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carried on with great folemnity, as those of mathematics, of medie and apparent fairness. Military cine, of public works, of literature rank is likewise given to thofe who and history. The whole is a reguare found, upon competition, to lar and confiftent system, establise. excel in the military art, and in ed at a very early period, contine warlike exercises.
ed with little alterations through “ The great tribunals are fituat. every dynasty, and revived, after ed, for the sake of convenience, any interruption from the caprice near the southern gate of the impe- or paffions of particular princes rial palace at Pekin. To them, ac- Whatever deviation had been made counts of all the transactions of the by the present family on the throne, empire are regularly transmitted. arises from the admiffion of as They are councils of reference from many Tartars as Chinese into every the emperor, to whom they report tribunal. The opinions of the every bulness of moment, with the former are supposed always to premotives for the advice which they ponderate. Many of them, indeed, offer on the occafion. There is a are men of considerable talents, and body of doctrine composed from the strength of mind, as well as po writings of the earliest ages of the lifhed manners. The old viceroy empire, confirmed by fubfequent of Pe-che-lee is of a Tartar race. lawgivers and sovereigns, and trans. " The estimated population of mitted from age to age with in- Pekin was carried in the last cencreafng veneration, which serves as tury, by the jefuit Grimaldi, as rules to guide the judgment of those quoted by Gemelli Carreri, to fixo tribunals. This doctrine seems in. teen millions. Another miffionary deed founded on the broadeft bafis reduces at leaft that of the Tartar of universal justice, and on the city, to one million and a quarter, pureft principles of humanity. According to the best information
“ His imperial majesty generally given to the embaffy, the whole conforms to the fuggestions of those was about three millions. The low tribunals, One tribunal is dire&ed houses of Pekin feem scartely fuf to consider the qualifications of the ficient for so vaft a population ; but different mandarines for different very little room is occupied by a offices, and to propose their re- Chinese family, at least in the mida moval when found incapable or un- dling and lower classes of life. In just. One has for object, the pre- their houses there are no supertiu. fervation of the manners or morals ous apartments. A Chinese dwel of the empire, called by Euro- ling is generally surrounded by a peans the tribunal of ceremonies, wall, fix or seven feet high. Withwhich it regulates on the maxim, in this inclosure, a whole family, of that exterior forms contribute not a three generations, with all their relittle to prevent the breach of mo- spective wives and children, will ral rules. The most arduous and frequently be found. One small critical, is the tribunal of censors; room is made to serve for the inditaking into its confideration the ef. viduals of each branch of the family, feet of sublifting laws, the conduct fleeping in different beds, divided of the other tribunals, of the princes only by mats hanging from the and great officers of state, and even ceiling. One common room is used of the emperor himself. There are for eating. several subordinate tribunals, such “ The prevalence of this custom
of retaining the several branches of " The early marriages of men in a family under the same roof, is at- easy circumstances have been al. tended with important effects. It ready mentioned; with the poor, renders the younger temperate and marriage is a measure of prudence, orderly in their conduct, under the because the children, particularly authority and example of the older; the fons, are bound to maintaia and it enables the whole to subliit, their parents. Whatever is strongly like soldiers in a mefs, with more recommended and generally praceconomy and advantage. Notwith- tised, is at length confidered as Itanding this arrangement, the la- a kind of religious duty; and this bouring poor are reduced to the use union, as such, takes place whenof vegetable food, with a very rare ever there is the least prospect of and icanty relin of any animal sub- subriftence for a future family. Itance; the price of labour being That prospect, however, is not al. generally found to bear as small a ways realized; and children born proportion every where to the rate without means being had of provide demanded for provifions, as the ing for them, are sometimes abancommon people will consent to doned by the wretched authors of lutter.
their being. It must have been the “ The crowds of people at Pekin moft dire and absolute neceffity do not prevent it from being which led to this up natural and healthy. The Chinese live, indeed, Mocking act, when first it was much in the open air, increasing or committed. It was reconciled af. diminishing the quantity of their terwards in some measure, to the apparel according to the weather. mind, by superf:ition coming in aid The atmosphere is dry, and does to render it a holy offering to the pot engender putrid disorders; and spirit of the adjoiniog river, in exceffes productive of them seldom which the infant was thrown,' witla are committed.
a gourd suspended from its neck, to "Great order is preserved among keep it froin immediate drowning. fuch mulitudes; and the commit The philosophers of China, lion of crimes is rare. Every tenth who have with equal ability and housekeeper, somewhat in the man. effect inculcated the maxims of finer of the ancient cithing.men in Tial piety, have left in great mea. England, is aníwerable for the con- sure, the parental affection to its duct of the nine neighbouring fa- own natural influence, which does milies, as far as he may be fuppofed not always maintain its empire as capable of controlling it. The po- effetually as sentiments enforced lice is observed with particular by early and repeated precept. ftrictness within the walls. The Thus, in Chiva, parents are less city partakes of the regularity and frequently neglected than infanto interior safety of a camp; but is are exposed. The laws of the ein.. fubject also to its constraints. In pire, to corroborate the dispofirion the tuburbs only, public women are to filial obedience, furnith an opregistered and licensed. They are portunity for punishing any breach nos indeed very numerous, being of it, by leaving a man's offspring proportioned to the small number entirely within his power; and haof single men, and of husbands ab. bit seems to have familiariied a nosent from their families, to be found tion that life only becomes truly in the metropolis.
precious, and iqattention to it crie
minal, after it has continued long ways clearly indicating that, whe enough to be endowed with a mind ther better or worse fitted for the and sentiment; but that mere same purpofes, than those in use in dawning exildence may be suffered other countries, the one did not to he lost without scruple, though serve as a model for the other. it cannot without reluctance. Thus, for example, the upper
“ Female infants are, for the surface of the anvil, elsewhere flat most part, chosen as the less evil and somewhat inclined, is among for this cruel facrifice, because the Chinese Twelled into a convex daughters are confidered more pro. form. perly to belong to the families « In the forges near Pekin, on into which they pass by marriage; the road to Zhehol, where this parwhile the sons continue the lupport ticularly was observed, another also and comfort of their own. Those attracted the attention of the trainfants are exposed immediately on yeller. The bellows used by the the birth, and before the counte. common smiths of Europe are verDance is animated, or the features fical. The blaft is impelled, partly formed, to catch the affections rif. by the weight of the machine, rening in the parent's breast. A faint dered heavy for that purpose; but hope, at least, is generally enter. it is opened or raised by muscular tained, that they may yet be pre- exertion overcoming the gravity served from untimely death, by the useful in the former instance; and, care of those who are appointed by during that operation, the blast is the government to collect these discontinued." But the Chinese beyo miserable objects, for the purpole lows are horizontal. The workof providing for such as are found man is not aided at any one time alive; and for burying those who by the weight of the machine, but already had expired.”
he is not burdened with it at an. “ The Chinese appear indeed to other. It is an advantage that the have frong claims to the credit of labour Thould thus be equable and baving been indebted only to them. never excessive. The bellows are felves for the invention of the made in the form of a box, of tools necessary in the primary and which a moveable door is so closely necessary arts of life. The learned fitted, as when drawn back to and attentive traveller will have create a vacuum in the box, into ebserved, in relation to common which, in consequence, the air tools, such as, for example, the rushing with impetuolity, through plane and anvil, that whether in an opening guarded by a valve, India or in Europe, in ancient or produces a blast through an oppnmodern times, they are found to site aperture. The same is conhave been fabricated in the same tinued when the door is pushed precise forın, scarcely ever differ- forward to the opposite extremity ing, except perhaps in the roughn of the box; the space within ic bea ness of the materials, or of the ing diminished, and the air commake, and all denoting a common prefled, a part of it is forced out origin, being almost a fervile imita- ihrough the same aperture. When, tion of each other. In China alone, instead of a moveable door, a piston those tools have something peculiar is placed within it, the air is comin their construction, some differ. prefied between the piston and ence, often indeed flight; but al. both extremities of the box alter
nately, and forced out upon the those inventions, and of the fate of same principle in both operations. Chinese artists at this time. In the This double or perpetual bellows, is first discovery and eftablishment of worked with equal case, and with an art, it is practised awkwardly, double the effect of the common even with the help of tools; and in or lingle bellows. A model of the this state it is supposed to be long Chinese bellows, not eally intelli. ftationary, until at length it advances gible by description, has been to its second period, when it bebrought to England, and will be comes improved, and the artist is submitted to the curious.
enabled to avail himself to the ute « The common plane of the Chie most of every tool and machine pese carpenter is, like the anvil, that can afist him. The laft pe diftinguished by some minute par riod of perfection is that in which ticulars which characterise it to be the artiết is become so dexterous, a original. It differs not only in the to complete his work with few, or way of fixing the chisel in it, but awkward tools, and with little or in the manner in which it is used. no affiftance. And such is the chaThe ends of the frame itself serve, ra&ter of the Chinese potter, weaver, elsewhere, for handles by which the worker in the precious metals, and tool is held, and applied to the in ivory, and of most others in the wood of which the surface is to be several trades commonly practised made smooth; but to the Chinese in the country. And such attainplane are fixed particular handles ment is, no doubt, the utmoft across the frame, by which the fame effort of the art, and the strongest purpose is effected perhaps with teft of a very ancient poffeffion greater eale.
of it. “ The histories of the first re “It is not surprising that the mote ages of Chinese transactions method of making gunpowder, and attribute the most useful inventions of printing, should be discovered in society to the first or oldest mo. by the Chinese long before they Darchs of the country. It is much were known to Europeans. With more probable that they were the regard to the first, in whatever gradual result of the efforts of fe- country nature creates pitre (one veral obscure individuals, who felt, of the chief ingredients for making in the course of their own labours, gunpowder) in the greatest plenty, and endeavoured to supply, the there its deflagrating quality is want of such mechanical affidance; most likely to be first observed; and that subsequent historians, not and a few experiments founded on able to trace the real inventors, that observation, will lead to the subftituied the names of the en. composition that produces fach couragers or promoters of those sudden and violent effects. Nitro arts. There is, however, reason to is the natural and daily produce of believe that not only the inven- China and India, and there, ac tions of fi ft neceffity, but those of cordingly, the knowledge of gundecoration and refinement, were powder seems to be coeval with known among the Chinese in re. that of the most diftant biftoric mote antiquiiy. The annals of events. Among the Chinese, it the empire bear testimony to the has been applied at all times to fact, and it is confirmed by a con- useful purposes, such as blafting fideration of the natural progress of rocks, and removing great obftruc
tions, and to those of amusement in antiquity, that the invention of making a vast variety of fireworks. printing, as here described, and It was also used as a defence, by coming so near to mere engraving. undermining the probable p. Slage was likely foon to follow when. of the enemy, and blowing him up ever the number of readers should But its force had not been directed be so great as to insure reward to tlırough strong metallic tubes as it the inventor. The state of society was by Europeans soon after they in China, from the most early ages, discovered it. Yet this invention rendered that number prodigious. did not prove so decifive for those Unlike to the rest of the world, who availed themselves of it, as to where valour and military talenta mark distinctly in history, the pre- occasionally united with natural elo' cise period when its practice first quence, were originally the fountook place. And though, in imita- dation of all wealth and greatness, tion of Europe, it has been intro. while literature was liçtle more duced into the armies of the East, than an amusement; the study of other modes of warfare are some. the written morals, history and poo times still preferred to it.
licy of China, was the only road. “ Io relation to the second me. not merely to power and honour, thod, or that of printing, import but to every individual employ, ant as are its effects in Europe, it ment in the state. The neceffity, is obvious, that as its object is only therefore, for such a multiplicity of to multiply copies of the same copies for all persons in the mide writing, it could be sought for only dling as well as upper classes of life in that society which produces in the most populous of all empires, many readers. The number of was the early and natural parent of such would no doubt be increased the printing art, as it is still pracwherever it were introduced; but tised among them. where that number is become very “ The paper used by the Chinese considerable, from other causes for their publications, is too thin tending to increase the civilized and weak to reccive diftinet im and lettered classes of society, the pressions on both fides. The envarious attempts to supply their graved board on which the paper is taste, would naturally lead to so laid to take the impression on one fimple an invention as the Chinese Gide, generally contains the characart of printing. It consists in ters for two pages. The paper, nothing more than in cutting, in when printed otf, is doubled togerelief, the forms of the written ther, the blank fides touching each characters on some compact wood, other. The fold forms the outer daubing afterwards those characters edge, which thus is double, while with a black glutinous substance, all the fingle edges, contrary to the and presling upon them different mode of European bookbinders, sheets of paper (itself a previous are stitched together and bound into and ingenious invention), each a volume. After the edition is sheet taking thus an impression of worked off, the plates or boards the characters upon which it had are collected together, and it is been laid. The art of engraving, generally mentioned in the preface for the gratification of the rich and where they are depofited, in case powerful, had been carried to such a second edition Mould be called perfection among many nations of for.