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his interest to be inseparably the they perceived, thật they were neifame with that of the Medici.' But ther so rich nor so happy as before all these pleasing appearances va. the expulfion of the latter. nished; cardinal Sforza died; Pisa “ Soderini too was the ally of was deserted by her allies; and car- France, who had treated the comdinal de la Rovere, the nephew of monwealth with an excess of haughSixtus IV. became pope, O&t. 17, tiness. · Great numbers of the citis 1503, socceeding Pius III. 'who zens were secretly attached to the had survived bis election only a Medici from friendship, interest, month. The new pontiff took the or gratitude, and not a few from name of Julius II. and one of his fear and the love of change, which first acts of power was, to declare always has its charms with the pohimself the ally of Florence, with pulace. . whom he first signed a treaty, and “ No person could be better ad. then a peace. Florence, by this apted to profit by these favourable extraordinary alteration, regained conjunctures than Giovanni; he her loft dominions, and civil dis. possessed every requisite to please, cord subsiding, the Medici seemed was in the prime of his life, hand. for ever excluded her walls. some, graceful, polite, affable,

“ Giovanni's drooping hopes, magnificent, and liberal. So many however, were soon raised again splendid qualities, clothed with by the folly of Soderini, who had the cardinalate, and invested with exasperated his new ally, the poye, both the legatinelhips of Perugia by imprudently permitting a gene and Bologna, with the recollection ral council, called by Lewis XII. , of his father's great merit, confirm. to fit at Pisa. In revenge for this ed the wavering, and won new insult, and to take from the French partizans. The religious looked a power that was their great sup- upon him as the mediator between port, his holiness determined to them and heaven, and the young restore the Medici, as it would ne. nobility trusted to hiin to support cessarily destroy Soderini, who was them in their extravagancies. at the head of the republic, and in “In this crisis nothing could be his stead place Giovanni, who was, more opportune than the gonfa. both from interest and inclination, lonier's joining the French, in their the enemy of a nation that he could attempts upon Milan; as it connot endure.

vinced Julius that he and France “ Several favourable circum- were not to be separated, and stances occurred to promote this determined him no longer to de. change. The Florentines, disgust. fer the ruin of his interest in ed with Soderini's impolitic con- Florence by the recal of the Meduet, of having himself declared dici. gonfalonier for life, 'in imitation of "Upon the eve, as Giovanni supCæsar's perpetual dictatorship, were posed, of this being accomplished, convinced that they were no more he saw himself, by the loss of the safe under him than they had been battle of Ravenna, a prisoner to before the expulsion of the Me. Lewis XII. of which Julius was dici, nor that they enjoyed more no sooner informed, than, by a mofreedom under the government of nitory addressed to the conqueror, Soderini than they had done up. he demanded his liberation. der that of the exiled family; and “ Giovanni at the same time re


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ceived from his holiness a commif. the kind design of Zallo, for the fion to absolve such of the victo. guard affrighted, by supposing them rious soldiers as applied for pardon, a regular body of torces, deserted for having dared to withstand the their prisoner, to seek their own arms of the vicar of Christ, and a safety in flight. power of granting funereal rites to “His escape gave new life to the dead: it is impossible to express the hopes of the party ; Julius inthe effects this produced. The fol- stantly renounced the treaty he had diers respecting him as alone hay. folemnly concluded with Florence, ing true apostolic power, thronged and at a congress of the holy to him, and not ouly the common league it was resolved, through the men, but the ennobled persons of perfuafion of the papal anibatador, the illustrious families of Visconti, seconded by the entreaties of JuPalavicini, and Trivalzi; perhaps lian, the brother of Giovanni, to too the opposition of Giovanni's restore the Medici to their country. character to San Severino, the le. To carry this into effect, Giovanni gate of the council of Pisa, not a was invested with legatine power little contributed to this, for he throughout Tuscany, and put at was reserved, haughty, and severe; the head of the pontifical army, and instead of the habit of peace, which was joined by the troops of in which his rival appeared, he Naples, commanded by the vicewore bright shining armour. roy of Ferdinand the Catholic.

“ To prevent the desertion of " It was to no purpose the Flothe army, which looked up to him rentines urged the repeated treaties with reverence and love, it was that had been concluded between resolved to send him intu France, them and the allies, and the exact. no place in Italy being judged pro- ness with which they had fulfilled per to confine him. Giovanni find the last. The confederates in Gifted ing the intention of his enemies, upon Soderini's abdicating the gonprudently threw every impediment faloniership, and admitting the Mein the way, prolonging his stay in dici into Florence; this he abso. the camp as long as possible; and lutely refused. when obliged to commence his « The fordid avarice of Sodejourney, he pursued the fame plan, rini defeated its own aim, and Hattering himself that some fa. befriended the Medici to a great vourable circunstance might offer degree; he had heretofore retused to affift him in making his efcape. the ailistance of the emperor Max.

“ Early one morning, as Gio. imilian at a ftipulated price, lo vanni was preparing to take a boat low he refused to part with thirty to pass over the river Po, opposite thousand ducats, which the covetto Bisignana, Rinaldo Zallo, a no-, ous viceroy alked as the terms of ble Venetian, observing the sacred betraying the interest of the exiled dignity of the prisoner, refolved, family. if possible, to procure him his li- "He foolishly relied upon the berty: for this purpose he collected faith of the fickle multitude. Fawith expedition bis domestics, and tal security! Prato was stormed, fome peasants of the village of and Piftra revolted, declaring for Del Cairo, whom he ordered to the Medici. These mistortunes advance fnouting, and fall upon filled Florence with discontent, the guard. The project answered and whilft a revolt was each mo.



ment threatened, Julian, with three the young nobility by an excess of other young noblemen, accomplish- liberality. ed the revolution. The names of “Having by these means prethese grandees were Bartolomeo pared for the completion of his Valori, Paulo Vettori, and Antonio project, he excused himself from Francesco Albizi; the scheme was paying the viceroy of Naples, preplanned in a conference held at a tending that he could not procure country seat not far from Florence, the money, owing to the French

“ They carried their intentions faction in the city, who threw into execution by secretly entering every obstacle to it in his way. The che city with their partizans, when, greedy vice-king fell into the snare seizing Soderini, they obliged him, so artfully laid for him ; he, anxi. by threatening instant death in case ous to secure the stipulated fuin, of refusal, to quit the magiftracyand disregarding the manner in The unhappy man tremblingly which it was raised, told Giovanni complied with commands he durft that he might dispose of the city not dispute, and filed immediately in what manner he chose, as mort after to Ragusa by sea, with the conducive to obtain the wilhed-før money he could convey away ; but money. the four youths who undertook the "This was a moment not to be plot seized upon the public trea. loft: he assembled the people in the Tury, and then assembled the people, great square, where he stationed taking advantage of the univerfal his friends, many of whom were panic to procure the repeal of the lately wou by the money he had banishment of the Medici.

judiciously applied; these all voted “ The artful Julius, gratified for a change in the form of gothat he had restored the exiled fa- vernment, and placed none but mily, wilhed them only to be such as he approved in the magi. esteemed as private citizens of Flo- ftracy; few, except Baptifto Rorence, supposing them equal in that dolphi, the new gonfalonier, and capacity to contend with the French the other officers of justice, oppos. fa&tion; and flattered himself, that ing it, but these were borne down, whilft he thus kept them, he might as prejudiced to their own intereft ; depend upon the fidelity of Gio. those who had the same sentiments, vanni. This however did not fa. finding themselves surrounded by tisfy the cardinal; he was too pene. the Neapolitan troops, lent for the trating to be long the dupe of the present purpose by the viceroy, pontiff's ambition.

knowing how vain, how danger. : “ To countera&t his holiness's de- ous would be their oppofition, apfign, he used all those blandili. peared to acquiesce in what they ments that seemed so natural to could not prevent. . him, and which won, defervedly " This revolution at once sure won, every heart. He protected prised and alarmed Julius; kuowthe women of Prato from the bru. ing that the Catholic king paid tality of the soldiers, and put a stopno regard to the most solemn trea. to the carnage of the men of that ties, when it was his interest to place. He acted with moderation break them, he imagined that Gio. to all; he interceded with his vanni had won him over by some friends to spare the most violent extraordinary temptation, never enemies of his house. He gained suppoäng that the young cardinal


could have dared to have acted with Rome; the expences were more such determined courage, had not than one hundred thousand crowns. he depended upon the support of It was celebrated upon the anni. so powerful a prince. He feared versary of the battle of Ravenda; the power of Spain equally with and his holiness rode the same horse that of France, and felt himself ill he did when he had been cap'ured. at ease in supposing that two such It is foreign to the design of these powerful states should almost sur memoi:! to write the hiftory of the round his dominions, who were papacy during his pontificate, but allies, and could, with the assistance only continue to represent him to drawn from Spain, give laws to the the reader as the principal of the patrimony of St. Peter. Entertain. house of Medici. ing these sentiments, it is not to be “ What a change was here in sondered at that his holiness de- the fortune of the lately exiled cartermined to deprive Giovanni of dinal! He was now fovereigo of that consequence he had dared to two considerable states, and, in righr seize without his participation. . of one, the acknowledged head of

66 Perhaps nothing could have Europe. Leo regarded his elevasaved the Medici from a cruel re. tion in no other estimation, than verse to their newly renewed con- as the means it afforded him to raise sequence, but the timely death of the his family to permanent sovereignviolent Julius II. who was taken ty. . froni his earthly grandeur, Febru. : “ The most powerful monarchs ary 21, 1513.

vied with each other in offering " Though the Medici were so him and his family their friend. lately reinstated in the government thip; Ferdinand the Catholic, and of Florence, yet Giovanni had the Francis l. the successor of Lewis courage to leave the republic and XII. strove who should most iograrepair to Rome, to assist in the con- tiate themselves by their liberality clave at the election of a fucceffor to to the Medici. The former pro. Julius. Whilst detained in this posed an advantageous marriage Confinement he fell ill, scandal says between Julian and a princess of of a complaint never occafioned by Cordona, allied to the crown of chastity, and the young and the old Spain, but Francis outbid him by cardinals quarrelling which should offering his aunt, Philiberta, daughappoint a future pope, both parties ter of Philibert, and fifter of Charles, at length acquiesced in nominating dukes of Savoy. In right of this Giovanni, thongh only thirty-seven lady he became duke of Nemours, years of age, from the supposition and by the bounty of his brother that his present malady would soon be was impowered to settle upon terminate fatally; and Giovanni, his bride one hundred thousand du. to the joint surprise of the world, cats. Henry VIII, who also courtand of himself, was saluted fove, ed the friend thip of the Medici, reign pontiff; March 10, in the created the duke knight of the gar• preceding year, assuming the name ter, and dedicated to his holiness

of Leo X. upon the occasion, in his well-knowr book written a. conformily to the usage of the gainst the tenets of Luther, for popes..

which Leo gave him the title of .:•ico, in his coronation, dif. Defender of the Faith. plaved a magnificence that ex. « Leo, not content with the Ceedtd whatever had been seen in honours and titles he had procured


Julian, ineditated to raise him to the gratitude was of little avail when
Covereignty of Modena, Reggio, Par- interest called; besides, the duke
ma, Placenza, and the Ferrareze. had been averse to the restoration

The four latter had been mortgaged of the Medicean power in Fiorence,
to his holiness by the emperor which Leo thought abrogated all
Maximilian for forty thousand du- former obligation.
cars, for which he was declared " The amiable Julian whilft he .
hereditary vicar, and had not Max- lived had constantly opposed Leo's
imilian redeemed them, Leo would intention, as inconsistent with de-
have conveyed them over to Ju- cency and honour, but his death

left his holiness at liberty to act as
“ The ambitious pontiff aimed he pleased, without such a monitor
at the still higher promotion for his to check his designs. The duke
brother; he meant to wrest the of Urbino's character was not irre-
crown of Naples from Arragon, proachable; an excuse for the in-
and place it upon his head, and tended violence was easily procur-
there can be little doubt but that ed: he had in the heat of passion
he would have attained some great. stabbed the cardinal of Pavia for
er dignity for him, had not death his attachnient to France; this was
snatched Julian away. His loss the crime principally infifted upon,
was greatly deplored both by his though his having lost Bologna to
family and the public, because the papacy, his opposing the resto.
with a taste equal to Leo's he uni. ration of the Medici, and poffeff.
ted many distinguished virtues. ing a fine principality, were the
Julian was born in 1478, and died greatest in the eye of the greedy
March 17, 1516, and was buried ambitious pontiff.
in the church of St. Lorenzo, in " Leo fulminated his thunder
Florence. His monument was the against him, and declared his du.,
work of Michael Angelo, whose chyforfeited to the holy see, of
much-admired statues of Day and wbich he held. Francisco-Maria did
Night are a part of it. By Phili- not pay implicit obedience, he re.
berta he had no child; but he left monstrated, he did more, he pul
Hippolito, an illegitimate son, who himself ir, a posture of defence;
became a cardinal.

but the treasury of Florence pour" Leo accompliMed his wifh in ed out her ample stores to obtain providing for Julian, without giv- what rendered arms of little avail. ing uneasiness, or being guilty of The soldiers were bribed, and the injustice to any one; but his con- duke was obliged to leave his doduct was most reproachable in his minions to the Medici, to whom advancement of Lorenzo, the fun he had formerly given asylum. of the unfortunate Pietro, He This bugness cost eight hundred had given him an excellent educa. thousand ducats, but the annual tion, and placed him over the re- revenue of Urbino was very great ; public of Florence to govern under even Pilaro, San Leo, and Singa. himself. To raise him to an inde- lia, which were separate members pendent sovereignty, however, was of it, and conquered with the duhis aim, and he fixed upon Urbi. chv, yielded a revenue of twenty. no, though its duke, Francisco. five thonsand ducats. Maria, had showed every kindness “ His holiness having provided to him and his brother in the first Lorenzo, his nephew, with a prin. years of their banishment. But cipality, united him in. Marriage

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