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PARTICULARS concerning the present Pope, the Roman NOBILITY, and

the MANNERS of Modern Rome.

[From the first Volume of Travels through GERMANY, SWITZERLAND,


« TO-day and yesterday, I have “ Cardinal Borgia is a man of

1 been in company with mo- great ardour, intelligence, and dern Romans. This morning, I knowledge. He loves the learnwas presented to the pope. This ed; and is glad to see them affemold man, who exercises bis office ble round him, at his table. with so much folemn dignity, is “ A translation of the poem of exceedingly pleasant, and familiar, the Argonauts, by Apollonius Rhoin personal intercourse. I found dius, is now preparing, by cardinal him fitting at his writing desk: Frangini. His knowledge of the he desired me to fit by him, and moderu Greek, which he speaks conversed with me, with anima- with facility, was serviceable to tion and intelligence, on different him, by rendering the ancient subjects.

Greek more familiar. Pius the sixth occupies himself “The senator, prince Rezonico, in the cabinet, gets up in winter and a count of ihe fame family, before day-light, and performs the understand and love German lite. weighty duties of the papal chair rature. I have made an acquaint- · with a knowledge of present cir- ance with the Marchese Rangone, cumstances, and with a firm mind. formerly the first minister of the

“ The disputes between himself duke of Modena. He likewile and the king of Naples, have been reads the Gerinan authors with deadjusted by him with great pru- light ; and, to a noble character, dence ; he having preserved, in- adds extensive learning and real stead of renouncing the least of, genius. his rights. He has conducted him- “ You perceive that interesting self in the affairs of France with men are still to be found, among equal wisdom and dignity; and the great. I grant indeed they has escaped all the snares that are rari nantcs in gurgite vasto. have been laid for him, openly Most of the Principi Marches, and and in secret, by the national ar- titled nobility, here, are ignorant ; sembly, which might have led liim and have that arrogance which to take steps that would have given Neeps in barren ignorance, like an appearance of justice to their ra- earth unbroken by the plough. pacious views.

• But are there no such men among .“ The secretary of state, cardinal us? Zelada, is properly the prime mi- “ I am well aware that, in Gernister. He is a man of much many, there is a certain degree of understanding, and uncommon af- information greater than in Italy ; siduity. He rises, at this season of but would it not be increased, were the year, at four in the morning; we, who perhaps are more inclined and he seldom leaves the walls of to do justice to foreigners than any the Vatican..

other nation, to overcome our pre


judices against the Italians ?-pre; ed. I do not believe that, in all judices, of which many are only Germany, fifiy men perith, by grounded on our folly. There are murder, within the same period. subjects enough to blame : serious But could this have been laid of fubjects; demanding serious consi- the middle ages ? And yet our naderation : and such the love of tion has always maintained the best truth will not fuffer me to over- reputation among pations. Jook.

“The people of Rome cannot “ The education of the daugh- be justly accuted of robbery, A ters of the nobility is wretched. ftranger is no where fafer ; but is Hence, domestic happiness is rare. more frequently plundered in most Domestic happiness is a source of of the great cities of Europe. The tranquillity, of joy, and a preserva. Roman Nabs bis enemy, but does tive against vice; and I think it not rob. Anger is his stimulus : probable that this kind of happi- and this anger frequently lingers ness is better underttood in Ger- for months, and lometimes for many, than in any other country years, till it finds an opportunity on earth. With respect to myself, of revenge. This pallion, which 1 can with inward peace and de- is inconceivable to those who do light affirm, with the good old not feel it, this most hateful of poet, Walter,

all the paflions, the ancients fre

quently suppoted to be a virtue ; Und das ist meiner reifen frucht, and it still rages among many of Dass mir gefällt die deutsche zucht *! the nations of the fouth. The par

fions of the people of Rome are “ From the bad education of frequently rouled, by playing at the women, domestic virtues, and morn, though the law has feverewith them the domestic happiness ly prohibited this game ; and, if of the higher ranks, are injured; they are disappointed at the moand the poison of their vices Theds ment of their revenge, they wait itself among tlieir inferiors: whose for a future occasion. Jealousy is passions, without this concomitant, another frequent cause of murder: , are violent to excess. The people it being with them an imaginary of Rome are rather led aftray and duty to revenge the feduction or bewildered than, as some would their wife, their daughter, or their perfuade us, addicted to vice by filter, on the feducer. The caibo. nature. Where the climate in- lic religion, ill upderttood, encouflames the passions, which are nei rages the practice: the people bether reftrained by education nor ing perfuaded that, by the performcurbed by law, they must rise ance of trilling ceremovies, and the higher, and burn with greater ex- inflicting of penance, they can cels, than in other countries. It is wash away the guilt of blood. . dreadful to hear that, in Rome, the "All the alliduits of the prepopulation of which is estimated at sent pope is not fufficient to reforın a hundred and fixty-eight thou-, the police ; the faults of which sand persons, there are avnually a- originate in the constitution of bout five hundred people murder- Ronie, Many churches attord a

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fanctuary to the pursued culprit. Roman nobility, more than any Foreign ambassadors, likewise, yield other people of fathion, of a want protection ; which extends not on- of personal affection : the apathy

ly to their palaces but to whole of the great world is every where • quarters of the city, into which the same. The absence of the

the officers of justice dare not pur- death of any man is in no country sue offenders. The ambassadors, it felt in fathionable society : but is true, are obliged to maintain a eyery where, except in Italy, it guard: but who is ignorant of the arrogates to itself an insupportable mischief arising from complicated tyranny over each of its affoci. jurisdiction » Many cardinals seek ates. to derive honour, by affording “In the great cities of Germany, protection to pursued criminals. we talk of being social : but what Could we find all these abuses can be more unfocial than a comcollected in any other great city, pany of men, who sit down to a fimany men would be murdered, lent card party? The animation of though not fo many as in Rome; the Italians obviates the degrading but robbery would be dreadfully neceflity of such parties. In comincreased, which here is unknown. pany, they play very little; but

“ Were I to live in a foreign they converse with fire: and, not. country, and condemned to Ipend withstanding their rapidity, many my life in a great city, it is proba- Italians express themielves excel. ble there is no place I should pre- lently. fer to Rome. In no place is the “A sense of the ancient grapfashionable world so free from re- deur of Rome is not yet quite loft, straint. You may daily be present to the people. When the queen of at the conversazioni; and go from Naples was last here, and at the one to another. Numerous focie- theatre, she was received with ties, in spacious apartments, are great applause. Self-forbearance continually to be found ; and the induced her to make figns to the visitor is always received with the people to cease their loud clapping, most prepossessing politeness. The and their shouts of welcome. The intercourse of society is no where so people took this very ill; and, the free as here: you may neglect your next day, a person of my acquaintvifits for weeks or months, and un- ance heard one orange-woman lay disturbed indulge your own bu- to another, Did you hear how the mour. You may return again, af- foreign queen despised our people, ter an absence of weeks or months, last night? She mult surely have without being once questioned, forgotten that many queens, be concerning the manner in which fore now, have been brought in you have disposed of your time. chains to Rome."

“ Do not from this accuse the



[From the same Work.] " A Great city is a great evil. fuel none, and he can even live

1 It is pernicious to popula. without a habitation. The clafii of tion, the fink of morality, and the people called Lazaroni, some of wide dispenser of its own poison. whom you meet with even in Rome, Naples is very large, and extreme are here computed at forty thoua ly populous: it contains above four fard. Many of these live in the hundred thousand, or probably as open air ; and at night, or in bad many as five hundred thousand, in- weather, take shelter under gatehabitants; yet, so excellent is the ways, porticos, the eaves of houses, foil, that the necessaries of life are or under the rocks. They cannot in great plenty, and very cheap. easily be persuaded to work, while Among these necessaries, we must they have the smallest coin in their include ice: the want, or the dear- pocket. They think not of maknets, of which would enrage the ing provision for to-morrow. The people. The common people of serenity of the climate, and the Naples, and indeed of all Italy, are ever generous, ever fruitful lap of very moderate in eating and drink- earth, sympathise with their joyous ing: they would rather fuffer all hilarity. Their blood flows lightly the inconveniences of life than re- through their veins ; with care move them by their labour. This they are unacquainted. Should appears a very natural inclination any one offer money to a Lazarone, in a hot country. What enjoyment when he is not presled by neceflity, can be greater than that of repof- he raises the back of his hand to ing in the shade? Those, who re- his chin, and tofles his head up. peatedly wonder at, and are dif- wards, being too idle to speak, in gufted by, the indolence of this token of refusal ; but, if any thing people, thew that their remarks are delights him, I do not speak of his either the consequence of hafte or passions, which may be kindled and incapacity. That the effects of in- extinguithed as easily as a fire of dolence are prejudicial is undoubt. ftraw, if he be invited to partake edly true ; bat that the men, who, any pleasure, no man is more talkto satisfy fome of their artificial ative, more alert, more full of anwants, labour a few hours more tics, than himself, than others, are preferable to the “ These people have wires and last, who prefer the most natural of children. At present, there is one all pleasures, rest, and shelier from among them whose influence is so the heat, is what I cannot disco- great ihat they call him Capo de gli yer.

Lazaroni: the chief of the Lazaro, “ The principal wants of the ni. He goes barefoot, and in tatNeapolitan are supplied by benevo- ters, like the rest. He is the oralent nature; without requiring him tor for the whole body, when they scarcely to stretch out his hand. have any thing to demand of the Abstemious in eating and drinking, government. He then generally the clothing he needs is trifling, the applies to the Eletto del Popolo: the


reperrepresentative of the people: a ' in the dress of a pilgrim, in the kind of tribune, as far as fuch an ' great square, who is distributing ottice cau exist in an unlimited mo- " French hand-bills; the meaning narchy, like that of Naples. He • of which neither I nor any of us likewise appeals to the king in per " yet understand; and he is kifling fon. The demands of the Lazaro. " a stone, which he has brought ni are moderate : they have a fente from the ruins of the Bastille. He of right and wrong; which the 'will certainly excite an insurrecpeople feldom want, when they • tion. We would have thrown are not misled. To disregard any him into the sea, but I wished first just remonftrance of this people, or “to hear your opinion; though I not to comply without itating the think we ought to have thrown grounds of refutal, would be dan " him into the sea.' gerous. They love the present " The minister had much diffiking; and I am allured that, in culty to make him conceive that 3 cate of necellity, he might depend preliminary inquiry was neceflary. upon their allistance: of this, how. He continually returned to the neever, he is in no need.

ceflity of throwing the orator into r Before the king last year made the sea ; and, when the minifter a journey to Gerinany, Nicola Sab- told him he would send soldiers to bato, for so is the present chief of put the man in prison, Nicola rethe Lazaroni called, made him a plied, " There is no occafion for speech. He lamented that the i soldiers; I will undertake time king should be ablent to long from business. his people; yet rejoiced in a jour The man accordingly was ney that thould afford pleasure to a taken to prison, by the Lazaroni. prince, who took 10 much fatisfac- The contents of the hand-bill were tion in the good of his subjects. entirely feditious. The infurgent • We are,' said he, 'thirty thou. was one of those emissaries that

fand strong ; and, in your abwere fent, by the too provident lence, we will preserve the peace care of the French clubs, over Euof the country. You certainly rope; to enlighten, improve, and

have nothing to fear from any make the people happy. He had • man : but, thould any one have disguised himself like a pilgrim,

the infolence to spread inflamma- and was subject to the gallows, ac

tory opinions, we will tear him cording to the common rights of 6 into as many pieces as we are nations; but the government only .( men ; and each of us will have a thought proper to banith him to ' morsel of him to smoke in our the island of Maritima ; one of the I pipes.'

Agades, on the west side of Si“During the absence of the cily. king, this Nicola Sabbato visited « Tlie Lazaroni are develed to the princes and princesses ; that, the present king. A body of mapy ag he said, he might give the peo- thousand men, who have nothing ple an account of their welfare. to lose, may reasonably be dreadHe likewise visited the prime mi- ed; and may keep a tyrannical nister, Mr. Acton; and, on one oc- king in yery wholesome awe. A calion, came to him breathless, de- despotic conftitution may perhaps mandivg to speak to him. "I need a remedy like this; the fer' have just seen a man,' said he, ror of which thall preserve a bs


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