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great. The female dress was a ker. ed with oatmeal, or fish, supplied chief or a hood, and a tippet about more folemn meals. Bread and ve. the neck: the kirtle, or close gown, getables were little used, a circumwas rarely accompanied either with stance to which it may perhaps be the wylicot or under petticoat, or imputed that the leprosy was not with the mantle; and the feet were uncommon. The chief fish was the naked.
salmon, concerning the capture of “ As the state of society was ra. which many regulations occur in ther paftoral than agricultural, milk, the acts of parliament, and which and its various preparations, formed also formed a grand article in the a chief article of food. Meat boil. Scotish exports."
An Account of the Means employed, to obtain an overflowing
WILL; in a Letter to the Right HONOURABLE SIR JOSEPX
[From the Second Part of the PhiLOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS of the
ROYAL SOCIETY of LONDON, for the Year 1797.)
« In beginning to link this well, DERMIT me, in compliance which has a diameter of four feet,
I with your request, to give the land springs were stopped out, you a short account of the well at in the usual maoner, and the well Norland House, belonging to Mr. was funk and steined to the bottom L, Vulliamy; a work of great la. When the workmen had got to the bour and expence, executed entire. depth of 236 feet, the water was ly under my direction, and finished judged not to be very far off, and it. in November, 1794. - was not thought safe to fink any
" Before I began the work, I deeper. A double thickness of sonlidered that it would be of infi. steining was made about 6 feet nite advantage, should a spring be from the bottom upwards, and a found strong enough to rise over the borer of 54 inches diameter was surface of the well; and though I made use of. A copper pipe of ihc, thought it very improbable, yet I fame diameter with the borer was, resolved to take from the beginning driven down the bore-hole to the the fame precautions in doing the depth of 24 feet, at which depth work, as if I had been assured that the borer pierced through the rock such a spring would be found. into the water; and by the manner But although this very laborious of its going through, it must proundertaking has succeeded beyond bably have broken into a stratum my expectation, yet from the know. containing water and fand. At the ledge I have acquired in the pro-, time the borer burst through, the gress of the work, I am of opinion top of the copper pipe was about that it will very seldom happen that three feet above the bottom of the the water will rise so.higli; nor will well: a mixture of sand and water people, I believe, in general, be so instantly rushed in through the a.. indefatigable as I have been in perture of the pipe. This happened, overcoming the various difficulties about two o'clock in the afternoon, that did and ever will occur, in and by twenty minutes past three bringing such a work to perfec. o'clock the water of the well stood,
within 17 feet of the surface. The.
water rose the first 124 feet in also be liable to be filled with fand eleven minutes, and the remaining in the same manner that this was. 119 feet in one hour and nine mi- The operation of digging was again nutes. The next day several bucknecesarily resorted to, and the laad ets of water were drawn out, so as was drawn up in buckets until about to lower the water four or five feet; 60 feet of it were drawn out, and and in a short time the water again consequently, there remained only rose within 17 feet of the surface. 36 feet of sand in the well : that A found-line was then let down being too light to keep the water into the well in order to try its down, in an instant it forced again depth. To our great surprise the into the well with the same violence well was not found by g6 feet so it had done before ; and the man deep as it had been measured be, who was at the bottom getting out fore the water was in it; and the the sand, was drawn up almost lufa lead brought up a sufficient quan- focated, having been covered all tity of sand to explain the reason of over by a mixture of sand and wathis difference, by fhewing that the ter. In a short time the water rose water had brought along with it 96 again within 17 feet of the surface, feet of land into the well. When and then ceased to rise, as before. ther the copper pipe remained full When the water had ceased riang, of sand or not, is not easy to be de. the founding-line was: again lat termined; but I lhould rather be in. down, and the well was found to clined to think it did not.
contain full as much fand as it did " After the well had continued the first time of the water's coming in the same state several days, the into it. water was drawn out so as to lower " Any further attempt towards it eight or ten feet; and it did not recovering the water appeared now rise again by about a foot so high as in vain; and most people would, I it had risen before. At some days believe, have abandoned the uninterval water was again drawn out, dertaking. I again congdered that so as to lower the water as before; the labour and the expence would which at each time of drawing rose be all loft by so doing; and I deless and less, until after some confi. termined without delay to fet about derable time it would rise no more; drawing the sand out through the and the water being then all drawn water, by means of an iron box out, the sand remained perfectly made for that purpose, without giv. dry and hard. , I now began to. ing it time to harden as before. think the water loft; and, conse. The labour attending on this opequently, that all the labour and ex. ration was very great, as it was nepence of finking this well, which ceffary continually to draw out the by this time were pretty considera- water for the purpose of keeping it ble, had been in vain. There re- constantly rising through the land, mained no alternative but to en. and thereby to prevent the sand deavour to recover it by getting out from hardening. What rendered the sand, or all that had been done this operation the more discourage would be useless; and although it ing was, that frequently after hay became a more difficult task than ing drawn out fix or seven feet of finking a new well might have been, fand in the course of the day, upon yet I determined to undertake it, founding the next morning the fand because I knew another well might was found lowered only one foot in
the well, so that more fand must cien: power to take off all the bave come in again.' This, how. water that the spring could furnish, ever, did not prevent me from pro. at 11 feet below the surface. The ceeding in the same manner during stage and cylinder were to contriva several days, though with little or ed as to prevent the pollibility of no appearance of any advantage any thing falling inio the well: arising from the great exertions we and I contrived a gaye, by which were making. After persevering, the men upon the stage could alhowever, for some considerable ways ascertain to the greatest extime, we perceived that the water actress the height of the water rofe a little nearer to the surface, within the cylinder. This precauand I began to entertain some hope tion was essentially necesi ry, in that it might perhaps rise high order to keep the water a toot ben enough to come above the level low the work which was doing on of the ground; but when the wa. the outside of the cylinder, to preter had risen a few feet higher in vent the new work from being the well, some difficulties occurred, wetted too soon. After every thing occasioned by accidental circum- was prepared, we were employed stances, which very much delayed eight days in taking down io feet the progress of the work; and it of the wall of the well, remedying remained for a considerable time the defects, and building it up a. very uncertain whether the water gain ; during which time ten men would run over the top of the well were employed, five relieving the or not.
other five, and ihe two pumps were “ These difficulties being at kept constantly at work during one length surmounted, we continued hundred and ninety-two hours. during several days the process be. By the assistance of the gage, the fore mentioned, of drawing out the water was never suffered to. rise fand and water alternately; and I upon the new work until it was had the fatisfaction of seeing the made fit to receive it. When the water rise higher and higher, until cylinder was taken out, the water at last it run over the top of the again run over into the temporary
well, into a temporary channel that channel that conveyed it into the · conveyed it into the road. I then road.
flattered myself that every difficul. " The top of the well was afterty was overcome; but a few days wards raised 18 inches, and conafterwards I discovered that the structed in such a manner as to be upper part of the well had not been able to convey the water five difproperly constructed, and it be- ferent ways at pleasure, with the came necessary to take down about power of being able to set any of 10 feet of brick.work. The water, these pipes dry at will, in order to which was now a continued stream, repair them whenever occalion rendered this extremely difficult to mould require. The water being execute. I began by constructing now entirely at command, I again a wooden cylinder 12 feet long, resolved upon taking out more which was let down into the well, sand, in order to try what addiand suspended to a strong wooden tional quantity of water could be ob. stage above, upon which I had fix. tained thereby. I cannot exactly ed two very large pumps, of suffi- ascertain the quantity of fand taken 1797.
out, but the increase of water ob- ture and art, is deserving your attained was very great; as instead tention, I feel myself much grati. of the well discharging thirty gals fied in the pleasure I have in giv. lons in a minute, the water was ing you this description of it; and Liow increased tu forty-fix gallons have the hunour of being with the in the same time.
greatest regard, “ If you think, fir, that the a
“ Sir, &c. bove account of an overflowing
: “ B. VULLIAMY." well, the joint production of na
ECONOMY of the VINEYARDS of the celebrated Tokay Wine.
(From Townson's Travels in HUNGARY, &c.]
THE vines when first planted 'that is, at the end of March, or at
1 are cut down at a knot, to the beginning of April. Time, se. within a span of the soil, and the vete winters, and spring frosts, superfluous young shoots are cut cause ravages in the vineyards: off every spring at the same place: to make good thefe deficiencies, by this means a head is formed, fresh vines must be raised. This is which increases yearly; sometimes done in different ways, by transthey are very large, but the best planting, and more commonly by fize is that of a child's head. When planting the cuttings of known the vines have repaid by their fruit good and sound vines; and this is the industrious labourer for his the next business to be performed. trouble, which is late in autumn, The cutting (the points of which the stumps are covered an inch or foon withering must be cut away) two thick with foil, and then each should be put knee-deep in the represents a mole-hill. Often, it foil, with a little dung, the other is said, the husbandman is seen fol- end to be only a span above ground, lowing his gatherers occupied in which Mould be covered up till it this work, lest early frost or snow is probable it has begun to foot, should prevent its being done; and the spring weather is no longer sometimes even the branches, if to be feared. Or they are railed designed for layers, are covered by lavers. Here the soil is dug out Some vine-dressers take out the from about the stump and roots sticks and lay them in bundles, till the hole is a foot and a half others leave them standing. As - deep; these then are trod to the soon as the winter is over, and the bottom of it, so that the branches, weather begins to grow mikler, where they are inserted in the which is about the middle of stump, are under ground, and the March, and often at the beginning, remaining part is laid down and the stumps are again uncovered, covered with the foil mixed with a and the soil about them turned up: little dung, so that their points this labour is followed by the drell. only reach a few inches above the ing, which is generally done as surface of the soil. To each of soon as the season will permit; these branches, which in time be