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POLITICAL MANUAL FOR 1869.
MEMBERS 05 THE CABINET OF PRESIDENT JOHNSON,
AND OF THE FORTIETH CONGRESS, THIRD SESSION.
PRESIDENT JOHNSON'S CABINET.
Secretary-of-State—Wm. H. Seward, of New York.
Secretary of the Treasury—Hugh Mcculloch, of •".'Indiana.
Secretary of War—John M. 'schofield, of New York.
Secretary of the Navy—Gideon Welles, of Connecticut.
Secretary of the Interior—Orville II. Browning, | of Illinois.
Postmaster General—Alexander W. Randall, of Wisconsin.
Attorney General—Wm. M. Sv Arts, of New York.
MEMBEES 01 THE EQETIETH COHGEESS.
Third Session, December 7,1868—March 3,1869.
Benjamin F. Wade, of Ohio, President of the 'Senate, and Acting Vice President.
George C Gorham, of California, Secretary.
Maine—Lot M. Morrill, William Pitt Fessenden.
New Hampshire—Aaron H. Cragin, James W. Patterson.
Vermont—George F. Edmunds, Justin S. Morrill.
Massachusetts—Charles Sumner, Henry Wilson.
Rhode Island—William Sprague, Henry B. Anthony.
Connecticut—James Dixon, Orris S. Ferry.
New York—-Edwin D. Morgan, Roscoe Conkling.
New Jersey—Frederick T. Frelinghuysen, Alexander G. Cattell.
Pennsylvania—Charles R. Buckalew, Simon Cameron.
Delaware—James A. Bayard, Willard Saulsbury.
Maryland—William Pinckney Whyte, George Vickefs.
North Carolina—John C. Abbott, John Pool.
South Carolina—Thomas J. Robertson, Frederick A. Sawyer.
Alabama—-Willard Warner, George E. Spencer.
Louisiana—John S. Harris, William P. Kellogg.
Ohio—Benjamin F. Wade, John Sherman.
Kentucky—Thomas C. McCreery, Garrett Davis.
Tennessee—David T. Patterson, Joseph S. Fowler.
Indiana—Thomas A. Hendricks, Oliver P. Morton.
Illinois—Richard Yates, Lyman Trumbull.
Mimuri—John B. Henderson, Charles D. Drake.
Arkansas^— Alexander McDonald, Benjamin F Rice.
Michigan—Zachariah Chandler, Jacob M. Howard.
Florida—Adonijah S. Welch, Thomas W.Osborn,
Iowa—James W.-Grimes, James Harlan
Wisconsin—James R. Doolittle, Timothy 0. Howe.
California—John Conness, Cornelius Cole.
Minnesota—Alexander Ramsey, Dan'l S. Norton.
Oregon—George H. Williams, Henry W. Corbett.
Kansas—Edmund G. Ross, Samuel C. Pomeroy.
West Virginia—Peter G. Van Winkle, Waitman T. Willey.
Nevada—William M. Stewart, James W. Nye.
Nebraska—Thomas W. Tipton, John M. Thayer.
House of Representatives.
Schuyler Colfax, of Indiana, Speaker,
Edward McPherson, of Pennsylvania, Clerk..
Maine—John Lynch, Sidney Perham, James G. Blaine, John A. Peters, Frederick A. Pike.
New Hampshire—Jacob H. Ela, Aaron F. Stevens, Jacob Benton.
Vermont—Frederick E. Woodbridge, Luke P. Poland, Worthington C. Smith.
Massachusetts— Thomas D. Eliot, Oakes Ames, Ginery Twichell, Samuel Hooper, Benjamin F. Butler, Nathaniel P. Banks, George S. Boutwell, John D. Baldwin, William B. Washburn, Henry L. Dawe?.
Rhode Island—Thomas A. Jenckes, Nathan F. L>iAon.
Connecticut—Richard D. Hubbard, Julius Hotchkiss, Henry H. Starkweather, William H. Barnum.
New Zbr&—Stephen Taber, Demas Barnes, William E. Robinson, John Fox, John Morrissey, Thomas E. Stewart, John W. Chanler, James Brooks, Fernando Wood, William II. Robertson, Charles H. Van Wyck, John H. Ketcham, Thomas Cornell, John V.'L. Pruyn, John A. Griswold, Orange Ferriss, Calvin T. Hulburd, James M. Marvin, William C. Fields, Addison H. Laflin, Alexander H. Bailey, John C. Churchill, Dennis McCarthy, Theodore M. Pomeroy, William H. Kelsey", William S. Lincoln, Hamilton Ward, Lewis Selye, Burt Van Horn, James M.. Humphrey, Henry Van Aernam.
Hew Jersey—-William; Moore, Charles Haight, Charles Sitgreayes, John Hill, George A. HalBey.
Pennsylvania—Samuel J. Randall, Charles O'Neill, Leonard Myers, William D. Kelley, Caleb N. Taylor, Benjamin M. Boyer, John M. Broomall, J. Lawrence Getz, 0. J. Dickey,* Henry L. Cake, Daniel M. Van Auken, George W. Woodward, Ulysses Mercur, George F. Miller, Adam J. Glossbrenner, William H. Koontz, Daniel J. Morrell, Stephen F. Wilson, Glenni W. Scofield, S. Newton Pettis.f John Covode, James K. Moorhead, Thomas Williams, George V. Lawrence.
'Delaware—John A. Nicholson.
Maryland— Hiram McCullough, Stevenson Archer, Charles E. Phelps, Francis Thomas, Frederick Stone.
North Carolina—-John R. French, David Heaton, Oliver H Dockery, John T. Deweese, Israel G. Lash, Nathaniel Boyden, Alexander H. Jones.
South Carolina—B. F. Whittemore, C. 0. Bo'wen, Simeon Corlev, James IT. G.oss.
Georgia—J. W! Clift, Nelaon Tift, W. P. Edwards, Samoel F. Gove, C H. Prince, (vacancy,) P. M. B. Young.
Alabama—Francis:, W. Kellogg, .Charles W. Buckley, Benjamin W. Norris, Charles W. Pierce, John B. Callis, Thomas Haughey.
Louisiana—J. Hal?, Sypher, (vacancy,) Joseph; P. Newsh'am, :Michel Vidal, W. Jasper Blackburn.
Ohio—Benjamin Eggleston, Samuel F. Gary, Robert C. Schenck, William Lawrence, William Mungen, Reader W. Clarke, Samuel Shellabarger, John Beatty, Ralph P. Buckland, James M. Ashley, John T. Wilson, Philadelph Van Trump, Columbus Delano, Martin Welker, Tobias A. Plants, John A. Bingham, Ephraim R. Eckley, Rufus P. Spalding, James A. Garfield.
Kentucky-— Lawrence S. Trimble, (vacancy,) J. S. Golladay, J. Proctor Knott, Asa P. Grover,
Thomas L. Jones, James B. Beck, George M. Adams, Samuel McKee.
Tennessee—Roderick R. Butler, Horace Maynard, William B. Stokes, James Mullins, John Trimble, Samuel M. Arnell, Isaac R. Hawkins, David A. Nunn.
Indiana—William E. Niblack, Michael C. Kerr, Morton C. Hunter, William S. Holman, George W. Julian,; John Coburn, Henry D. Washburn, Godlove S. Orth, Schuyler Colfax, William Williams, John P. 0. Shanks.
Illinois—Norman B. J add, John F. Farnsworth, Ellihu B. Washburne, Abner C. Harding, Ebon C. Ingersoll, Burton C Cook, Henry P. H. Bromwell, Shelby M. Cullom, Lewis W. Ross, Albert G. Burr, Samuel S. Marshall, Jehu Baker, Green B. Raum, John A. Logan.
Missouri—William A. Pile, Carman A. Newcomb, James R. McCormick, Joseph J. Gravely, John H. Stover * Pvobert T. Van Horn, Benjamin F. Loan, John F. Benjamin, George W. Anderson.
Arkansas—Logan H. Roots, James T. Elliott, Thomas Boles.
Michigan—Fernando C. Beaman, Charles Upson, Austin Blair, Thomas W. 'Ferry, Rowland E, Trowbridge, John F. Driggs.
Florida—Charles M. Hamilton.
Ioiva—James F. Wilson, Hiram Price, William B. Allison, William Loughridge, Grenville M. Dodge, Asahel W. Hubbard.
Wisconsin—-Halbert E. Paine, Benjamin F. Hopkins, Amasa Cobb, Charles A, Eldridge, Philetus Sawyer, Cadwalader C. Washburn.
California—-Samuel B. Axtell, William,.Higby, James A. Johnson.
Minnesota—William Windom,' Ignatius Donnelly.
West Virginia—Chester "D. Hubbard, Bethuel M. Kitchen, Daniel Polsley.
Nevada—Delos R. Ashley.
* In place of Thadcleus Stevens, deceased. * In place of Joseph W. McClurg, resigned,
f In place of Darwin A. Finney, deceased.
PRESIDENT JOHNSON'S LAST ANNUAL MESSAGE,
DECEMBER 7, 1868.
The following extracts relate to reconstruction and.other controverted subjects:
Fellow-Citizens of the Senate
and House of Representatives: Upon the reassembling of Congress, it again becomes my duty to call your attention to the state of the Union, and to its continued disor
ganized condition under the, various laws which have been passed upon the, subject of reconstruction.
It may. be safely assumed, as an axiom in the government of States, that the greatest wrongs inflicted upon a, people are caused, by unjust and arbitrary legislation, or by the unrelenting decrees of'i despotic rulers, and that the timely revocation of injurious and oppressive measures is the greatest good that can be conferred upon a nation. The legislator or ruler who has the wisdom and magnanimity to retrace his steps, when convinced of error, will sooner or later be rewarded with the respect and gratitude of an intelligent and patriotic people.
Our own history, although embracing a period less than a century, affords abundant proof that most, if not all, of our domestic troubles are directly traceable to violations of the organic law and excessive legislation. The most striking illustrations of this fact are furnished by the enactments of the past three years upon the question of reconstruction. After a fair trial they have substantially failed and proved pernicious in their results," and there seems to be no good reason why they should remain longer upon the statute-book. States to which the Constitution guaranties a republican form of government have been reduced to military dependencies, in each of which the people have been made subject to the arbitrary will of the commanding general. Although the Constitution requires that each State shall be represented in Congress, Virginia, Mississippi, and Texas are yet excluded from the two Houses, and, contrary to the express provisions: of that instrument, were denied participation in the recent election for a President and Vice President of the United States. The attempt to place the white population under the domination of persons of color in the South has impaired, if not destroyed, the kindly relations that had previously existed between them; and mutual distrust has engendered a feeling of animosity which, leading in some instances to collision and bloodshed, has prevented that co-operation between the two races so essential to the success of industrial enterprises in the Southern States. Nor have the inhabitants of those States alone suffered from the disturbed' condition of affairs growing out of these congressional enactments. The entire Union has been agitated by grave apprehensions of troubles which might again involve the peace of the nation; itsinterests have been injuriously affected by the derangement of business and labor, and the consequent want of prosperity throughout that portion of the country. , *
The Federal Constitution—-the,magna charta of American rights, under whose wise and salutary provisions we have successfully conducted all our domestic and foreign affairs, sustained ourselves in peace and in war,.and;become a great nation among the Powers of ^he earth—must assuredly be now adequate to the settlement of questions growing out of the civil war waged alone for its vindication. This great fact is made most manifest by. the condition of the country when Congress assembled in the month of December, 1865. Civil strife had ceased; the spirit of rebellion had spent its entire force; in the Southern Statesthe people had warmed into national life, and throughout the whole country a healthy reaction in public sentiment had taken place, By the application of the simple yet effective provisions of the Constitution the executive department, with the voluntary aid of the States, had brought the work of restora
tion as near completion as was within the scope of its authority^ and the nation was encouraged by the prospect of an early and satisfactory adjustmentof all its difficulties. Congress, however, intervened, and, refusing to perfect the work so nearly consummated, declined to admit members from the unrepresented States, adopted a series of measures which arrested the progress of restoration, frustrated all that had been so successfully accomplished, and after three years of agitation and strife has left the country further from the attainment of union and fraternal feeling than at the inception of the congressional plan of reconstruction. It needs no argument to show that legislation which has produced such baneful consequences should be abrogated, or else made to conform to the genuine^ principles of republican government.
Under the influence of party passion and sectional prejudice, other acts, have been passed not warranted by the Constitution. Congress has already been made familiar with my views respecting the "tenure-of-office bill." Experience has proved that its repeal is demanded by the best interests of the country, and that while it remains in force the President cannot enjoin that rigid accountability of public officers so essential to an honest and efficient execution of the laws. Its revocation would enable the executive department to exercise the power of appointment and removal in accordance with the original design of the Federal Constitution.
The act of March 2, 186,7, making appropriations for the support of the army for the year ending;June 30, 1868, and for other purposes,, contains provisions which interfere with thePresident's constitutional • functions as Commander-in-Chief of the Army, and deny to. States of the Union the right to protect themselves by means of their own militia. These: provisions should be at once annulled; for whiles the first might, in times of great emergency,, seriously embarrass the Executive in efforts ta employ and direct the common strength of the nation for its protection and preservation, the; other is contrary to the express declaration of the Constitution, that, "a well-regulated.militia, being necessary to the security of a free State,, the right of the people to keep and bear arms shall not be infringed."
. It is believed that the repeal of all such law& would be accepted by the American people as* at = •least; a partial return to the fundamental principles of the Government, and an indication that hereafter the.Constitution is to be made the* nation's safe and unerring guide. They can be productive of no permanent benefit to the country, and should not be permitted to stand as m many monuments of the deficient wisdom whAchi has characterized our recent legislation.
The condition of our finances demands, the early and earnest consideration of Congress'. Compared with the growth of our population, the public expenditures have reached -an amount, unprecedented in our history.
The population of the United States in 1790 was nearly four millions of people; ., Increasing each decade about. thirty-three per cent.,, i£ reached in 1860 thirty-one millions—an im.C£ease of seven hundred per cent, on the po/p-uiatijon i&>