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material imported whole from Ene powder of the crystal falis as it is rope. The glass beads and but- cut by the revolution of the wire. tons of various fhapes and colours, With this mixture, the wire and worn by perfous of rank, are chietly tlre groove it förms in the crystal, made at Venice; and this is among are often moistened. The powder the remnants of the great and als of the crystal, like that of the diamost exclusive trade which the mond, helps to cut and polit ita Venetians formerly carried on with seif. The workmen did not seem the East. The Chinese make great to understand any principle of opuse of spectacles, which they tie tics, fu as to form the eye-giaff's of round the nead. They are formed such convexities or concavities, as of crystal, which the Canton ar- to supply the various defects of vitists cut into laminæ, with a kind fon; but left their customers to of steel faw, formed by twisting choose what was found to suit two or more fine iron wires toge them best. The few lapidaries ther, and tving them like a bow. who cut diamonds at Canton, used 1tring to the extremities of a imall for that purpose adamantine fpar, Mexible bamboo. They undo one which b:ing mixed in small proend of this string in order 10 pafs portions with grey granite, the the wire round the crystal, where it mass was imagined to contain nois meant to be divided, and which thing else, and excited a doubt,
as then placed between two pivots. whether it could be real diamond, - It is thus fawed, in the manner which pure granite could affe&t.
which European watch makers use The Canton artists are uncommon. in dividing small pieces of metal. ly expert in imitating European Below the crystal is a little trough works." of waitr, into which the filiceous
SKETCH of the FEMALE ECONOMY of the SERAGLIO, and of the real
CONDITION of the FEMALE SEX at CONSTANTINOPLE. [From DALLAWAY's CONSTANTINOPLE, ANCIENT and Modern.]
16 THE inhabitan's of the sera. seventh. The first of them who
I glic exceed fix thousand, of gives an heir to the empire becomes which about five bundred are wo. the favourite, and has the title of men. Many who are en plaved Hafleky.Sultan. There are many there during the day, have their others in the harein, but they felhouses and families in the city. dom are suffered to infringe the
" When the fulan comes to the exclusive privilege of producing throne the grandees present him with heirs to the empire, which the ka. virgin flaves, who, they hope, may dinns claim; for with tire others become their patroneffes. --From the most infamous means of preventhese principaily, six are then chos. tion are forcibly adopred. If the en, who are styled Kadions, but the child of the first balleky-fultàn late Sultan Abdul-hamid added a fhould die, her precedence is lost.
The The old story of the ladies standing unblemished virginity, and what, in a row, and the sultau's throwing in many instances, may heighten his handkerchief tu his choice, is the idea of perfect paradite to not true. His preference is always themselves, not again to be united officially communicated by the kis. with their former earthly husbands, làr-agha.
but to be allotted to other true “ So dependent is opinion upon musulmans by the benevolence of education and the early habits of the prophet. life, that the state of female society "The females of the seraglio in the seraglio, is to themselves that are chiefly Georgian and Circalian of the most perfect happiness. It flaves, selected from all that are ei. was ordained by Mahommed that ther privately bought, or exposed women thould not be treated as in- to sale in the Avrèt bazar *, and, tellectual beings, left they mould for many reasons, are admitted at an aspire to equality with men. This early age. We may readily conclude system be found already prevalent that an assemblage of native beauty in the East, and received by his so exquisite, does not exist in any converts, and therefore cannot be other place. charged with having curtailed their “ The education of these girls is liberty and social intercourse.- very scrupulously attended to; they Throughout Turkey, in every rank are taught to dance with more lux. of life, the women are literally chil- uriante than grace, to sing and to dren of larger growth, as trifling in play on the tambourio, a species of their amusements as unbounded in guitar; and some of them excel in their desires, and as absolutely at embroidery. This arrangement is the dispofal of others, being conf. conducted solely by the elder wo. dered by the men merely as created men, though from the taste for Eu. for the purposes of nature, or sexual ropean fashions, which sultan Seo luxury. None of our mistakes con lim openly avows, some Greek wo. cerning the opinions of the Turks, men have been lately introduced to is niore unjust than that which re- teach them the barp and piano-foria fpects the nosion attributed to them, which they had learned for that that women have no souls; on the purpose. Amongst the five hunother hand, they are promised in dred already mentioned the killar. the Koràn to be restored with all ágha precisely settles all precedence. the charms of eternal youth and Some are disqualified by age from
« * The Avrèt Bazar (woman market) confifts of an inclofed court, with a cloifter and small apartments surrounding it. It is fupplied by feinale Naves brought from Ægypt, Abysiinia, Georgia, and Circassia, who are exposed to public lale every Friday morning. Those from the first mentioned countries are generally purchased for domestic services, which, in a monial capacity, no Turkish worr an will condescend to per
form; their persons or countenances are rarely beautiful, and their price feldom excers • forty pounds English. The exquisite beauty of the others is enhanced by every and drets and oriental accomplishments, and they are usually sold for several thousand piastres. Many are reserved for the leraglio, where though they are considered as mort fortunate, they are most frequently facrificed. Intrigues are concealed by the application of poisonous drugs which ofren occasion death, and upon detection of pregnancy they are instantly drowned. Ore shudders to relate how many of these viêlims are taken out into the sea at the dead of the night, and committed to the deep. Formerly, the Avrèt Bazar was open to Franks, who were supposed to purchase flaves in order to redeem them, but they are now excluded, by order of the present fultan's father."
the the notice of the sultan, and of curate information concerning the those who are considered as wives interior palace must be collected, there are four; he is reftrited to and to such I am, at present, inseven, but as to concubines there debted. is no legal limitation, and their “ The articles of female habili. number depends on the inclination meut are infinite, both as to cont of their fublime master. The size and number; but change of fashion periors spend their time in a series is adopted only for the head attire, of sedentary amusements. Dreis, which happens with scarcely less the most fumptuous that can be frequency than in the courts of Eu. imagined, changed frequently in rope. They are imitated by the the course of the day, the most Greek ladies, whose dress differs littie magnificent apartments and furni- from theirs; but the original Greek ture, vifits of ceremony with each dress, rather than of the Turkish other, and the incessant homage of harèm, is that described by lady M. their subordinate companions, fill Wortley Montague. Both the style their minds with a sort of supine of beauty and the idea of improv. happiness, which indeed is all that ing its effect by ornament amongst most Turkish women aspire to, or the Ottoman women, have much are qualified to experience. fingularity. Of the few I have
“Sometimes, as an indulgence, seen with an open veil, or without they are permitted to go to the one, the faces were remarkable for kiosques near the sea, of which cir. their symmetry and brilliant com. cumstance the officers of police are plexion, with the nose straight and i formed, that no vefsel should ap- small, the eyes vivacious, either proach too near the seraglio point. black or dark blue, having the eyeEvery summer the sultan visits his brows partly from nature, and as palaces in rotation for a short time much from art, very fuil and joining with his barèm, when every pass over the nose. They have a custom and avenue, within three or five too of drawing a black line with a miles distance, is guarded by fierce mixture of powder of antimony and bostandjis *, left the approach of oil, called Surmèh, above and 10. any male being thould contaminate der the eye-lashes in order to give, them.
: the eye more fire. Of the shape “ They depend entirely upon and air little can be said from our their female flaves for amusemer's idea of loveliness. All the Levanwhich have any thing like gaiety tine women, from their mode of for their object, and recline on their fitting on their sofa, stoop extremefufas for hours, whilst dancing, co- ly,and walk vervawkwardly. Warm medy, and buffoor.ery, as indelicate baths used without moderation, and as our vulgar puppet show', are exhi- unrelieved idleness, spoil in most bited before them. Greek and instances, by a complete relaxation Frank ladies occasionally visit them, of the folids, forms that nature in. whose husbands are connected with tended thould rival the elegance of the Porte as merchants or interpre- their countenances. The nails both ters, under pretence of fhewing of the fingers and feettare always them curiosities from Europe.- ftained of a rose colour. Sich is From such opportunities all the ac- the taste of Asiatics. The discri..
minative trait of beauty between and bazars in groupes of muffied the Circassian and Greek women, is figures, or go to the cemeteries, the more majestic air and stature of where, upon itated days, under prethe former, while the latter excel tence of fuying prayers at the grave upon a smaller scale, no less in of deceased friends, they enjoy the brilliancy of complexion, that in shade of cypresses, whilft loitering svminetry and delicacy of form. away many hours; and few unreThe statues of Juno, Minerva, or ftrained happiness, by the most vethe Amazons, are contrasted by that hement loquacity. Several times a of the Melicean Venus. Both very year they are drawn in arabahs, or generally answer to Homer's de- painted waggons with a covering scription of the full-eyed,' and of red cloth, by buffaloes gaudily • the deep.bofoined.'
harnefTed, to some favourite retreat 6 In the streets of Constantino- in the courtrv, but never attended ple nu female appears without her by the men of their family. feradjè and mahramah; the former " That love of splendid dress resembles a loose riding coat with which distinguishes the nations of a large square cape, covered with the East, pervades every rank of fe. quilted Gik, and hanging dowo low males. Those connected with the behind, made universally amongst · meanest labourer occasionally wear the Turks of green cloth, and a brocade, rich furs and embroidery mongst the Greeks and Armenians of gold or silver, which are willing. of brown, or some grave colour. ly Tupplied by his daily toil. In The mahramah is formed by two large harèins the number of chil. pieces of mullin, one of which is dreu is proportionably finall, where tied under the chin, enveloping the few women produce more than head, and the other across the three. Much has been said conmouth and half the nose, admitting cerning the infidelity of the Turk. space enough for fight. Yellow ith women belonging to harèms of boots are drawn over the feet; and quality; whoever has passed a few thus equipped a woman may meet years in this country, muft know the public eye without scandalthat any scheme of gallantry would This dress is of very ancient inven be utterly impracticable, however tion, calculated for concealment of they may have been prompted, by the person, nor can there be a more personal vanity, to impose a false complete disguise.
opinion on the world. In complete " In every civilized country the establihments they are guarded by middle ranks in society enjoy the those unfortunate men truest comfort. Whift the ladies
Who youth ne'er loved, and beauty ne'er of the harèms of great or opulent
enjoyed ;' Turks, are consoling themselves with fastidious indulgence, in lixo. and in those of less expence, by old ry unknown to the vulgar, the wives women, whose ceaseless vigilance is and concubines of fober citizens are equally secure. allowed almost a free intercourse “ If such things ever happen, it with each other. The men, mer. may be supposed of those who are chants or mechanics, are engaged permitted to gad abroad: but this in their various occupations, leav, privilege is conditional, and never ing the whole day at the disposal without a certain number of relas • of the women, who walk the streets tives or neighbours,
“During my residence at Pera, “ The real state of female slaves I heard of but one circumstance in Turkey has been much misrepreonly. A young Venetian served in fented. I do not allude to it prethe shop of an apothecary ar Con viously to their establishment in stantinople, whom a Turkish lady, fome harèm, when exposed to sale attended only by her slave, came to with practices of their owners consult, and was thewn into another equally repugnant to humanity and room, leaving the apprentice and decency: but when they become the fair Circailian alone. It is said, private property, they are well that nothing then panied between clothed, and treated with kindness them. In a few days returning by their mistrelles. If the husband with her mistrefs, and the same op presents his wife with a female portunity recurring, me opened her slave, she becomes her sole property, hieart, proposed elopement, and and he cannot cohabit with her promised much treafure. She kept without legal complaint of the her word, and they disappeared wife, excepting with her confent, without fubsequent detection. Up- which prudence generally inclines on discovery the punishment of her to give. No woman of Turk. these lovers would have been hor- ish birth can be an odalik, or dorible; he would have been impaled mestic slave. Illegitimacy is unalive, and the drowned in a sack. known, for every child, born of the Such a penal code as that of the wife or concubine, has nearly equal Turks, has in no period of corrup- rights. The superior privilege of tion' been adopted by any nation of the wife confifts only in the partiChristians.
tion of the husband's property on “ Infidelity or licentiousness in his decease, and the difficuliy of women, is a subject of the feverest procuring a divorce without her crimination amongst the Turks, and acquiescence. Odaliks are diftheir punishment of it borders up. milled and resold at pleasure, if on gross barbarity. That branch they have borne no child. But it of police is under the jurisdiction frequently happens that thev become of the bostandji bafhi, or captain of confidential with their mistrelles, the guard, with many inferior of- are emancipated, and married to ficers. When any of these mifera- husbands whom they provide for ble girls are apprehended, for the them. Few young men have more first time they are put tú hard la. than one wife, but the elder, if bour, and strictly confined; but for opulent, indulge themselves' to the the second they are re-committed, extent of the prophet's licence. and many at a time tied up in sacks, My fair countrywomen, from so and taken in a boat to the Seraglio. fight a sketch of female economy point, where they are thrown into in this eccentric nation, nay form the tide. The Turks excuse this favonrable conclufions respecting Cruelty by pleading the law, and that of our own. They may reit adding that every woman has it in affured, that in no other country her power to be attached to one are the moral duties and rational man, by kebion, or contract for a liberty fo justly appreciated, or fo certain term before the kady, which generally rewarded with happiceremony would exempt them from nels.” the cognizance of the police,