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comes a new vine, a flick is given. Then follows the fevered labour of the vineyard, the digging or turning up the foil: this is repeated three or four times before the vintage. Soon after the firft digging, the flicks are driven in, to which the (hoots, when they are about two feet long, are lightly bound: when they are grown to five feet they are better bound, once pretly fall above, and once loofer in the middle. Weeds by this time again begin to grow, and the foil is again turned up to deilroy them, and to keep it light: but during the flowering of the vine nothing is done; nature is left entirely to herfelf. This being over, the flicks are driven firmer in the ground; the vines which may have come untied are better fecured; the too luxurious growth is taken away, and the vines are fo ordered that they may require no farther care till the vintage; only the foil is once more turned up. Now the hufbandman's toil is over, and he waits for the bleffing of Providence in a. fine vintage—with anxiety—for very uncertain arc his profits.
"Though in warm feafons the earlieft grapes are ripe in the middle of Auguft, it is the latter end of September before the greater part are eatable; and as the grapes for preffing rauft be lully ripe, the vintage is delayed as long as poffible; generally to the feaft of Saint Simon and Saint Jude, which is the 28th of October; and if the weather is fine, the later the better, on account of having the greater quantity of the half-dried lufcious grapes, or, as they are here called, troken-beers; which are abfolutely necefTary to form the aufbruche, that kind of Tokay wine which is fo much efteemed, and
which is called by us Tokay. As foon as the grapes begin to grow ripe, guards are placed in the vineyards, not only to prevent the grapes from being ftolen, but to drive away the birds from them.
"At laft the feafon of rejoicing comes, the vintage. In every country this is a time of mirth and gaiety; but particularly fo about Tokay. Many of the great nobility, though they have no eftate here, and live in diftant parts of Hungary, have a vineyard here, and bufinefs as well as pleafure brings many of them at this feafon; and the dealers in this article come likewife to make their contracts, and the friends of all concerned, from a tacit invitation, come to join in the general feflivity: the vintage is preceded by fairs, fo that during this feafon all is life and buftle.
"To the troken-beers, or halfdried lufcious grapes, Tokay, that 'is, the Tokay aufbruche, is indebted . for all its richnefs: but thefe depend greatly on the weather; every year does not produce them either in- the fame quantity or quality; in fome years they fail altogether. If the frofty m«rnings fet in too foon, and, before the grapes are ripe, deftroy the conneftion'between them and the vines, the aufbruche is harfh and four; yet frofty mornings, when not too foon, are advantageous to them: if wet weather fets in at the time they ought, through the influence of the fun, to lofe their watery parts, and to be turned to fyrup, it may eafi'.ybe conceived what will be the confequence. Thefe troken-beers -ire always trifling in quantity compared with the other grapes; and in fome years, as I have juft faid, there are none at all.
"The feafon for gathering being
come, young and old, with merry hearts and active hands, repair to
* the vineyards, and eafe the vines of their precious loads; but in doing this the troken-beers are picked from the reft, ami kept apart; and they are often fold to thofe who makeauibruche, by thofe who do not. The fpoil carried home, the ordinary grapes are trod apart, and the juice is taken out, and then the remaining juice is preffed out from the (kins and ftalkst both are commonly put together in tubs, «o difference being generally made between the juice trod out and that preffcd out. This when fermented forms the common wine; which is not fent out of the country as a delicacy, and never reaches our ifland. The troken-beers are likewife trod, and then have the confiftency of honey: to this is added the common juice; and as the richnels of the aufbruche or mafchlafs depends on the greater quantity of . the juice of the troken-beers, the proportions vary according to the intent of the owner. The common proportion for an antal of aufbruche, which contains feventeen or eighteen Englifh gallons, is two bufliel of troken-beers; r.nd for a cafk of mafchlafs, which is only a lefs rich liquor, the fame quantity is taken: but then the cafk is about equal to two antals; fo that only half the quantity of troken-beers are ufcd to make mafchlafs as are
> iifed to make aufbruche. Eut as the police does not interfere in this matter, and every one does as he thinks proper, thefe two liquors are often very near alike, and the principal difference then confifts in the fize of the C3fks.
"The mixture being made,- it is ftrongly ftirred together. By this operation the feeds arc feparated from the flefh of ;he grapes, and
come to the top, and are taken out with a net- or fieve: thus it remains in the fame veffel, covered over for a couple of days, till fermentation begins; and this is fuffercd to continue about three days, according to the weather; that is, till the fermentation has properly mixed tbe flefliy pulp of the troken-beers with the common juice: it fhould be ftirred every morning and evening, and the feeds carefu.ly taken out. ]f the fermentation is continued too long, the wine receives from the fkins a difagreeable brown colour, and forms a deal of yeaft and fedfment in tbe cafk. Nothing now remains to be done, hut to pour this liquor through a cloth or Ceve into the barrels in which it is to he kept. The refiduum is then prefTed: fome even after this, pour the common juice upon this preffed refiduum; but if the prefs is good the common wine gains little by it.
"When a confiderable. quantity of the troken-beers remains a fliort time together, fome of their thick. juice or fvrup is exprefted and runs out: this is carefully collected as a great delicacy; it is called efleuce, and has the confiftence of treacle. No art is nfed to fine thefe wines, nor to make them keep. The barrels fhould be kept full, and their outfides free from wet and mildew.
"Aufbruche is not exclufively made about Tokay: there is a Sainr George, a Ratchdorf, and a menifche aufbruche, and this latter I prefer to that of Tokay; it is red; fome is made likewife in the county of Oedenberg.
"The beft wine does not long remain in the place of its growth: a great part of it is foon lent into the cellars of the nobility in other parts of Hungary; and the greatcft quantity is to be found in the cotraties of Zips and Liptau in the North, from whence it is fent into Poland. The Polifh magnates are the bed cuftomers, particularly for the aufbruche, which is the deareft European wine that is: here in the country, a bottle of the beft is valued always at about a ducat, that is, near half-a-guinea. I dined once at the coffee-houfe at Pert with a few friends: we had only a plain dinner, for which we paid but a moderate price: btftides common wine we had fome Tokay: when the waiter came to be paid, he alked each how many glafTes he had
drank of it, and then added twenty creutzers (about eight-pence) for each glafs to the fcot of every
drinker of Tokay. Tokay is no
doubt a fine wine, but I think no ways adequate to its price: there are few or my countrymen, except on account of its fcarcenefs, who would not prefer to it good claret or Burgundy, which do not coft above one-fourth of the price. Some of the fweetifli Spanifh wines, begging its pardon, are in my opinion equally good; and unlefs it be very old, it is too fweet for an Engliih" man's palate."
Account of the Ferment for Bread ufed at Debretzin.
[From the fame Work.]
"T IGHTER, whiter, and betJLi ter flavoured bread than that made here I never ate; nor did I ever fee elfewhere fuch large loaves. Were f not afraid of being accufed of taking advantage of the privilege of travellers, I fhould fay they were nearly half a yard cubed. As this bread is made without yeaft, about which fuch a hue and cry is often raifed, and with a fubftitute which is a dry mafs, that may be eafily tranfperted, and kept half a year or more, I think it may be of nfe to my country, for me to detail the Debretzin art of making bread. The ferment is thus made: two good handfulls of hops are boiled in four quarts of water; this is poured upon as much wheaten bran as can be well moiftened by it; to this are added four or five pounds of leaven; when this is only warm, the mafs is well worked together to mix the different parts. This mafs is then put in a warm place for
twenty-four hours, and after that it is divided into fmall pieces about the fize of a hen's egg or a fmall orange, which are dried by being placed upon a board and expofed to a dry ;air, but not to the fun; when dry they are laid by for ufe, and may be kept half a year. This is the ferment, and it is to be ufed in the following manner: for a baking of fix large loaves, fix good handfulls of thefe balls are taken and diffolved in feven or eight quarts of warm water. This is poured through a fieve into one end. of the bread-trough, and three quarts more of warm water are poured through the fieve after it, and what remains in the fieve is well preflfcd out: this liquor is mixed up with fo much flour as to form a mafs of the fize ot a large loaf: this is ftrewed over with flour, the fieve with its contents » put upon it, and then the whole is covered up warm, and left till it has L 3 rifen rifen enough, and its furface has begun to crick : this forms the leaven. Then fifteen quarts of warm water, in which fix handfulls of fait have been diflolved, are poured through the lieve upon it, and the neceffary quantity of flour is added, and mixed and kneaded with the leaven; this is covered up warm, and left for about an hour. It is then formed into loaves, which are kept in a
warm room half an hour; and after that they are put in the oven, whsre they remain two or three hours according to the fize. The great advantage of this ferment is, that it may be made in great quantities at a time, and kept for ufe. IV.iiglit it not on this account be ufeful on board of fhips, and likewife for armies when in the field ?'*
The Effects of Beneficence more extenfive than art, forefeen, or intended, illustrated in the Story of Dr.Clement.
[From the Philanthrope.]
"1VTR* Ede'1 of Wildrofc-halt i-VX had made his forturre in India. A very fliort tiin^before his return to England, having feen at Calcutta an amiableand beautiful young lady, the coufin and companion of lady Alwin, the wife of colonel Alwin; and never confidering her fmall or no dowry as any objection, he afked and received her hand. He regarded her beauty, amiable difpofitions, and elegant accomplifhments as fufficient devry; nor was he difappointed in his choice, for fhe was as deferving as fhe was fair. On his return to Britain,' he purchafed a fine houfe and extenfive parkin the weftern part of Effex; and having nothing, wherewithal to accufe himfelf during his refidence in the Eaft, and being therefore as eafy in mind as in ex- ternal circumftances, he flattered himfelf with the profpecr. of happinefs.
"One dark autumnal evening, foon after he had taken pofTefuon of his villa, while fitting in his parlour during a dreadful ftorm of rain, thunder, and lightning, a
poft-cliaifedroveuptohisdoor; and a fervant informed him, that an old gentleman wifhed for permiffion to pafs the night in his houfe. Fie learned too that the ffranger was juft come from the Continent; that he was on his way from Colchefter to London; that the driver, not well acquainted with the country, and confounded with the violence of the temped, had miftaken the lane that led to Wildrofe-hall for the road to Rumford; and that the gentleman was fo very ill, that he could not venture to go even as far as the neareft inn. It is needleft to fay that he was received with the kindeft welcome. For, befides that Mr. Eden's humanity would have fo inclined him; there was fomething particularly intetefting in'the gray hair, dignified coa« rage, open countenance, and dejected air of the ftranger. He remained fome days at the hall nil be fomewhat recovered, and in that time the prepofleffions of Eden ia his behalf grevr into ftroog attachment. "I have been indeed unfortn* 4 nate,' faid the old gentleman, giving fome account of bimfelf as foon as his ftrength permitted him; *~and I know not that my misfor4 tunes are at an end. I was hap
* pily eftabliflied in the early part 'of my life as a phyfician in the 4 North of England. By the death
* of a maternal uncle in the ifland 4 of Antigua, and whofe name I 4 was bv his will appointed to af4 fume, I fucceeded to a confidera4 ble fortune. It was neceflSiry,
* however, that I mould go thither 4 to receive the inveftiture and
* pofleflion of his property and 4 eftates. The veflel in which I 4 failed was feized by a Moorifh 4 pirate; was carried to Barbary; 4 and I was never heard of, I be4 lieve, by my friend'-; for the go4 vernor of Mogadore learning my 4 profeffion, fent ine immediately 4 to Fez, to render what affiftance 4 I could to the emperor of Mo4 rocco, who was at that time af
* flicked with a dangerous malady.
* I was willing, from every conlt'deration, to give him all the aid
* in my power; and hoped that if 4 I was fuccefsful, my freedom
* might be the price of my fervices. •But I was cruelly difappointed. 4 My fuccefs in reftoring the em
* peror to health, made him con4 ceive me fo neceflary to his wel'fare, that he would not fuffer me 4 to depart: fo that obfervii.g my
* impatience, he allowed .me to
* have no communication with anv 'perfon whatever, who could give 'notice of my lunation to any of
* the Britifh confuls. In all other
* refpeds I muft do him the juitice 'of acknowledging, that 1 was
* treated with the utm >ft kindnefs,
* and lived even in a (rate of bar
* barous luxury. After the empe
* ror's death, my fituation for fome 4 time underwent no change, for
'his fucceflbr considered me as no 4 lefs neceflary to nimfelf, than I 4 had been to his father. At 4 length, however, my melancholy 4 was growing into defpondency; 4 I had been eighteen years in a 4 ftate of captivity; my health was 4 vifibly impaired, and the young 'emperor with an humanity which 41 muft commend, confented to 4 my departure. Nor did he part 4 with me without exprefllons of 'frienddiip; and an ample com4 penfation, not for the bondage I 4 had endured, but for the fervices 'I had rendered him. I returned 'by Italy and Germany, on ac^4 count of the troubles in France; 4 and coming from Hamburgh to 4 Colchefter, I am not more af4 flicTred with fatigue ind weak4 nefs, than with anxiety to receive 4 intelligence of my family, which 4 confided, at the time I left them, 4 of a wife, and infant of three 'years old. If they furvive, I may 1 yet be happy: I left them in eafy 4 circumftances, and to the care of 4 an affe&ionate friend. But if 4 they furvive not!' he fighed, and his voice faltered, 4 if they furvive 4 not! would to heaven that I alfo 4 were dead! or had never re4 turned!'
44 Eden's fympathy, and defire of affording him relief, need not be doubted. He inquired by what addrefs he might procure him the important information he fo anxioufly wil!;ed lor. 4 Ih-ive already 'written,' faid he, 4 from Col4 cliefter, and have alfo written 4 from this place. I perfuade my4 felf that in the fpnce ot a day, or 4 iew hours, I fhall be certified of 4 my happinefs, or utter mifery. I 4 was Dr. Clement in the city of 4 Leeds.'—' Merciful heaven!' interrupted Eden. 4 Dr. Clement of 4 Leeds! nvy friend, my deliverer, ■ It 4 * and