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dered all those in his service to quit engravings of the requisite inftruthis order, he was so displeased ments and machinery. To suppose that he returned the academy of that his success, whilst it brought Munich the diploma they had sent him fanie and emolument, did not him on their receiving him amongst draw upon him the envy and ill them, publicly avowed his attach. will of many of his brother me. ment to the order, and thought it 'tallurgifts and associates in office, proper to break off all further con- would show a great ignorance of nection with Bavaria as a member what is daily passing in common of its literary society. The Free life. Envy has its share even in Masons did not long retain the pa- maintaining order in society : it is tronage of their lovereign; the this which tends to keep the great emperor Joseph soon became jea- from rising higher, whilst a con. lous of their influence, and put trary passion lifts up the little, or them under such reftri&tions, and prevents them from falling lower. clogged them with such incum- “ Though great cabals were brapces, as to amount almoft to a raised against him, and against the prohibition; and as such they act. introduction of his method, yet the ed, for the fociety found it neces- advantages of it in many cases sary to diffolve.

were so evident, that the emperor • What raised the baron so high ordered it to be used in his Hun. in the public opinion, was his garian mines; and as a recoinpense knowledge of inineralogy, and his for his discovery, gave him for ten successful experiments in metallur years the third part of the savings gy, and principally in the process arising from its application, and of amalgamation. The use of four per cent. of this third part quicksilver in extracting the noble for the next twenty years. Even metals from their ores, was not a this did not defend him from being discovery of the baron's, nor of still harassed by his enemies; ube the century in which he lived; yet stacles were still thrown in the way he extended so far its application in 'to prevent the introduction and metallurgy as to form a brilliant success of his discovery, and to epoch in this most important art. defraud him of his weil-earned reAfter he had at great expence made compense. many private experiments, and was ,“ Though he suffered very much convinced of the utility of his me. in the latter part of his life, yet thod, he laid before the emperor this did not prevent him from conan account of his discovery, who tinuing his literary pursuits. lo gave orders that a decisive experi. 1790 tie published his · Catalogue ment ou a large quantity of ore methodique raisonné' of the cola should be made at Scheinnilz in lection of fossils of Miss Raab, Hungary. To see this he invited which had been chiefly formed by many of the most celebrated chy. bis donations. This work, ele mists and metallurgifts of Europe; gantly printed in two volumes, was and Ferber, Elhujer, Charpentier, well received by the public, and Trebra, Poda, and inapy more were he was writing the Fafti Leopolpresent, and aproved of his inven. "dini,' and a mineralogical work, tion. On this general approbation when death put an end to his use: be publthed, by order of the em- ful life and to his sufferings.' peror, his Treatise on the Process of “ Notwithstanding the varied adu Amalgamation, with a great many vice of his physicians, his disease continued : in such a state quacks emperor Jofeph was making his find easy access to the sick; who reforms in the church: indeed, at is not then ready to seize the nor any other time such a severe satire trum of the bold pretender? One on the monks wouid not have been of these gave him a decoction permitted. They are characterized which foon calmed his sufferings, thus: and which he was assured would "Monachus. cure him in a few weeks. He contin Descriptio. - Animal avarum. nued the use of this for the last foetidum, immundum, fiticulosum, five months of his life : it really iners, inediam potius tolerans quam diminished his pains; but his “laborem;vivunte rapina et quæs. friends observed that his cheerful. tu; mundum sui tantum causa crenels, which hitherto had not left batuin esse predicant; coeunt clan. him, diminished likewise, and that deftine, nuptias non celebrant, fæspasms often attacked his upper 'tus exponunt;in propriam speciem Jimbs. On the zift of July, 1791, fæviunt, et hoftem ex infidiis ag. he was seized with spasms and cold; .grediuntur. Ufus. Terræ pondus the former foon subsided on fric. 'inutile. Fruges consumere nati.' tion, but he lost his speech. On And upon the order of Dominicans the subsequent days he had differ• he says Eximio olfactu pollet, ent attacks till the 28th, when he • vinum et hæresin e longinquo odos found himself better, but he was rat. Esurit femper polyphagus. foon attacked again with spasms, "Juniores fame probantur. Vereand in these he expired.

rani, relegata omni cura et occu. “ Born was of a middle Gize and patione, gulæ indulgent, cibis fuc. delicate constitution, dark com- culentis mutriuntur, molliter cu. plexion, black hair, and large black baut, tepide quiefcunt, fomnum eyebrows. Wit and satire, and a protrahunt, et ex suis diæta cuquick comprehension, were mark. rant, ut esca omnis in adipem transed in his eyes, and his lively and eat, lardumque adipiscantur: vinc penetrating genius appeared in his abdomen prolixum paffim præ se countenance. Besides being a good ferunt; senes ventricoli maxime Latin classic, he was master of most æftimantur. Virginitatis facræ olo. European languages of note, and res in venerem volgivagam proni poflefied a deal of general informa. ruunt. Generi humano et fapz tion no ways connected with rationi infettissima species, in cu. those branches of science required "jus creatione non fe jactavit aucin his profession. He was a great "tor naturæ.' wit and satirist, and a good com " The archbishop of Vienna panion even under the sufferings of complained to the emperor against bodily pain. His too liberal and this work; who replied, that it unguarded use of satire made him was only the idle and useless part mapy enemies. In his youthful of the spiritual order which was days he wrote the “Staats Perücke' attacked. This was seconded by for the amusement of his friends; his · Defensio Phyfiophili;' and to this was afterwards publiqued with this fucceeded his · Anatomia Mo. out his knowledge. But nothing 'nachi.' He wrote likewise a faflows more his talent for satire tire on Father Hell the astronomer, than his . Monjachologia,' which by publishing a long Latin advertise he published in 1783, just when the ment, full of irony, announcing a book written against the Free-ma: attentive to economy in his domeffons, in the name of this learned tic concerns; though I believe his Jesuit. lurements, inasmuch as we feel the name of Haller, in which our minds enlarged in proportion Berne gloried, did not permit bim as we learn to generalize the ideas to think of studying any where but we have already acquired, and add at Goettiogen. He arrived there to them others upon subjects, the on the 12th of September 1747, very aspect of which had at first and took his degree on the 14th of fight terrified us.


· insolvency was chiefly owing to “It must not be forgotten, that usurers and money lenders, to his house was always open to the whom he was obliged to have re. travelling literasi who visited Vi. course to carry on his expensive enna; and that unprotected geni, projects. Through these, though us was always sure to find in him a bis patrimony was very conli. friend and patron. He carried this derable, he died greatly in debt: perhaps too far, so far as to ruin this is the more to be lamented, his estate; probably the expectations as he left a wife and two daugh of receiving a large income from ters.” the amalgamation, made him less

Memoirs of Dr. ZIMMERMAN.

(Extracted from the Lipe of M. ZIMMERMAN, Counsellor of State,

Chief Physician to the King of ENGLAND at HANOVER, &c. Translated froin the French of S. A. D. Tissor, M. D. F. R. S. &c.] :

"JOHN George Zimmerman ken, and though he followed his

U was born at Brugg, a town in ftudies in German cities, and pasfo the German part of the canton of ed a very short time in France, he Berne, on the 8th of Dec. 1728. yet spoke and wrote the two lanHe was the son of the senator J. guages with equal facility, Zimmerman, of one of those fami. 6. He was brought up in his fa. lies, as there are many even in the ther's house under able masters till Imallest towns of Switzerland, and the age of fourteen, when he was without doubt in other parts of Eu- fent to Berne, where he studied the rope, wbich, without any of those belles lettres under M. Kirchbertitles of rank that are obtained in guer, professor of eloquence and munarchies, sometimes by money, history, and M. Alemani, professor but often through favour or in. of Greek; to both of whom he alfluence, have distinguished them. ways acknowledged great obligafelves for ages by the integriiy with tions. At the end of three years which they have filied the highest be passed into the school of philo. employments in their country for fophy, the professor of which, a the advantage of their fellow.citizealous disciple of Mr. Wolf, knew zens. The mother of M Zimmer. of philosophy only the metaphysics man was a miss Pache of Morges, of his master, and employed the a town in the French part of the whole year in explaining a very fame carton, and daughter to a small part even of them. It may eafje celebrated counseilor, who had ly be imagined how much such a formerly belonged to the parlia. method would tend to disguft an ment of Paris. This circumstance active mind with a science, which is mentioned because it serves to well taught, is of infinite use to explain why, though buru in a pro- every person who wishes to study vince where German only is fpo- well; and which has even its al. 1797

B lurements,

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August 1751. By Haller he was “ Zimmerman, therefore, never received as if he had been his own thought himself indebted to M. son; he took him into his house, Brunner for what he learned of true he affifted him with his advice, die philofophy at Berne (and he cer- rected his studies, and was to him tainly did learn a great deal there), a father, preceptor, and friend. but to Messrs. James Tribolet and Under MM. Haller, Richter, Seg. J. Stapfer, both of them ministers, ner, and Brendel, he cultivated and distinguished by their genius with the same attention every and their learning.

branch of the medical art. He “ It was during his residence at followed the practical leffons of Berne, that in 1746, a short time Richter, a pupil of Boerhaave's after my departure for Montpellier, and bred up in his system, the he came to Morges to pass several principles of which will always be months with his mother's relations; safe guides at the bed fide of the at my return, four years after fick, notwithstanding the conwards, his genius, his good sense, tempt which many physicians, des his amiable and cheerful dispofi. firous of becoming chiefs of sects, tion, were still spoken of with have affected to throw on them, in pleasure ; and when in 1751 I read hopes to raise the reputation of their his fine Dissertation on Irrita. own by discrediting those of that bility, I already knew and loved great man. the author; a partiality which con- “M. Zimmerman also attended tributes more than may be gene the lectures of M. Brendel on the rally imagined to make one ap- fame subject. This gentleman prove'a man's doctrine, even when joined to an excellent understandit is not invincibly demonstrated, ing a profound knowledge of phy. as it certainly is in the work of M. fic, and visited a great many pa. Zimmerman.

,tients: he frequently conceived “ His father died a short time new and happy ideas; and his les. after he had been placed at Berne; fons became on that account useful and just before the year 1747, in and interesting, although a fondwhich he was to have finished his ness for system has now and then studies in philosophy, he had the led him astray. misfortune to jole his excellent “ Zimmernian, did not, how. mother. Thus was he left with ever, confine himself to the study out a friend to consult upon the of physic: under M. Segner be choice of a profesion; a circum. studied mathematics and natural stavice at all times to be lamented; philosophy; he also learned the but which has, in some cases, the English language and studied Eng. advantage of allowing the inclina. lilli literature, which he loved and tion to tollow its own bent, and cultivated all his life. Pope and thereby perhaps of insuring suc. Thomson were as familiar to him cefs. Without begitation he de- as Homer and Virgil, and the bet termined in tavour of phy@c; and French poets. He acquired under

M. Achenrad M. Achenval the knowledge of the glory of the discovery was reserved states of Europe. It is doubtful for M. Haller. whether the lessons he received “Gliffon, a celebrated English from this master were lessons of anatomist, had remarked, iu tome politics properly so called, or of parts of the human body, a fingu. that science which now makes so lar property of contraction upon much noise under the name of sta- being touched, although there tistics; but from several passages in should be no feeling in the part, his letters I am inclined to think -and he called that property irriia. they comprized the principles of bility. M. Haller imagined, that both.

if the fibres of the heart had the “ The four years which he past. fame property, as several operaed at Goettingen were, as may be tions appeared to indicate, it was seen, well employed. He gave without doubt the cause of its himself up to study with the greate moveinents; and he assumed this eft ardour; and was supported by poftulatum in his Outlines of that inward feeling which already • Physiology,' which appeared in told him what he should one day 1747. Still, however, it was only become. In taking poffeffion for a conjecture, which it was veces. him of an estate left him in this fary to demonstrate or overturn; country by an aunt, I found in one and M. Zimmerman undertook to of his letters, dated from Goettin. make the requisite experiments, gen in 1748, the following pas- The general plan was, no doubt, lage: "I lead here the life of a given him by Haller: it was ne. man who wishes to live after cessary that he should tell him

his death.' This life, however, what he wished to have discovered, is not that which brings good and point out the means which he health; and his began already to intended should be employed: fedecay. . He had at that time a veral experiments he suggested, and flight attack of the hypochon- saw them performed; but it is not

less true, that the greatest part of “ Part of the last year that he the work, its reduction to a plan, spent at Goettingen was employed the perspicuity of arrangement, and upon a work which afterward be many of the conciusions, are by came the basis of bis reputation. Zimmerman, who registered down The continual action of the heart, bis experiments, his refearches, and which from the first moment of his reflections, in a thesis, which is animation, until death, never ceases the fundamental work upon this alternately to contract and dilate subject, and to which are fairly atitself, with a regularity which is tributable all the changes that have only deranged by certain passions since been made in the theory of and certain disorders, has been re. phyfic. From the moment when garded by observers' as one of the that book was published, the name most curious phenomena of nature. of Zimmerman resounded through Every physician who had studied all Europe.” . the animal economy had endea. “Upon. quitting Goettingen, voured to explain it; a'multitude where he had for fellow-students of causes had been imagined, none the most diftinguilted characters of which were satisfactory, because (Messrs. All, Auriviius, De Brun, neither was the true one; and the Castel, Meckel, Schobinger, Fre.


dria. .

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