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to be changed but by an universal “Mehmet Melèk Palha, the late. revolution,

visier, resigned in 1794. He was a “ Peter the Great and Charles favourite, in his youth, of Mustafa XII. in their plans of regenerating. III, who gave him his sister in maror conquering the Russians, did not riage, and the appellation of Melek, depend solely upon the agency of or the Angel, on account of his finaministers for success.

gular beauty; for the Turks usually “ The curiosity of Selim respect. take their surname from some persone ing the other nations of Europe ori al excellence or peculiarity. After ginated in frequent conversations having enjoyed some of the molt lu. with Rachib Effendi, che present crative governments in the empire historiographer-roval, who was for he returned to Conftantinople, and foine time envoy at Vienna, after was called to the visirate, at the ad. the last war. Those who have vanced age of ninety years, in 1789. gained his confidence since the He has retired to his palace on the commencement of his reigni, have Asiatic side of the Bosphorus, and, as consulted that inclination, and im- an extraordinary fact in' 0.tural proved every opportunity of extendo history, has had a son born to him, ing his intelligence on those sub. whose legitimacy cannot be invali. jedts. I have heard it alerted that dated. the young men in the seraglio are “ The present system of governnow instructed in the French lan- ment aims at the suppreflions of the guage by his command; and his former fnle authority of the viger, partiality to French wine is no se. and has reduced him to a mere cret amongst the well informed. member of the cabinet council. As

“ The Girft efforts towards im. the sultan takes a more active (bare provement have been applied to than his predecesor in public af. the army and marine. Forts have fairs, and likens to more advisers, it been erected on the Bosphorus, regi- seems to draw to an end. The ments have been trained to Euro viler now in office is likewise pean discipline, chiefly by French a harmless old man, so that they officers, and the feet will becoine may probably foun“ fit ftate-sta. in a certain degree formidable. "tues only.'

" When he has leisure to render “ The ruling persons of the prehis vast territory, at least in the vi- fent dav, are, 1. Yusuf Agha, cinity of his capital, more resem: kiayah, or high-steward to the sula blant of civilized nations, he will tan's mother, who retains a very probably establish a post, which decided influence with him. Yu-, . may facilitate communication be. sul's private life has been marked tween distant provinces. During by uncommon circumstances. He is che laft war many places of impor. a native of Candia, and was origitance were taken, or evacuated, nally a writer to a ship, from which weeks before the ministry were in employment he passed into the serpoffeífion of the fact. ' vice of Abdullàh Palha, beglerbey

“ The only imperial works now of Anatolia, residing at Kutayah. seen in his dominions are mosques, During ten years he so ingratiated aqueducts, and fountains; he may himself with the pasha, that he dehereafter turn his attention to great termined to secure to him bis great roads, now barely passable, which wealth in his life-time, Accord. would be as useful monuments of ingly he gave him entire posseffion, his fame.

ordering him to fly to the Porte,

and

and to urge the heaviest complai;ts “Every spring he leaves Constan.' against him for his injustice and ill- tinople with a few fhips, to visit treatment. Meanwhile the pasha the Archipelago, to receive the ca. died. The capidji bathi was dir. pitation tax from the different patched by the sultan. to seize the sands, and to free the feas from treafure, but found nothing; and pirates, and the Maltese cruisers. Yusuf, from the predicainent in The tiine of his coming is generalwhich he stood, was the last person ly known, so that the service is licto be suspected. With this wealth tie more than a matter of form. he lived in splendour at Conftanti. His reception by the sultan, both nopie, and frequented the audiences at his departure and return, is a of the visier. He was soon appoint- brilliant fpectacle. He is married ed taraphand eminy, or matter of to the only daughter of Abdul-hathe mint, from which he was ad- mid, and is honoured with the privanced to his present post. - vate friendship of his sovereign.

“ 2. Ratib Effendi has twice “ Every scheme for defending the held the important office of reis cf- coasts of the Black sea by forts and fendi, or secretary of state. He batteries, and for military regula. rose from a public 'elerk, passing tions, is submitted to Cheliby Ef. through all the preliminary grada. fendi, who surveys their execution, tions with distinguillied ability. He if approved. He was master of is beyond comparison the best in the mathematical school founded formed, and most capable minister in 1773 by Ghazi Hassan palha, a in the cabinet.

: very celebrated character in the last “ Tchiusèh, kiayah, or deputy to reigo. i the vifier, is at the head of the fi. « This extraordinary perfon was nance, and planned the new taxes. likewise a Georgian Nave, and af.

“ The present capudan pafha, or terward a Barbary corsair. Having liigh admiral, called Kuchuk Hurbeen taken prisover by the Spafein, from his diminutive stature, viards, he palled fix včars of Navewas a Georgian slave, and the com- ry at Madrid, from whence he was panion of the sultan in his chilu. sent to Naples, where he was exa hood. From the seraglio he e. changed, and returned to Conítanmerged to take the command of tinople. His reputation for persothe navy, it may be presumed with. nal courage procured him the comout much previous acquaintance mand of a galley, and afterward o with maritime affairs. But his ad. a frigate. Al the unfortunate batminiftration has been very benefi- tle of Cheshme he had a fhip of cial; for he has raised the marine the line under Jaffer, capudàn from the miserable state it was left pafha, who upon his disgrace died in at the conclusion of the Ruffian of chagrin, and was succeeded by war, to respectability. The new Haffan. thips are built under the inspection “ He was extremely whimgical, of European surveyors, and French and kept a lion's whelp always on nautical terms have been adopted. his sofa, which he had trained up At the beginning of the present to follow him, but which, having century, the Turkish fleet confifted killed one of the domeftics, was afe of 32 ilips of the line, 34 gallevs, terwards.chained. He became vi. and some brigantines; they can fier, and died at the age of more than now' send to sea 14 first rates, 6 frie seventy, in the camp againft the gâies, and 50 floops of war. Russians, ent without suspicion of

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prison. So fingular was his bravery, Another Hafsån pasha who hated And fo frequent his successes, that him, becoming visier, ordered him he assumed the name of Ghazi, the to be beheaded upon the charge victorious. Abdul-hamid was fear of betraying Giurgerow, the first ful, and considered the fafety of the Turkish fortress upon the Danube, empire endangered by his absence to the Germans. 'He died a mus from Conftantinople.

fulman. Abdul-hamid, when in. “Of his prevailing influence the formed of the last-mentioned cir. following relation is a proof, and cumstances, was so far convinced gives traits of secret machinations of his innocence, that in a few practised in the seraglio.

months the vindi&tive visier shared « One of his flaves, named Yu- the same fate. sùf, had fo recommended himself “The officers of the feraglio are by superior talents, that he gave very numerous. The kiflar-agha, him liberty, and promotion to the or chief of the black eunuchs, havo, most confiderable offices. At the ing the arrangement of the female time Yusòf returned from his go departinent, is most familiar with

vernment of Morea, to take upon the sultan, and is a powerful friend, · him the office of vifier, Mayro- or enemy, to the ministers of state.

yeni, a Greek of a noble family, " Between the officers of the sc. was the dragoman, or interpreter, raglio and those who compose the to his patron Haifan. Petraki, an- divan, there subfifts a perpetual riother Greek, was master of the valry; and if the emperor be either mint, and imperial banker, and very active or indolent in public had amaffed seven millions of business, there is ample cause for piastres.

their jealoufy. Those with whom “ This man being ambitious of he is constantly conversant, and be. becoming prince of Wallachia, he fore whom herelaxes into colloquial three times procured the appoint freedom, must necessarily obtain fement of Mavro.yeni to that high cret influence enough to bias him dation, who had the interest of in matters of importance, if he Hassan, and the visier to be super withes others than his oftenfible feded. But they, impatient of the counsellors, or is determined by disappointment, represented to Abe first representations without further dul-hamid, that the people de- deliberation. manded the life of Petraki in " The ministers are admitted to atonement of his peculation, who an audience with the sultan with timidly consented to his execution, the profoundest ceremony. Even and he was instantly imprisoned. in the presence of the mild Abdul. On the very day of the high cere. hamid the bold Hafan was over. mony of Mavro-yeni's investiture, powered with awe, and the lion he was led to the gate of the Yera. seemed to be transformed into a glio to kiss his ftirrup, and sue for lamb. One of the prefent ministry, pardon. At that instant the exe- a man of great vivacity, is faid to cutioner {truck off his head, and compose his spirits with a pill of Mavro-yeni had the satisfaction of opium before he approaches the seeing his rival dead at his feet. throne.”

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MANNERS OF NATIONS,

PARTICULARS relative to the Religion, ECONOMY, Classes, Tere

BUNALS, CUSTOMS, Arts, LITERATURE, and SCIENCE of the CHINESE.

[Extracted from SirGeorge STAUNTON's authentic Account of an En.

Eassy from the King of GREAT BRITAIN to the EMPEROR of CHINA.

6 F those circular and lofty could account for it no otherwise

V edifices, by Europeans term- than by supposing it to have been a ed pagodas, there are several kinds, trick of the Devil to mortify the and dedicated to several uses in Chi- Jesuits. Oue of them observes, na; but none to religious worship. that the likeness is so strong beThe temples which are consecrated tween the apparent worllip of ma. to such a purpose differ little in ny of the priests of Fo, and that height from common dwelling hou. which is exhibited in churches of fes, as in the instance of the Em the Roman faith, that a Chinese bailador's momentary residence near conveyed into one of the latter, Tong.choo-foo.. The presence of might imagine the votaries he faw foreigners there did not prevent the were then adoring the deities of his usual afHuence of devotees. The own country. On the aitar of a Chinese interpreter of the Embassy, Chinese temple, behind a screen, is who was a moft zealous Chriftian frequently a representation wbich of the Roman Catholic persuasion, inight answer for that of the Virgin and himself a priest of that com: Mary, in the person of Shinmos, munion, saw with regret, the Eng. or the sacred mother, fitting in an lini curiously examining the images alcove with a child in her arms, or attending to the ceremonies of the and rays proceeding from a circle, religion of Fo, left they should per- which are called a glory, round her ceive the resemblance between its head, with tapers burning constantly exterior forms and those of his own before her. The long coarse gowns church. Suchresemblance had been, of the Ho-shaungs, or priests of indeed, already thought so striking, Fo, bound with cords round the that some of the missionaries conjec. waist, would almoft equally fuit the tured that the Chinese had formerly friars of the order of St. Francis. received a glimpse of Christianity The former live, like the latter, in fiom the Něstorians, by the way of a state of celibacy, reside in mona, I artary: 01hers, that Saint Thomas fteries together, and impose, occa. the Apostle had been amongst fionally, upon themselves voluntary them ; but the missionary Prémare penance, and rigorous abstinence.

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The temples of Fo abound to marry, or go a journey, or conwith more images than are found clude a bargain, or change fituain most Christian churches, and tion, or for any other material event some that bear a greater analogy in life, it is necessary first to consult to the ancient than the present the superintendant deity. This is worship of the Romans. One fic performed by various methods. gure representing a female, was Some place a parcel of confecrated thought to be something similar to sticks, differently marked and numLucina, and is particularly addreffo bered, which the consultant, kneel. ed by unmarried women wanting ing before the altar, fhakes in a husbands, and married women hollow hamboo, until one of them wanting children. The doctrine of falls on the ground; its mark is exFo, admitting of a subordinate de. amined, and referred to a , corre. ty particularly propitious to every fpondent mark in a book which the with which can be formed in the priest holds open, and sometimes human mind, would scarcely fail to even it is written upon a sheet of spread among those classes of the paper pasted upon the inside of the people who are not satisfied with temple. Polygonal pieces of wood their profpects, as resulting from are by others thrown into the air. the natural causes of events. Its Each side has its particular inark; progress is not obstructed by any the side that is uppermost when measures of the government of the fallen on the floor, is in like man. country, which does not interfere ner referred to its correspondent: with mere opinions. le prohibits mark in the book or sheet of fate.' no belief which is not supposed to If the first throw be favourable, the affect the tranquillity of society. person who made it prostrates him: “ There is in China no state re. self in gratitude, and undertakes ligion. None is paid, preferred, or afterwards, with confidence, the encouraged by it. The emperor is business in agitation. But if the of one faith ; many of the inanda- throw Mould be adverse, he tries a rines of another; and the majority second time, and the third throw of the common people of a third, determines, at any rate, the quesa which is that of Fo. This Jait tion. In other respects the people class, the least capable, froin igno- of the present day seem to pay lit. rance, of explaining the phenome. tle attention to their priests. The na of nature, and the most exposed temples are, however, always open to wants which it cannot supply by for such as choose to consult the Ordinary means, is willing to recur decrees of heaven. They return to the supposition of extraordinary thanks when the oracle proves propowers, which may operate the ef. pitious to their wishes. Yet they fects it cannot explain, and grant oftener cast lots, to know the issue the requests which it cannot others of a projected enterprise, than fup. wise obtain.

plicate for its being favourable; “No people are, in fact, more and their worship consists more in fuperftitious than the common Chi. thanksgiving than in prayer. nele. Beside the habitual offices « Few Chinese are seldom said of devotion on the part of the to carry the objects, to be obtained priests and females, the temples are by their devotion, beyond the beneparticularly frequented by the dif- fits of this life. Yet the religion ciples of Fo, previously to any un- of Fo professes the doctrine of the dertaking of importance; whether transmigration of fouls, and pro

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