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“The act of parliament which which cannot by any poffibility now excited this ciamour had passed be cast, elucidated, or fupplied. with little opposition through both The rich fruits of many years fine houtes, and had not received any harvests were in a moment destroyextraordinary support from lord ed; and nothing but poor gleanMansfield. , But the ininds of the ings, in private studies, are left for public were intiamed by artful re- the labourer of the present day. prelentations, and the rage of de “This annus mirabilis, 1780, luded mobs was directed against cannot fail to excite curiofity in the most eminent persons in the readers of every denomination. A kingdom.

faithful detail of the ruinous con" Who could have thought that fution, wbich was happily put an such outrages would have ditgraced end to in a very few days, may, fo enlightened a period as 1,80 when contrasted with the complete Pofterity will icarcely credit the anarchy of late vears, pregnant with audacious threatenings of this me. the most dreadful outrages, mur-, morable year--a year pregnant with ders, and asiastinations, in another mischiefs, rapine, and riois, which country, not only stamp a degree of were practised and perpetrated, credibility on the most extravagant not only in the shades of night, and seemingly incredible events of where riot and confufion are gene- the riots in London in 1780, but rally hatched, and where these peits also fully evince this great truthof society love to dwell, but even that, from whatever causes riot and in the very face of noon-day. A anarchy spring, the effects will (if year ever to be remembered with they are not seriously and timely astonishment and horror. With prevented) be invariably the same astonishment, when it is considered -will, like Pandora's box, diffuse by what a small number of rioters, far and wide the evils of defolation, and by what pigmy-champions in misery, and ruin! But, as it is fogeneral, houses were demolished, reign to the purpose of this publi. contributions levied openly in the cation to write or even attempt to molt public squares; and the doors portray a faint sketch of historical and gates of the strongest prisons, events, the author must beg perNewgate itself not excepted, open- mission to confine his observations ed side to pour forth new forces on this memorable period to such a well trained and ready to enter up plain detail of facts as fell within on the most desperate service. his owu knowledge on the one

6 With horror, as long as the ma. hand, and as will throw light, on ny calamitoits circumtances are re- such transactions wherein the earl collected to which each day of riot of Mansfield was either in his prigave birth; one of which, not only vate or judicial capacity principally Westminster Hall, in general, but and personally interetted. every inielligent reader will feri. On the evening of the second ouis lanient, and which the author day's riot, Sir John Hawkins, Mr. of thele theets must ab imo cordis Brooksbank, and another magistrate ever deplore; from his knowledge for the county of Middlesex, disa of the invaluable loss of hooks and charged their duty as vigilant mamanuscripts which perished in the gistratęs, by waiung on the lord conflagration of the earl of Manf- chief justice of England at his house field s houle, and which would have in Bloomsbury.square. They found diffuicda iplendor over these pages, his lordship in conference with his

very respectable and near neighbour phatically to exclaim, "'Tis dad the archbishop of York. Their • foolish to run our breasts against painful embaffy was, to announce bayonets-d've see how they are that the avowed design of the riot ready to pink us at the pärlour. ers that evening was to destroy by "windows? These pithy exclama. fire the houses of the lord chancel. tions, and the light of a few point. lor, and lord chief justice, and one ed bayonets, had a wonderful ef. or two more, which were marked, fect. And the captain of the com. and then well known. The magi. pany of guards, who was my au. strates having made an humble ten- thor, told me with some humour, der of their assistance and advice; that, as detachments of the guards the lord chief justice asked (as the were wauted in almost every part author was credibly informed), what of the metropolis, he thought it his grace the archbishop proposed fair to play the old soldier, and to to do. The answer was worthy of multiply his handlul of men in the a Briton: 'To defend myself and 'best manner he was able. A gar'my family in my own nansion, den-door in the lord chancellor's while I have an arm to be raised house, which communicated with

in their defence. The reply was, the fields, was very convenient for "'Tis nobly said: but, wnile an this purpose. He placed three or • archbithop, like a true church- four centinels at the parlour-winmilitant, is strong enough to pro- dows, as has been noticed; and all

tect himself—a feebler man, and the rest, being ushered through the "an old man, must look up to the garden into the fields, wheeled 'civil power for protection. This round by the duke of boitou's house conceffion having been made, the and Queen’s-square to Ormondmagistrates took a fair occasion to street again. But, ere they re-en. recommend the admission of a de- tered, the few rioters then afler. tachment of the guards into the bled heard the captain of the guard house; but whether the noble owner ask the corporal, When will the thought their admission might make next detachment arrive?'' The anthe enraged mob more desperate, swer was, Please your honour, in or that it would be more efficient 'a trice they are almost in sight.' to keep the guards at a small di. The corporal could speak with Itance, in the vestry room of Blooms. greater precision, since in fact the bury church, until they were really men had hardly been ever out of wanted, is not in the power of the his light-though perfectly conauthor to determine. The lord high cealed by art, as if under the sable chancellor preferred the admission cloud of night, from the rioters; of a serjeant's guard into his house by one of whom, probably their in Great Ormond-street; and by captain, the watch-word was given, the circuitous marches of this imall us decamp to the corner of body of men from Ormond-fireet Bloomsbury.' to the duke of Bolton's, and coun: “ The tatal consequence is too fer-Inarches from Bolton house to well known; and tie irreparable Ormond-street, in a very thort loss of all lord Mansfield's books, space of time, the rioters had every and manuscripts, we repeat with reason to believe, and one of them forrow, is ever to be deplored. was heard to proclaim to his bre. “In this instance we can only thren, the chancellor's house is lament, that so great a lawyer and • brim-full of the guards;' and em. statesman was not, in this hour of · ? 1797.


imminent danger, so great a gene- on his lordship’s resignation of the ral as the then lord chancellor high office of chief justice, was to

“ So unexpected was this daring the following effect : outrage on order and government, My Lord, that it burst on lord Mansfield with. It was our wish to have waited out his being prepared in the Night. 'personally upon your lordship in a eft manner to relift it. He escaped body, to have taken our public with his life only, and retired to a leave of you, on your retiring place of safety, where he remained from the office of chief justice of foine time. On the 14th day of England; but, judging of your June, the last day of term, he again • lord thip's feelings upon such an took his seat in the court of King's occasion by our own, and cong. Bench. •The reverential filence,' • dering, belides, that our numbers savs Mr. Douglas, which was ob- "might be inconvenient, we defire "served when his lordship relumed in this manner affectionately to af. his place on the Bench, was ex. 'sure your lordship, tbat we regret, prelive of sentiments of condo. with a juft fenfibility, the loss of • lence and respect, more affecting 'a magistrate, whose conspicuous * than the most eloquent address the "and exalted talents conferred dig. • occasion could have suggested.' 'nity upon the profeffion; whose

“ The amount of lord Mansfield's enlightened and regular adminis lols which might have been efti- ftration of justice made its duties mated, and was capable of a com- 'less difficult and laborious, and pensation in money, is known to whose manuers rendered them have been very great. This he had pleasant and respectable. a right to recover against the hun. Bui, while we lament our loss, dred. Many others had taken that we remember, withi peculiar la. course; but his lord lip thought it 'tisfaction, that your lord thip is more conGftent with the dignity of not cut off from us by the sudden his character, not to resort to the stroke of painful distemper, or the indemnification provided by the le. more diftreffing ebb of those ex. gislature.”

traordinary faculties which have «In 1984, the pressure of some ' so long distinguished you amongst bodily infirmities for the first time men; but that it has pleased God to admonished the venerable peer to allow to the evening of an useful seek relaxation and relief from the band illustriuus life, the purett ene salutary springs and the vivifying “joyments which nature has ever Loft air of Tunbridge."

"allotted to it—the unclouded “ He retired in 1988 from the reflections of a superior and unfado diftinguished office of lord chief "ing mind over its varied events, judice of the King's Bench, which and the happy consciousness, chas he had held more than thirty years it has been laithfully and eminentwith a reputation and splendour un. ' ly devoted to the highest duries of rivalled. .

human society, in the most diftinThe very affectionate and pa- guished nation upou earth. May thetic address from the bar, signed the season of this high fatisface by the coursel who had practised tion bear its proportion to the in the court of King's Bench during lengthened days of your activity fome part of the period of his pre- and strength! fiding there, which was transmitted , “ To which address lord Mans. to him at Kenwood by Mr. Erskine, field, without detaining the lere vant five minutes, returned the fol. 'alleged, softened the rigor of law, lowing answer : good-humour, elegance, ease, and “ His legal knowledge and pro dignity. His contenance was most found sagacity, not only promoted, plealaag, he had an eye of fire, and but effečtually secured, ihrough a i voice perhaps unrivalled in its long series of years, that amazing {weetness, and the arellifluous va; it crease of business in the court of riety of its tones. .

by the interposition of principles of Dear Sir,

equiiy. But, although he did not "I cannot but be extremely flat- introduce novelty by this practice, o tered by the letter which I this ino. candor muft allow that he cultivat: 'ment have the honour to receive. ed and improved this practice more

If I have given fatisfaction, it is successfully, and in a greater de. ** owing to the learning and can- gree, than any of his predecessors. • dour of the bar. The liberality He presided in his high station dur. and integrity of their practice ing a period of thiriy years and up« freed the judicial investigation of wards, with the dignity of a great • truth and justice from many diffi. judge, and with an attachment to < culties. The memory of the af- the court wherein be prelded, • listance I have received from them, which could not be dissolved by re• and the deep impression which the peated offers of the custody of the . extraordinary mark they have now great seal. In many emergencies, • given me of their approbation and and in times of difficulty and dan

affection, has made upon my ger, he discovered an intrepidity of • mind, will be a fource of perpé. mind, and delivered his sentinients • tual consolation in my decline of with a decided tone of voice, which

life, under the pressure of bodily at once commanded admiration, infirmities, which made it my duty and silenced the tongue of malevo. to retire.

lence, not unfrequently apt to at I am, Sir, with gratitude to you, tribute to him the wapt of firin-,

• and the other gentleinen, nefs. * Your most affectionate and ob. “ His judgments were introdus. · liged humble servant, ced with all the embellishments

MANSFIELD.' which the law on the subject, and 5 Kenwood, June 15, 1788.'. which deep learning, could supply.

“ Of lord Mansfield's benevolent His great and unremitted atiention, qualities, if a fair estimate is to be to improve and render plain and made from his. patronizing merit perspicuous the rules of the court wherever he found it, and where wherein he presided, will be ache had the least reason to think that knowledged and revered as long as his patronage would be of real ser- the rules themselves or the love of vice, his whole life will appear with good order shall exist in our excela great lustre, exhibiting a regular lent constitution. And, in fine, if system of general benevolence, an he has left the pra&tice of the highunclouded effulgence of benignity, est court of judicature yet improv. and an innate love of conferring able, it must be allowed, that he favours on all those, who were has left the rules and orders of that zealous to obtain a good report, and court replete with so much excel. who deserved it.

lence, that they cannot fail to “In his judicial capacity it may prompt his successors to emulate be affirmed, without partiality or him, and to make farther improveencomiastic hyperbole, that his ments." great outline of conduct as a judge “ In fine, The summary of lord was to make the rigid rules of law Mansfield's legal and private charac: lubservient to the purposes of sub- ter may be given in few words. ftantial justice. He was not the "In al he said or did there was first who, as some have erroneously a happy mixture of good-nature,

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King's Bench which dignified bis “ His intuitive and acquired high office, and diffused opulence knowledge of men and things soon among the different officers of his atracted the attention, and pro- court, and all around him. cured the good opinion of the citi. “ Con Gidering his lord hip's de. zens of London and Westminster, cisions separately, it will appear so as to induce them to inftitute that, on all occasions, he was per. their fuits of different denomina: fectly master of the case before tions in the court uberein the pre- him, and apprized of every prinGded

ciple of law, and every adjudica* He excelled in the statement tion of the courts immediately or of a care. One of the first orators remotely applicable to it. Conf. of the present age faid of it, that dering them colle&ively, they will • it was of itself worth the argu- be found to form a complete code

ment of any other man. He di- of jurisprudence on some of the veitou it of all unnecestary circum- moft important branches of our Kances; he brought together every law: a syftem founded on princicircumstance of importance; and ples equally liberal and juft, admitlacke he placed in to striking a rably suited to the genius and cirpoint of view, and connected them cuinstances of the age, and hap. by oservations to powerful, but pily blending the venerable doc. which appeared to arise fo naturally trines of the old law with the learnfrom the facts themselves, that fre ing and refinement of modern queritly the hearer was convinced times; the work of a mind nobly before the argument was opened. gifted by nature, and informed When he came so the argement he with every kind of learning which Grewed awal ability, but it was a could serve for use and ornament. made of argument almost peculiar « His great wisdom thed an un. to himself. His ftaterneut of the common lustre over his admoni. cale predisposed the bearers to fali sions, his advice, and his decisions into the very train of thought he in the public courts, and gave them wifted them to take when they their due weight. All he said and kould come to confider the argue did will be held in deserved admi. ment. Through this be accompa- ration, as long as the love of our bied okem, leading them infen&bly excellent laws, as long as the imto every obfervation facourable to provensent of jurisprudence, and the conclufon ise wibred them to the power of eloquence, shall be draw, and diverting every objec. deemed worthy of pre-eminence, or Lion to it; but ali the time keep. have any charms to please, ing bimself concealed, so that the : “ The author has not presumed bearers thought they formed their to give his lordship's political cha.' opinions in consequence of the pow. racter. More years inuft elapse, ers and workings of their own and party prejudice be laid aside, miode, when, in fact, it was the before bis abilities, principles, and efed of the molt subtle argumen- adiuns as a statesman, can be protacion and the post refined dialectic. perly appreciated. His eminence

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