it is thus expressed :-" His most Christian Majesty cedes, in “ full right, and guarantees to the King of Great Britain, the river Senegal, with the forts “ and factories of St. Louis, Podor, and Galam ; and with all the rights and dependencies of " the said river Senegal." Which forts and territories were thought so important by the House of Commons, that, on the thirtieth of the said month of March, they passed a vote of credit for his Majesty to expend as far as seven thousand pounds, for repairing and improving the fame.
1763 Wi:h regard to Asia, the eleventh article of the definitive treaty fufficiently demonstrates the
great superiority we obtained by it in the East Indies, as it necessarily produced a great increase of our Company's commerce thither, and a proportionable augmentation of the customs, as well as of our national wealth, and of the finking fund.
II. In Africa, our possession of the French settlements on the river Senegal, afforded us the profitable command of that most useful article gum Senegal, so indispensably necessary for the perfecting of many of our own manufactures : and, by the vast enlargement of our continental as well as insular dominions in America, the demand for negro llaves from that and other parts of the African coast, greatly increased, and therewith that of our shipping and mariners; and also a proportionable, or perhaps greater augmentation of our outward-bound cargoes, confisting of our own various manufactures, for the purchase of those llaves, &c.
III. With regard to the new acquisitions, both from France and Spain, on the continent of North America, considered either in a political or commercial view, they afforded a prospect of adding, in a pre-eminent degree, to the national prosperity.
IV. By the extensive province of Florida, which was then yielded to us by Spain, and by the further addition of almost the only valuable part of Louisiana, our empire in America was not only rendered vastly more extensive, but likewise extremely secure, down from our province of Georgia southward, to the Cape of Florida ; and thence turning westward, along the great gulph or bay of Mexico, up to the mouth of the river Miffifippi ; all which has no other frontier but the ocean: an extreme advantage to a commercial nation. But this was not all the benefit arising from such concession : for, by the advantage of the bay and harbour of Pensacola, &c. we were enabled, in time of war, to command the neighbouring seas and coasts belonging to those two nations; with other advantages, which are now unnecessary to be mentioned.
V. By our treaty with Spain, we effect ually established our before disputed right to the pro. fitable benefit of our unlimitedly cutting of logwood on the shores of Campeachy ; where we were also empowered to have habitations for our people, and store-houses for our goods; where also, in case of any future rupture, it would always be in our power to form a more effectual establishment. By this important concession, a great bone of contention, of near one hundred years standing, was also moft fortunately abolished,
VI. Even with respect to the West India islands, we may observe, that although, in order to get rid of our troublesome neighbours on the American continent, and to obtain of them many other important advantages, in different parts of the world, it was judged expedient to restore the sugar islands we had conquered, together with the neutral one of St. Lucia, we still acquired, by the ninth article of the definitive treaty, the islands of Grenada and the Grenadines, and likewise the neutral isles of St. Vincent, Dominica, and Tobago ; with the additional and permanent benefit of for ever annihilating the name or appellation of any neutral ifle in those feas; whereby cach nation's possessions and property there are now distinctly ascertained, and a final period put to so long a plea for altercation.
Lastly, the effectual demolition of the impregnable part of the sea-port of Dunkirk was now fully executed; not merely because so ftipulated, as it had been thrice before, but because we were in possession of wbat we never before effectually had, -a sure pledge of its being duly performed.
These were, without doubt, most substantial and important objeéts:-But that they were adequate to the advantages we had gained during the course of the war, was an opinion by no
1763 means unanimous throughout the kingdom ; and there were not wanting persons of the first
talents, and the greatest name, who decried this peace, as disgraceful to a people, victorious in. every part of the globe ; and who, it was asserted, possessed resources to continue the career of success, till they had brought their enemies to their feet. But we must prefer narrative to speculation ;-it is our office to relate things as they happen, and not detail opinions as they arise; more particularly at a period when the established freedom of the press, and the great increase of knowledge, bring every public question into voluminous discussion. This work would err from its design, if we were to do more than ftate those facts which are appropriate to it, and recite those measures which have proceeded from the mind of government: to review the deliberations that produced them is not our province;-it is not for us to reason, --but to relate.
To clear away the incumbrances of the late war, supplies were to be raised, and, of course, taxes to be imposed. For these purposes it was proposed by government,
First, To take two millions from the finking fund.
To pay the intereft on these loans, which, amounted, in the whole, to seven millions three hundred thousand pounds, an additional duty, of eight pounds per tun, was laid upon all wines of the growth of France, and four pounds per tun on all others.
This part of the plan of ways and means was unexceptionable ; but another duty was added, which furnished the opponents of government with a subject of popular outcry, and the successful means of influencing the whole nation : this was a duty of four shillings per hogshead to be laid on cyder, and to be subject, with some qualifications, to all the laws of excise. As this act became an object of great popular frenzy and tumult, and seemed to interest the parfions of the people in general at the time it was agitated and passed, we shall insert a general abstract of it.
“ That from and after the thirty-first day of March, 1763, the following additional duties Thall take place, viz.
“ On French wine and vinegar imported, eight pounds per tun, and all other wines and vinegar imported four pounds per tun; to be colle&ted, levied, and paid, as expressed in the act of James II. or in any other act by which the duties thereby granted are made perpetual.
Damaged and unmerchantable wines shall be exempted from these additional duties. “ The said duties shall be under the management of the Commissioners of the Customs, and shall be paid over weekly by the Receiver-General into the Exchequer, apart from all other monies, and shall be entered accordingly in proper books to be provided there for that purpose.
“ No allowance shall be made for leakage, but upon wines imported directly from the country or place of their growth, &c, Madeira wines from the British plantations in America excepted.
“ From and after the fifth of July, 1763, an additional duty shall be laid on all cyder and perry: viz. on all cyder and perry imported, forty shillings per tun; and upon all cyder " and perry made within Great Britain, four shillings per hogshead, to be paid by the maker.