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Roman state, Tuscany, Parma, and Lucca, no punishments were inflicted for participation in former political societies.
The oppressions and exactions which the Italians are compelled to suffer, cannot, it would seem, be much longer endured. Punishments have been invented, of which the present age abhors the very name. No respect whatever has been paid in numerous instances to acquired rights. Judgments pronounced in civil causes, after mature consideration by the higher courts, have been annulled, and new trials granted, against law, before commissioners. In short, Italy is on the eve of great revolutions. Thousands and tens of thousands of her best men, are only watching a favorable opportunity, to try in her large cities a three days' experiment.
Silvio Pellico, a member of one of the secret societies, formed for the deliverance of his country, was arrested in Milan, on the 15th of October, 1820, and conveyed to the prison of Santa Margherita. His examination occupied several days. He there remained till February, 1821, when he was removed to Venice, where he had to confront the terrors of a state trial. Some of the miseries which he suffered in prison, may be gathered from the following paragraph.
Being almost deprived of human society, I one day made acquaintance with some ants upon my window; I fed them; they went away, and ere long the place was thronged with these little insects, as if come by invitation. A spider, too, had weaved a noble edifice upon my walls, and I often gave him a feast of gnats or flies, which were extremely annoying to me, and which he liked much better than I did. I got quite accustomed to the sight of him; he would run over my bed, and come and take the precious morsels out of my hand. Would to heaven these had been the only insects which visited my abode. It was still summer, and the gnats had begun to multiply to a prodigious and alarming extent. The previous winter had been remarkably mild, and after the prevalence of the March winds, fol. lowed extreme heat. It is impossible to convey an idea of the insufferable oppression of the air in the place I occupied. Opposed directly to a noontide sun, under a leaden roof, and with a window looking on the roof of St. Mark, casting a tremendous reflection of the heat, I was nearly suffocated. I had never conceived an idea of a punishment so intolerable ; add to which the clouds of gnats, which, spite of my utmost efforts, covered every article of furniture in the room, till even the walls and ceiling seemed alive with them; and I had some apprehension of being devoured alive. Their bites, moreover, were extremely painful, and when thus punctured from morning till night, only to undergo the same operation from day to day, and engaged the whole time in killing and slaying, some idea 'may be formed of the state both of my body and my mind."
He then describes an alleviation to the horrors of his confinement.
“I could perceive from my large window, beyond the projection of prisons, situated right before me, a surface of roofs, decorated with cupolas, campanili, towers, and chimneys, which gradually faded in a distant view of sea and sky. In the house nearest to me, a wing of the patriarchal palace, lived an excellent family, who had a claim to my gratitude, for expressing, by their salutations, the interest which they took in my fate. A
sign, a word of kindness to the unhappy, is really charity of no trivial kind. From one of the windows I saw a little boy, nine or ten years old, stretching out his hands towards me, and I heard him call out, ' Mamma, mamma; they have placed somebody up there in the Piombi. Oh, you poor prisoner, who are you?'
"* I am Silvio Pellico,' was the reply.
“ Another older boy now ran to the same window, and cried out, ' Are you Silvio Pellico ?'
and tell me your names, dear boys.' " • My name is Antonio 8- and my brother's is Joseph.'
“He then turned round, and, speaking to some one within, 'What else ought I to ask him?' A lady, whom I conjecture to have been their mother, then half concealed, suggested some pretty words to them, which they repeated, and for which I thanked them with all my heart. These sort of communications were a small matter, yet it required to be cautious how we indulged in them, lest we should attract the notice of the jailer, Morning, noon, and night, they were a source of the greatest consolation; the little boys were constantly in the habit of bidding me good-night, before the windows were closed, and the lights brought in, . Good-night, Silvio,' and often it was repeated by the good lady, in a more subdued voice, • Good-night, Silvio, have courage!'
" When engaged al their meals, they would say, 'How we wish we could give you any of this good coffee and milk. Pray remember, the first day they let you out, to come and see us. Mamma and we will give you plenty of good things,* and as many kisses as you like,'
It was not till the 21st of February, 1822, that Silvio received his sentence. He was condemned to death, but the imperial decree was, that the sentence should be commuted for fifteen years' hard imprisonment in the fortress of Spielberg. On the 10th of April, 1823, Silvio, with some fellow-prisoners, arrived at his place of destination. The prison was near the city of Brünn, the capital of Moravia, and near the famous battle grounds of Austerlitz. It was Silvio's lot to meet with gentle friends in all his sad changes.
“At one end of the terrace were situated the apartments of the superintendent; at the other was the residence of a captain, with his wife and son. When I saw any one appear from these buildings, I was in the habit of approaching near, and was invariably received with marks of courtesy and compassion.
“ The wife of the captain had been long ill, and appeared to be in a decline. She was sometimes carried into the open air, and it was astonishing to see the sympathy she expressed for our sufferings. She had the sweetest look I ever saw; and though evidently timid, would at times fix her eye upon me with an inquiring, confiding glance, when appealed to by name. One day I observed to her with a smile, 'Do you know, signora, I find a resemblance between you and one who was very dear to me.' She blushed, and replied with charming simplicity,'Do not then forget me when I shall be no more; pray for my unhappy soul, and for the little ones I leave behind me!' I never saw her after that day; she was unable to rise from her bed, and in a few months I heard of her death.
“She left three sons; all beautiful as cherubs, and one still an infant at the breast. I had often seen the poor mother embrace them when I was
• Who will be their mother when I am gone?. Ah, whoever she may be, may it please the Father of all to inspire her with love, even for children not her own.'
* Buzzolai, a kind of small loaf.
We have not room to detail the many expedients, which Silvio and his fellow-prisoner, Maroncelli, a part of the time confined with him, adopted for mitigating the horrors of their confinement. They read, talked, sung, composed tragedies, committed verses to memory, examined their past lives, conversed sometimes with fellow-prisoners through the grates and walls. Their sufferings, bodily and mental, were, however, excruciating in the last degree. The iron went into their souls. If the emperor of Austria can crush the revolutionary spirit by all possible apparatus of prisons, and dungeons, and inquisitors, he will succeed. He has more than one Bastile.
At length the prison doors were opened, and the poor captives went free. Silvio was soon in the embraces of his friends.
"W passed the night at Vercelli. The happy day, the 17th of September, 1830, dawned at fast. We pursued our journey; and how slow we appeared to travel! it was evening before we arrived at Turin.
“Who would attempt to describe the consolation I felt; the nameless feelings of delight, when I found myself in the embraces of my father, my mother, and my two brothers ? My dear sister Giuseppina was not then with them; she was fulfilling her duties at Chieri; but on tearing of my felicity, she hastened to stay for a few days with our family, to make it complete. Restored to these five long-sighed-for, and beloved objects of my tenderness,—I was, and I still am, one of the most enviable of mankind.”
Our readers will readily conceive that the narrative is one of intense interest. It is rich in the philosophy of human suffering. Silvio has the pen of a ready writer, and is capable of expressing in rich and appropriate language, the thoughts of a powerful and cultivated mind. His love to his native land, bis grief on account of the sorrows which were piercing a father's and mother's heart, are worthy of all commendation. No trait in his character is more strikingly developed than his filial and fraternal love. The book will also throw considerable light on the present political condition of Italy, and the kind of protection which Austria is extending over that ill-fated country.
The book is translated, in a superior style, by Mr. Thomas Roscoe, son of the philanthropist, the late William Roscoe, of Liverpool. There are some Catholic notions in the book, which our readers will not much admire. With this exception, we commend it to their notice.
10.-Two Expeditions into the interior of Southern Australia,
during the years 1828, 1829, 1830, and 1831 ; with observations on the soil, climate, and general resources of the colony of New South Wales. By Capt. Charles Sturt, 391h regiment, fc. In two volumes. London :
Smith, Elder & Co. 1833. pp. 299, 270. The name, Australia, has, of late years, been affixed to that extensive tract of land which Great Britain possesses in the Southern seas, and which, having been a discovery of the early Dutch navigators, was previously termed New Holland. The change of name was introduced by Malte Brun. Australia stretches from the 115th to the 153d degree of east longitude, and from the 10th to the 37th of south latitude. It averages 2,700 miles in length, by 1,800 in breadth ; and balanced, as it were, upon the tropic of that hemisphere in which it is situated, it receives the fiery heat of the equator at one extremity, while it enjoys the refreshing coolness of the temperate zone at the other. The rivers of Australia have unhappily a bar at their mouth, or where they mingle with the waters of the ocean. Falling rapidly from the mountains in which they originate into a level and depressed country; having weak and inconsiderable sources, and being almost wholly unaided by tributaries of any kind, they naturally fail before they reach the coast, and exhaust themselves in marshes, or lakes. No indigenous fruits of any value have as yet been found, either in the forests or plains of New Holland.
The colony of New South Wales is situated on the eastern coast of Australia ; and the districts within which land has been granted to settlers, extends from the 36th parallel of latitude to the 32d, that is to say, from the Moroyo river to the south of Sydney on the one hand, and to the Manuing river on the other, including Wellington valley within its limits to the westward. The country has been divided into parishes, townships, and counties. For the last seven years, it has risen very rapidly in importance and wealth. The conduct of its merchants is marked by the boldest speculations, and the most gigantic projects. At Sydney, where, thirty years ago, the people flocked to the beach to hail an arrival, it is now not unusual to see from thirty to forty vessels riding at anchor at one time, collected from every quarter of the globe. In 1831, 150 vessels entered the harbor of Port Jackson, from foreign ports, the amount of their tonnage being 31,259 tons.
The staple of the Australian colonies is fine wool. The great improvements in modern navigation are such, that the expense of sending the fleece to England from New South Wales, is less than from any port of Europe, the charges being less, by about a penny on a pound, than upon German or Spanish wool. The culture of fine wool was commenced in the colony in 1793, by John McArthur. The importation of wool into England from the Australian colonies amounted, in 1832, to 10,633 bales, or 2,500,000 pounds. The average number of sheep, in New South Wales alone, is about 600,000 head. In 1831, the quantity of sperm and black oil, the produce of the fisheries, exported from New South Wales, amounted to 2,307 tons, and was estimated to be worth, with skins and whale bone, £107,917. The gross amount of all other exports during that year, did not exceed £107,997.
The greatest disadvantages under which New South Wales labors, are the want of means for carrying inland produce to the market, or to the coast, the Blue mountains being in this respect a serious bar to the internal prosperity of the colony; and the drought, to which it is periodically subject. Its climate may be said to be too dry. Those seasons in which no rain falls, occur every ten or twelve years. The cause is not known. The thermometer ranges during the summer months, that is from September to March, from 36 to 106 of Fahrenheit; but the mean is about 700. The mean winter is 66o.
The character of a part of the society is one of the principal objections to emigration. Drunkenness, as in the mother country, is the besetting sin, though it is confined chiefly to the large towns, in consequence of the difficulty of procuring spirits in the country. The convicts frequently become attached to their occupations, their hearts become softened by mildness, and they atone as much as they can for previous crimes.
The object for which Capt. Sturt was commissioned, was to explore the southern interior of Australia, particularly the Macquarie, Morumbidgee, and Murray rivers.
Considerable geographical information was the result of these expeditions. Mr. Š. seems to be a humane, as well as an intelligent officer. His path, among a large and savage population, was a bloodless one, and his intercourse was such, as to lessen the dangers to future adventurers. The volumes are accompanied with a large map of the country, and with many highly finished drawings of birds, natural scenery, &c.
11.-A Manual of the Chaldee Language ; containing a Chal
dee grammar, chiefly from the German of professor G. B. Winer ; a chrestomathy, consisting of selections from the targums, and including the whole of the biblical Chaldee, with notes ; a vocabulary, adapted to the chrestomathy, with an appendix, fc. By Elias Riggs. Boss ton : Perkins & Marvin. 1832.
Mr. Riggs, the author of this Manual, is now a missionary of the American board of commissioners for foreign missions in Greece, and is associated with Mr. King at Athens. He has here performed a service which will be interesting to all Hebrew scholars.
The Aramean, one of the three grand divisions of the Shemitish or oriental languages, comprises two principal subdivisions -the Syriac and the Chaldee. The appropriate region of the latter, was Babylonia, between the Euphrates and Tigris, the original inhabitants of which, cultivated this language as a distinct dialect, and communicated it to the Jews, during the VOL. I.