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torrent: they fucweeded in depriving him of his profefforfliip, and obliged him to quit Vienna; but they could not prevent his continuing to write with the fame courage and zeal.

"M. Zimmerman foon recovered from the dejection into which this event had thrown him, and redoubled his activity: he extended his correfpnndencc, and publifhed frefli pamphlets; to fome of thefe he affixed his name, but thought it unneccllary to do fo to all: many were known by the energy of his thoughts, and the hi (Ire of his ftyle, the characters of which are equivalent to a Cgnature with fuch' readers as know what ftyle is: but unfortunately thefe characters are not admitted as evidence before tribunals; and M. Zimmerman had a very vexatious lawfuit, in conlequence of not having remembered that a man may difavow his writings at his pleafure, if he does not put his name at full length to his works. In 1792 he inferted in M. Hoffman's journal fome fheets entitled * Baron de Knigge unveiled 'as an illuminate Democrat, and * Seducer of the People ;' and proved his affections by the Baron's own writings.

"Among the works which he quoted, one was anonymous, which rendered it very difficult to prove the author : the Baron availed himfelf of this circumftance to repiefent JVI. Zimmerman's memoir as a fcjndalous libel, and commenced an action for dai-iacjes agninft him. The caufe was delayed for a long time, and was not tried till February 1795, a period when my friend was not only too weak to defend it, but even to intereft himfelf about it. It was decided, thnt he had certainly proved the baron to be a dangerous man, &.c. but that jicverthelefs he fliould apologize for

179J.;

having publicly infuked him,' unlefs he could prove that the anonymous pamphlet came from him, though his name was not affixed." "Deeply imprefled with the importance of his caufe, Zimmerman gave himfelf up to labours that rapidly deftroyed his health; not only in as much as an unremitted occupation of the mind hurts it more than any thing elfe, but alfo becaufe when he was employed in any work his manner of living was changed in a very prejudicial manner: he rofe very early iti the morning, and wiore a long while before he began vifits, and in the evening, after having finifhed the profeffional bufinefs of the day, inftead of eating and diverting his mind in fociety, he again went to work, and remained at it frequently tjll a very late hour. His mind was thus in continual action, and his body had not the repole it required ; he bore up however, very well for feveral years; and on the 4th of October 1794-, he wrote me a letter in which there is the fame ftrength of exprtflion, the fame jufrnefs of thought, and the fame precifion of arrangement,, as in thofe preceding: he there clearly pointed out the progrefs of the focictv, which became daily more' dangerous: 'She is miftrefs of al'moft every prefs, of even- book-, •feller, of every German journal, 'and of all the courts. The cau* fes of the dil -.(ten of this lad cam* 'paign are the fame as thofe of the 'events at Chalons in 1762/ This letter alfo contained the m >ft lively expreffipns of his joy at hearing of mv cure; yet there was one lenience bearing traces of the rmft profound melancholy, which gave me the greateft pain: • I run a 'ri(k yet of becoming" this year a 'poor emigrant, fo.r.cd to abandon' 4 his houfe with ths dear tompaC «nion

* nion of his life, without knowing

* where to dircft his courle, or

* where to find a bed to die on.' The invafion of the electorate, the facking of Hanover, and the neceffity of abandoning it, was certainly at that time to be feared, if' the negotiation had not faved what the armies did not defend: but Zimmerman's manner of exprefling his fcp.rs announced the gieateft depreffion. I faw therein a mind whofe fprings began to fail, and which dared no longer (ay, as it could have juftly done, *J carry •every thing with me.' I neglected nothing in order to raife his fpirits, and entreated him to come to me with his wife, to a country that was his own, where he would have remained in the moft perfect fecurity, and enjoyed all the fweets of peace and friendship. He anfwered me in December, and one part of bis letter refembled thofe of other times; but melancholy was ftill more ftronglv marked, and the illnefs of his wife, which he unfortunately thought more ierious than it really was, evidently opprefled him: he had been obliged to take three days to write me details which at another time would not have occupied him an hour, and he concluded his letter with, *I conjure 1 you perhaps for the laft time," &c. The idea that he fhould write no more to his friend' (and unfortunately the event juftified him), the difficulty of writing a few pages, the ftill fixed idea of being forced to Jeave Hanover, although the face of affairs had entirely changed; all, all indicated the lois 1 was about to fuftain.

"From the month of November he had loft his ileep, his appetite, his ftrength, and became fenfibly thinner; and this ftate of decline continued to increafe. In January he was ftill able to make a few vi

fits in his carriage; but he frequently fainted on the ftairs: it was painful for him to write a prefcription: he fometimes complained of a confufion in his head, and he at length gave over all buGnefs. This was at firft taken for an effect of hypochondria, but it was foon perceived, that his deep melancholy had deftroyed the chain of his ideas. What has happened to to many men of genius betel] him. One ftrong idea mafters every other, and fubdues the mind that is no longer able either to drive it away, or to lofe fight of it. Preferving all his prefence of mind, all his perfpicuity, and juftnefs of thought on other fubjects, but no longer de fir cms of occupying himfelf with them, no longer capable of any bufinefs, nor of giving advice, but with pain, be had unceafingly before hi* eyes the enemy plundering his houfe, as Pafcal always faw a globe of fire near him, Bonnet his friend robbing him, and Spinello the devil oppofite to him. In February he commenced taking medicines, which were 'either prefcribed by himfelf or by the phylicians whom he confulted; at the beginning of March he defired my advice; but he was no longer able himfelf to defcribe his diforder, and his wife wrote me the account of it. I anfwered her immediately ; but of what avail can be the directions of an abfent phyfician in a diforder whofe progrefs is rapid, when there muft neceflarily be an interim of near a month between the advice aiked, and the directions received? His health decayed fo faft, that M. Wichman, who, attended him, thought a journey and change of air would now be the beft remedy. Eutin, a place in tbe duchy of Holftein, was fixed upon for hit refidence. In going through Luneburgh on his way thither, M. Lentin, one of the phyficians in whoa

whom lie placed moft confidence, was confulted; but Zimmerman, who, though fo often uneafy on account of health, had, notwithftanding, had the wifdom to take few medicines, and who did not like them, always had a crowd of objections to make againft the belt advice, and did nothiug. Arrived at Emiu, an old acquaintance and hit family laviihed on him all the careflesof friendfliip. vThis reception highly pleafed him, and tie grew rather better. M, Henfler came from Kiel to fee him, and gave hiirr his advice, which was probably very good, but became ufelefs, as it was very irregularly followed. At laft, after a relidence of three months, he defired to return to-Hanover, where he entered his houfe with the fame idea with which he hail left it; he thought it plundered, and imagined himfelf totally ruined. I wrote to entreat him to go to Carl (bad; but he was no longer capable of bearing the journey. Difguft, want of lleep,

and weaknefs, increafed rapidly; he took icarcely any nourilhmenf, either on account of infurmountaable averfion, or becaufe it was painful to him; or perhaps, as M. Wichman believed, becaufe he imagined he had not a farthing left, lntenfe application, the troubles of his mind, his pains, want of deep, and laftly (as [ have juft fdid), want of fufficient nouriflnnent, had on him all the effects of" time, and flattened old age: at fixty-lix he was in a ltate of complete decrepitude, and his body was become a perteft fkeleton. He clearly forefaw the ili"lie of his difor.der: and above fix weeks before his death he laid to the fame phyfician, * I fhall die 'flowly, but very p.:infully;' and fourteen hours before he expired, he-faid, 'Leave me alone, i. am 'dying.' This mnil have been a fweet fenfation for a man in the midft of fo many incurable evils, and who had lived as he luid done. This excellent man died on the 7th of Oftober, 1795."

Sketch of theLi/EandCHAR A Cter of Willi AM,EARLofMANs Field.

[Extracted from the Life of that Nobleman, by John Holliday, of • Lincoln's Inn, Efq. Sec]

'""PHE honourable William A Murray, afterwards earl of Mansfield, was a younger fon and the eleventh child of David vifcount Stormont, who was the fifth vifcount of the noble andiliuftrious family of Murray.

'Sir William Murray ofTallibard, in the fiiireor' Perth, by Catharine his wife, daughter of Andrew lord Gray, had four ions; and fir Andrew Murray, the third fon, was the progenitor of vifcount Stormont, the father of lord Mansfield.

"On the 2d of March, 1705, according to the computation of time in Scotland, but in 1704. according to the legal computation of time in England, William, the fourth fon of lord Stormont, was born at Perth in North Britain.

** About the tender ag'- of three years, he was remove-! to, and educated in, London ; and confequently he had not, when an infant, imbibed any -peculiarity of dialect, which could tend to decide that Perth had a fairer claim than Bath Ca to to the honour of his birth. The year of his admiftion, as a king's icholar at Wertn'iinfter, appears to be 1719.

"When he was a Weftminfter fcholar, lady Kinnoul, in one of the vacations, invited him to her home, where oblerving him with a pen in his hand, and feemingly thoughtful, flie alked him it he was writing his theme, and what in plain fnglifli the theme was. The ichocl-boy's fmart anfwer rather furpriled her ladyfllip: * What is 'that to you ?' She repiied, 'How

* can you be fo rude? I alked you

* very civilly a plain queition ; and

* did not expect from a fchool-boy

* fuch a pert anfwer.* The reply was, ' Indeed, my lady, I can only 'anfwer once more, What is that

* to you '(' In reality the theme was —Quid ad te—pcrtinet?

"Whether the affinity in Scotch enunciation between Perth and Bath, or whether the inftrurriotis fent with the honourable Mr. Murray for matriculation at Oxford were trot written in a fair hand, the millake of Bath for Perth was actually made; and, however Angular it may appear, candour muft allow, that fuch a miftake might cafily happen.

•'Be that as it may, the entry of his admiflion as a ftudent ofChiifl:church, Oxford, of which a correct copy is fubjoined, is contrary to the real fact, refpecting the place' of his birth.

Trin. Term. 1723, June 18.
JE.<\. Xti. Gul. Mui ray 18.
David f. Civ. Bath.
C. Sotn. V. Com. fil.

T. Wenman, C. A.

« Sir William Blackttone is laid to have mentioned this curious circumftance to the lord chief juftice of the king's bench, while he had the honour to fit with him in that court; when lord Mansfield an

fwercd, «that polfibly the broad1 'pronuciation of the perfon who

• gave in the defcription, was the

* origin of the miftake.*

"tiifhop Newton, who was one ofhiscotemporariesatWeftmintter, bears this honourable teftimony to his Ichool-fellow's early fame.

"During the time of his being at fchool, he gave early proofs ot his uncommon abilities, not fo much, in his poetry, as in his other exercifes, and particularly in his declamavons, which were fure tokens and prognoftics of that elo>quenee which grew up to fuch maturity and perfection at the bar, and in both houfes of parliament.

"At the election in May, 1723, when he was in the 19th year of his age, he had the honour of {landing firft on the lill of thofe gentlemen who were fent to Oxford, and was accordingly entered of Chrift's Church on the 18th of June following.

"About four years afterwards, he was admitted 10 the degree of B. A.; and, on the death of George the firft, an elegant copy- of Latin verfes, written by Mr. Murray, as one of the members of the UniverGty, was honoured with the firft prize; and will probably be convincing to every clailical reader, that the great declaimer, or the younger Tally at Weftminfter, had either courted the mules with uncommon fuccefs at Oxford, or that the learned prelate has depreciated the worth of Mr. Murray's Latin poetry."

"His oration in praife of Demofthenes prefented another early prelage of his rifing fame; a valuable fragment of which has been preferved."

"Lord Monboddo, in his excellent treatife of the Origin and Progrefs of Language, has paid fo jrift a tribute of refpect. to this fragment

of •f his friend and patron's juvenile declamation, as to make it the fubjeft of an entire chapter, wherewith the fixth volume concludes, with a beautiful apoftrophe or adtfrefs from the author in his 77th year to lord Mansfield, then on the verge of 89." .

"In April, 1724, Mr. Murray was admitted a ihident of Lincoln's Inn.

"On the 24th of June, 1730, he took the degree of M. A. and left theUniverfity foon afterwards, full of vigour, and determined to travel into foreign parts, before he fat down to the ferious proi'ecution of his legal (indies, to which his genius and his (lender fortune, as a younger fon, forcibly and happily prompted him. He travelled through France and in Italy, at an age fitted for improvement and ufeful obfervation; not between 19 and 2 1, a period which his great patron lord Hardwicke, in ore of the numbers in the Spectator, under the modeft fignature of Philip Homebred, evinces to be too early an age for our Britifli youths to travel to any real advantage. At Rome Mr. Murray was probably infpiied, and animated with the love of Ciceronian eloquence; at Rome he was prompted to make Cicero his great example, and his theme. At Tufcuhiiri,' and m his perambulations over claflical ground, why might he not be emulous to lav the foundation of that noble fuperftruct'Te of bright fame, which he foon railed after he became a member of Lincoln's Inn?"

"The letters intended for the ufe of a young noblem.m, muff, have been written about the year 1730, when Mr. Murray was a very young man, inafniuch as the !a<ft can eafilv be afcertained, that the • young duke of Portland fpent three years in his travels in France and

Italy, and returned to England in

"To give a new call to Mr. Murray's extent of thought, and to evince, that, however pl.-a(ing«nd bewitching the flowery fields of literature were to his well-ftored mind, he wifely determined not to be bewildered therein, and early difcovered a great veneration for the ad>ice of Horace, Ornnc tulit punflum qui mifcuit utile dulci.

"He was called to the bar in . Michaelmas term, 1730. In his career in the purfuit of legal knowledge his alfiduity foon co-operated with his Alining abilities. Two fupporters like thefe, in perfect unifon, not only exempted him from all pecuniary ernbarraffinents, which (lender fortune in fome, and juvenile indifcretion in others, too frequently occafion, but alfo conciliated the efteem, the friendfhip, and patronage, of the great oracles of the law, who adorned that period, among whom lord Talbot and lord chancellor Hardwicke were looked up to as the fo(ter-fa« thers of the fcience.

"Inflead of fubmitting to the ufual drudgery, as fome are pleafed to deem it, of labouring in the chambers of a fpecial pleader, Mr. Murray's motto feems to have been 4 Aut Cicero aut nullus.'

"Early in his legal career he ftudied the graces of elocution un. der one of the greateft matters of the age wherein he lived.

"L)o<5tor Johnfon, in his life of Pope, fays, ' his voice when he was 'young was fo pleafing, that Pope * was called in fondnefs the little 'nightingale.' Under this melodious mid great mailer Mr. Murray practifed elocution, and may truly be faid to have brought the modulation of an harmonious voice to the higheft degree of perfection.

C3 "One

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