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great. The female drefs was a ker- ed with oatmeal, or fifh, fupplied

chief or a hood, and a tippet about more folemn meals. Bread and ve

the neck: thekirtle, orclofegown, jjetables were little ufed, a circum

was rarely accompanied either with fiance to which it may perhaps be

the tuylicot or under petticoat, or imputed that the leprofy was not

with the mantle; and'the feet were uncommon. The chief fifh was the

naked. falmon, concerning the capture of

44 As the ftate of fociety was ra- which many regulations occur in

ther paftoral than agricultural, milk, the alls of parliament, and which

and its various preparations, formed alfo formed a grand article in the

a chief article of food. Meat boil. Scotifh exports."



An Account of the Means employed to obtain an overflowing Will; in a Letter to the Right Honourable Sir Joseph Banks, Baronet, &c. from Mr. Benjamin VulmAmy.

[From the Second Part of the Philosophical Transactions of theRoyal Society of London, for the Year 1797O

"Sir, ** "pERMIT me, in compliance X with your requeft, to give

Sm a fhort account of the well at orland Houfe, belonging to Mr. L. Vulliamy; a work of great labour and expence, executed entirely under my direction, and finished in November, 1794.

"Before I began the work, I sonfidered that it would be of infinite advantage, fhould a fpring be found ftrong enough to rife over the furface of the well; and though I thought it very improbable, yet I refolved to take from the beginning the fame precautions in doing the work, as if I had been allured that fuch a fpring would be found. But although this very laborious undertaking has fucceeded beyond my expectation, yet from the knowledge I have acquired in the progress of the work, I am of opinion that it will very feldom happen that t he water will rife fo higli; nor will people, I believe, in general, be fo indefatigable as I have been in overcoming the various difficulties that did and ever will occur, in bringing fuch a work to perfecvao.

"In beginning to link this well, which has a diameter of four feet, the land fprings were (lopped out. in the ufual manner, and the well was funk and Itemed to the bottom,. When the workmen had got to the depth of 436 feet, the water was. judged not to be very far off, and it was not thought fate to fink any deeper. A double thicknefs o£. fteining was made about 6 feet from the bottom upwards, and a^ borer of 5J inches diameter was. made ufe of. A copper pipe of the fame diameter with the borer was. driven down the bore-hole to the depth of 24 feet, at'which depth, the boref pierced through the roek • into the water; and by the manner of its going through, it muft probably have broken into a ftratum containing water and fand. At the time the borer burft through, the top of the copper pipe was about three feet above the bottom of the well: a mixture of fand and water inftantly ruflied in through the apertureofthepipe. This happened, about two o'clock in the afternoon, and by twenty minutes pad three o'clock the water of the well flood, within 17 feet of the furface. The


water rofe the firft 124 feet in eleven minutes, and the remaining 119 feet in one hour and nine minutes. The next day feveral buckets of water were drawn out, fo as to lower the water four or five feet; and in a fhort time the water again rofe within 17 feet of the fuiface. A found-line was then let down into the well in order to try its depth. To our great furpriie the well was not found by 96 feet fo deep as it had been meafured before the water was in it; and the lead brought up a fuflicient quantity of fand to explain the reafon of this difference, by {hewing that the water had brought along with it 96 feet of fand into the well. Whether the copper pipe remained full of fand or not, is not eafy to be determined; but I fliould rather be inclined to think it did not.

"After the well had continued in the fame ftate feveral days, the water was drawn out fo as to lower it eight or ten feet; and it did not rife again by about a foot fo high as it had rifen before. At fome days interval water was again drawn out, fo as to lower the water as before; which at each time of drawing rofe lefs and lefs, until after fome confiderable time it would rife no more; and the water being then all drawn out, the fand remained perfectly dry and hard. . I now began to think the water loft; and, conicquently, that all the lab6ur and expence of finking this well, which by this time were pretty confiderable, had been in vain. There remained no alternative but to endeavour to recover it by getting out the fand, or all that had been done would be ufelefs; and although it became a more difficult tafk than finking a new well might have been, yet I determined to undertake it, becaufe I knew another well might

alfo be liable to, be filled with fand in the fame manner that this was. The operation of digging was again neceflurily reforted to, and the fand was drawn up in buckets until about 60 feet of it were drawn out, and confequently, there remained only 36 feet of fand in the well: that being too light to keep the water down, in an inftant it forced again into the well with the fame violence it had done before; and the man who was at the bottom" getting out the fand, was drawn up aimofl fuffocated, having been covered all • over by a mixture of fand and water. In a fhort time the water r«fe again within 17 feet of the furface, and then ceafed to rife, as before. When the water had ceafed ruing, the founding-line was again Wt down, and the well was found to contain full as much fand as it did the firft time of the water's coming into it.

"Any further attempt towards recovering the water appeared now in vain; and moft people would, I believe, have abandoned the undertaking. I again confidered that the labour and the expence would be all loft by fo doing; and I determined without delay to fet about drawing the fand out through lb* water, by means of an iron box made for that purpofe, without giving it time to harden as before. The labour attending on this operation was very great, as it was ne« cefTary continually to draw out the water for the purpofe of keeping it conftantly riling through the fand, and thereby to prevent the find from hardening. What rendered this operation the more difcouraging was, that frequently after having drawn out fix or feven feet of fand in the courfe of the day, upon founding the next morning the fand was found lowered only one foot in


the well, fo that more fand muft have come in again. This, however, did not prevent me from proceeding in the fame manner during feveral days, though with little or no appearance of any advantage arifing from the great exertions we were making. After perPeverinj>, however, for fome confiderable time, we perceived that the water rofe a little nearer to the furface, and I began to entertain fome hope that it might perhaps rife high enough to come above the level of the ground; but when the water had rifen a few feet higher in the well, fome difficulties occurred, occafioned by accidental circumftances, which very much delayed the progrefs of the work; and it remained for a confiderable time very uncertain whether the water would run over the top of the well or not. ,

"Thefe difficulties being at length furmcunted, we continued during feveral days the procefs before mentioned, of drawing out the fand and water alternately; and I had the fati^faftion of feeing the water rife higher and higher, until at laft it. run over the top of the well, into a temporary channel that conveyed it into the road. I then flattered myfelf that every difficulty was overcome; but a few days afterwards I difcovered that the upper part of the well had not been properly conftructed, and it became neceflary to take down about 10 feet of brick-work. The water, which was now a continued flream, rendered this extremely difficult to execute. I began by conftru&ing a wooden cylinder ia feet long, which was let down into the well, and fufpended to a ftrong wooden ftage above, upon which I had fixad two very large pumps, pf fulfi*797

cient power to take off all the water that the fpring could furnifli, at Ii feet below the furface. The ftage and cylinder were fo contrived as to prevent the polfi lility of any thing falling into the well: and I contrived a gajje, by which the men upon the ftage could always afcertain to the greateft exaftnefs the height of the water within the cylinder. This precaution was efll-ntially necelfry, ia order to keep the water a toot below the work which was doing on the outfide of the cylinder, to prevent the new work from being wetted too foon. After every thing was prepared, we were employed eight days in taking down 10 feet of the wall of the well, remedying the defects, and building it up again; during which time ten men were employed, five relieving the other five, and the two pumps were kept conltatitly at work during one hundred and ninety-two hours. By the affiftance of the gage, the water was never fuffered to. rife upon the new work until it was made fit to receive it. When the cylinder was taken out, the water again run over into the temporary channel that conveyed it into the road.

"The top of the well was afterwards raifed 18 inches, and conftructed in fuch a manner as to be able to convey the water five different ways at pleafure, with the power of being- able to fet any of thefe pipes dry at will, in order to repair them whenever occalion fliould require. The water being now entirely at command, i again refolved upon taking out more fand, in order to try what additional quantity of water could be obtained thereby. I cannot exactly afcertain the quantity of fand taken L out. out, but the increafe of water obtained was very great; as inftead of the well difcharging thirty gallons in a minute, the water was liow jncreafed to forty-fix gallons in the fame time.

"If you think, fir, that the above account of an overflowing well, the joint production of na

ture and art, is deferving your attention, I feel myTelf much gratified in the pleafure 1 have in giving you this defcription of it; and have the honour of being with the greateft regard,

"Sir, Sec.

"B. Vulliaxt."

Economy of the Vineyards of the celebrated Tokay Win*. [From Townson's Travels in Hungary, &c]

*' ' | "HE vines when firft planted ■*■ are cut down at a knot, to within a fpan of the foil, and the fuperfluous young fhoots are cut off every fpnng at the fame place: by this means a head is formed, which increafes yearly; fometimes they are very large, but the beft fize is that of a child's head. V&btn the vines have repaid by their fruit the induftrious labourer for his trouble, which is late in autumn, the (rumps are covered an inch or two thick with foil, and then each represents a mole-hill. Often, it is faid, the hufbandman is feen following his gatherers occupied in this work, left early froft or fnow fhould prevent its being done; fometimes even the branches, if defigned for layers, are covered. Some vine-dreflers take out the flicks and lay them in bundles, others leave them Handing. As Icon as the winter is over, and the weather begins to grow milder, which is about the middle of March, and often at the beginning, the flumps are again uncovered, and the foil about them turned up: this labour is followed by the (irefTing, which is generally done as foon as the leafon will permit;

'that is, at the end of March, or at the beginning of April. Time, fevere winters, and fpring frofts, caufe ravages in the vineyards: to make good thefe deficiencies, frefh vines muft be raifed. This is done in different ways, by tranfplanting, and more Commonly by planting the cuttings of. known good and found vines; and this is the next bufinefs to be performed. The cutting (the points of which foon withering muft be cut away) (hould be put knee-deep in th; foil, with" a little dung, the othfr end to be only a fpan above ground, which (hould be covered up till it is probable it has begun to fhoot, and the fpring weather is no lender to be feared. Or they are raiW by layers. Here the fgil is dugou: from about the ftump and roois till the hole is a foot and a naif deep; thefe then are trod to the bottom of it, fo that the branches, where they are inferted in the flump, are under ground, and the remaining part is laid down. and covered with the foil mixed with a little dung, fo that their points only reach a few inches above the furface of the foil. To each of thefe branches, which ia time become

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