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·::•. It has sometimes been thonght which does not exift in printed
in Europe, that moveable types European languages, where the were a preferable invention to that letters of the fame word selcony of the Chinele; but they feldom touch each other.. can be applicable to the imprese “The Chinese are satisfied, fion of writings in a language con. whenever the same characters very ulting, like theirs, in a vak variety frequently occar, as in the public of characters, if each character le kalendars and gazettes, to nie types considered as a letter in an alpha- for such, cut apart, and occafione bet. The compositor in a printing- ally inferted within the frames office easily diftributes the four where they are wanted. and twenty letters of an alphabetic “Gazettes are frequently publanguage. He at once perceives lifhed in Pekir, under the ambowhere each is to be found. He rity of government. The various distinguishes them at a glance. His appointments throughout the emhands even acquire the habit of pire, the favoors granted by the reaching rapidly, without looking, emperor, all his public acts, his refor them, as the fingers learn to mission of taxes to districts suffertouch the keys ota harpfichord with ing by dearth or other general ca. out turning the eyes towards then. lamity, his recompenfe of extraorWhere there are many thoufands of dinary services, the embaffres fent, fuch keys, je 'is obvious that no and the tribute paid to him, formi fuch habit could be acquired, nor a considerable part of the public could the keys be within reach. news. The domestic details of his The practice were equally impof. household, or of his private life, fible, in printing with eighty thou are feldom, if ever mentioned. fand moveable types, for that num- Singular events, instances of lonber of different characters of which gevity, fometimes the punishments the Chinese congue conhits. It has of offences committed by mandanot, indeed, occurred to the ar- rines, are there recorded. Even tifts of China to form moveable fome instances of tire adulteru ofwoand feparate typer, for each of the men, which is a punishable, though minute itrokes or elements, of not a capital offence, are occafionwhich such characters are com- ally publiiled, perhaps, by way posed, as has been attempted foine of dererring others from the comyears fince in Germany. It is pof- mission of the like enormities. Koble that such a practice might be While China was at war, its vi&o found to aofwer, notwithitanding ries, as well as the suppreffion of the difficulty which must arise rebellions, were announced. In all fron the minuteness of the type other cases the world, in point of neceffary for each particular stroke; intelligence, is confined to China. a difficulty which when all the “Befide the cañic works of the types are not necessarily of so small Chinese, of which the multiplicaa lize, has been overcome by a very rion by printing is prodigious, the ingenious and learned gentleman, lighter literature of the country in printing the Persian language gives no inconsiderable occupation in Bengal; and the further dith. to the press. The Orphan of China, culty, of uniting, in the impression, however improved in an English the several strokes, marked by fe. dress, by a very respectable draparate types, of a Chinese character, matic poet, may be confidered as
no unfavourable specimen of Chic which might lead them to the afo' nese tragedy; and the Pleafing Hisa sertion of independence. It is faid, tory, of which an English transla- that in the French zeal for propa. tion, under the care of a learned garing principles of democracy, and ingenious prelate, was publith their Declaration of the Rights of ed several years ago, is an instance Man had been translated into one of, Chinese novel-writing, that is of he languages of India, and interesting and simple; and for distributed there. It is not, in. serious readers, the zeal of Christia. deed, likely to cause any fermentnity had induced the missionaries ation in the tranquil, lubmiffive, to procure the publication of seve. and resigned minds, with the weak ral works in the Chinese tongue, and delicate constitutions,' of the in proof of the tenets which they Hindoce; but it might be otherpreached.
wise ainong the Chinese people, “ Notwithstanding the vigilant who are more susceptible of such police of the Chinese magiftrates, impressions, their disposition being books disapproved by them are pri. more confonant to enterprise." I varely printed and disseminated in “ The Itate of phylic is exChina. . It is not easy to prevent, tremely low in China. There are or even always to detect, the ope- no public schools or teachers of it. rations of a trade which, beside A young man who wishes to bepaper and ink, requires little more come a physician, has no other way thao some pieces of board, and a of acquiring medical knowledge, knife to cut our characters upon thau by engaging himself to some them. The books thus publided practitioner, as an apprentice. He furtively, are chiefly those which has thus the opportunity of seeing are offensive to decency, and in his master's practice, of visiting his fiame the imagination of young patients with him, and of learning minds. It is not faid that any are such parts of his knowledge and levelled against the governinent. secrets as the other chooses to comThe mandarines asserted, however, municate to him. The emoluthat a sect had for ages fubfifted in ments of the profession seldom exthe country, whose chief principles ceed the skill of the practitioner, were founded upon an antipathy As many copper coin as scarcely to monarchy; and who nourished are equal to sixpence sterling, is hopes of at last fubverting it. said to be the usual fee among the Their meetings were held in the people; and perhaps quadruple utmost secrecy, and no man avow. among the mandarines. The latter ed any knowledge of them; but a of high rank have physicians in fort of inquisition was said to be their househoid, who refide conestablished in order to find them stantly with them, and accompany out. They who were suspected of them when they travel. The emfuch sentiments, were cut off, or peror's physicians as well as most hunted out of society; somewhat of his domestic attendants, are like those who were accused for chiefly eunuchs. Medicine is not merly of Judaism in some Roman divided in China into distinct catholic kingdoms.
branches, as in most parts of Eu“ The political, moral, and his. rope. The same person acts as torical works of the Chinese con. physician, surgeon, and apothecary. saiņ no abstract ideas of liberty, The surgical part of the profession
till more backward than the others. is not impoffible, that it may be Amputation in cases of compound owiog parily to the insertion of the fracture and gangrene, is utterly variulous master fo near the feat unknown. Death is the speedy of the optic nerve, to which the consequence of such accidents. inflammation ii occafions may exDeformed perfons, no doubt, there tend. are in China ; bat they must be - No male phyfician is allowed very few in number, or live much to attend a pregnant woman, and nedired; for no such happened to ftill less to practise midwifery ; in fall in the way of the embaffy, the indelicacy of which, both fexcs through the whole of its route, seem to agree in China. There from the northern to the Southern are books written on that art for extremity of China.
the ufe of female practitioners, The mortality of the fmall. with drawings of the state and poo pox, when of the confluent kind, fition of the infant at different pe joined to the observation that it riods of gelation ; together with a attacked, once only, the same per variety of directions and prefcrip. fon, induced the Chinese to expose tions for every supposed case that young persons to its infection, may take place : the whole mixed when it happened to be mild. with a number of fuperftitious ob . The success of this method, led at servances.
Sergth to the practice of inocula- “ Mapy pra&itioners of phyfic tion amongst them. The annals of take the advantage, as elfewhere, China frít mention it, at a time of the obscurity in which that art answering to the beginning of the is involved, and of the ignorance tenth century of the Chriftian and credulity of the people, to era The general method of Chi- gain money by the sale of noftrums nese inoculation, is the following: and secrets of their own. They when the diseafe breaks out in distribute band-bills, fetting forth any district, the phyficians of the the efficacy of their medicines, place carefully collect a quantity with artefed cures abnexed to of ripe matter from pustules of the them. But it was reserved for the proper fort: which being dried, fed of Taotle, or disciples of Lao and pulverized, is closely shut up koun, already mentioned, to arroin a porcelain jar, so as to exclude gate boldly to themfelves, the pof from it the atmospheric air ; and letion of a medical secret, Dos to in this manner it will retain its die. To those who had all the properties for many years. When enjoyments of this life, there rethe patient has been duly prepared mained, unaccomplished, no other by medicines, generally of an ape. wish than that of remaining for rient kind, and ftri&tly dieted for a ever in it. And accordingly fere. Ahort time, a lucky day is chosen to ral sovereigns of China have been Sprinkle a little of the variolous known to cherish the idea of the powder upon a fmall piece of fine poffibility of such a medicine. cotton wool, and to insert it into 'They had pne themfelves, in full the nostrils of the patient. If health, under the care of those reblindness, or sore eyes, be more ligious empirics, and took large frequent in China than elsewhere, draughts of the boasted beverage which the gentlemen of the em. of immortality. The compofiton baffy were not able to ascertain, it did not confi of merely harınlefo ingredients; but, probably, of such science. For some there is not extracts and proportions of the even a name. The Chinese books poppy, and of other substances and are full of the particular proceiles liquors, as occafioning a temporary and methods, by which a variety exaltation of the imagination, part of effects are produced in chemical ed for an indication of its vivifying and mechanical arts; and much effects. Thus encouraged, they might probably be gained from the bad recourse to frequent repetitions peruíal of them, by perfons versed of the dose, which brought on at the same time, in the language quickly languor and debility of of the describers, and acquainted spirits; and the deluded patients with the subject of the description. often became vietiins to deceit and As soon as the product of any art or foliv, in the flower of their age. manufacture has appeared to an pale, soft, and duaile. A few and no lead or arieaic, fo common mandarines, and maúy women of in the calamire of Earcge: ad rank, wear bracelets of tuis metal wicb extraneous 15.12ncos conround the writt, not hore for oria tribute to targil tue C 1.10: 003 nent, than from a notion that they made of it, 250 prevestiucm iron preserve the wearer from a vanety taking ionne 3 Do itn as the pe. of diseases. The Chinese artits tung of the Coincie. Doctor Gil. beal it joto leaf, for gumming it lan was also iniormed at Canton, upop paper to burn in their tri that the artists, in making incir pods, and for gilding the statues of pe-tung, reduce the cop er into as their deities. The silk and ve.vetinin theets or lamina as powinie, weavers use it in their tisues and wüich they make red bot, and iz. embroideries. Trigkets are allo crease the fire to such a pitch, as made of it at Canton, which the to soften, in some degree, the la. Chinese do not wear; but which miliæ, and to render bem ready are said in Europe as Eastern ore almost to flow. In this state they naments. Eelide the use of fiver are suspended over tbe yapour of as a medium of payment for other their pureit tu-te-nag, or zing, goods, when it palles according to placed in a subliming vertel over its weight, it is likewise drawn in- a briik fire. The vapour tous peto threads like gold, to be used in netrates the heated lamină of the ihe Gik and coton manufactures. copper, so as to remain fixed with For bell-metal, they use, with cope it, and not to be easily diffipa ed per, a greater proportiou of tin than or calcined by the succeeding fu. is uually done elsewhere, by which fion it has to undergo. The whole nicalls their bells are more fono. is suffered to cool gradually, aud is rous, but morc brittle, than those then found to be of a brighter co. of Europe. Their white copper, lour, and of a closer grain, than called in Chinese pe-tung, has a when prepared in the Euro, can beautiful Gilver-like appearance, way. The iron ore of the Chinese and a very close grain. It takes is not well manayed in their imei. a fine polith; and many articles of ing furnaces; and the metal is neat workmanship, in imitation of not so soft, malieable, or ductile, filver, are made from it. An accu- as British iron. Their smiths' work rate analyás has determined it to is exceedingly brittle, as well as coulist of copper, zinc; a little filo clumsy, and not polished. They ver, and, in fonie fpecimens, a few excel, indeed, in the art of cafting particles of iron and of nickel iron, and form plates of it much have been found. Tu.te-pay is, thinner than is generally known properly speaking, zinc, extrudied to be done in Europe. Much of frow a rich ore, or calamine. The the tin imported by the Chinese, is ore is powdered and mixed with foriged into as thio a foil as poff. charcoal dust, and placed in cartien ble, in order to gum it afterwards jars over a low Gre, by means of upon square pieces of paper, which which the metal rises in the form are burnt before the images of of vapour, in a common diftilling tbeir idols. The amalgam a of tin apparatus, and afterwards is con- and quick Gilver is applied, by the denied in water. The calamine artists in Canton, in making small from whence this zinc is thus ex- mirrors, with glass blown upon the Wanted, contains very little iron, spot froin broken pieces of that
« There are in China no pro swer the general purpose for which feffors of the sciences connected it was intended, it seldom happens with medicine. The human body that the Chinese discoverer is eiis never, unless privately, dit- ther impelled by his curiofity, or fected there. Books, indeed, with enabled by his opulence, to endea. drawings of its internal structure, vour to make any further progress, are sometimes published; but these either towards superior elegance, or are extremely imperfect; and con. ornament, or even increas.d utility. fulted, perhaps, oftener to find out The use of metals, for the common the name of the spirit under whose purposes of life, has made the Chi. protection each particular part is nele search for them in the bowels placed, than for observing its forin of the earth, where they have and situation.
found all those that are deemed “ It is a matter of doubt, whe perfect except platina. Perhaps ther natural history, natural philo. they have not the knowledge, or Tophy, or chemistry, be, as sciences, means of using the cheapest and much more improved than anato (hortest method of separating the my in China. There are several precious metals from the subítances treatises, indeed, on particular subamongst which they are found; jects in each. The Chinese like. nor of reducing the ore of others wise possess a very voluminous en into their respective metals; but cyclopedia, containing many facts they perfectly succeed in obtaining and observations relative to them; thein, without alloy, wbenever but from the few researches which their object is to do so; and in the gentlemen of the embally had making, such mixtures of them as leifure or opportunity to make, produce the results they desire. during their thort visit to the coun. The mines which are said to be in try, they perceived no traces of any China, containing gold, a metal general fviftem or doctrine by which esteemed chere more precious from separate tacts or obfervations were its rarity than its uile, are seldom connected and compared, or the permitted to be worked ; but fciall common properties of bodies ascer- grains of it are collected in the protained' by experiment; or where vince of Yunnan and Se-chuen, kindred arts were conducted un fi. among the sand in the beds of the milar views; or rules framed, er rivers and torrents which carry it deductions drawn from analogy, or down along with them as they deprinciples laid down to constitute a scend froni the mountains. It is *797.