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must however be granted by all, domestic morals, or diffuse the light that each has its Thare in exciting of instruction over a benighted naor depressing mental energy, in tion. These are the sacred proestablishing general industry or in-. vinces of education, a cause of na. dolence, in promoting public hap- tional character more prevalent than piness or misery. But of these either of the former, as it strikes grand causes education seems de- the very root of offence, and sows servedly to claim the pre-eminence. lasting seeds of intelligence and To deny the power of climate, worth. would be to forget that man is “But education, on the extensive • subject to the skyey influences;' scale here implied, remains an exyet his industry, or care, may gene- periment even to the most civilized rally overcome or elude its effects: nations; and its effects must nei. and soil is almost equally subservient ther be regarded as speedy, nor in. to labour. Government exerts a finite. Even infants display, some more pervading influence; even the a perverse, others a placid disposi. peasant in his cottage is oppreiled tion: and it is doubtful whether by the burning heat of despotism, any care or art can eradicate, or or the blasting storms of anarchy. subdue, the inborn temper. If the

The rewards of bis labour cease bad habits of an individual prove a mid the general distress: the ca- often unconquerable by reason or price of some little tyrant, for flaves virtue, how deeply muft such haare ever tyrants where they can, or bits be rooted in a whole people, the revenge of a foe, may affail his where example operates like a conhovel; and while his family perishes tagion? in penury, the labourer joins the “ Hence it is that the spirit, and mountain robbers, and falls the manners, of the people ought to victim of those laws which afford- present the main object of political ed him no protection. Even mo- discussion on any particular state, derate governments affect domestic and the more especially where go. life, and individuals, more than is vernment and education have little commonly conceived; a war, a tax, force, In whatever form of admi. an unwise law becomes an univer- nistration, only a part can shine sal misfortune; while the benigni. upon the public theatre, and thus ty and skill of the rulers enlarge attract the notice of history. The the happiness of all. The influence, mass of the nation remains in obe , like that of the eleetric element, is fcurity, even in enlightened ages; rarely unveiled to the popular eye, and philofophy, can only estimate though the fubtile fluid operate its history by that of its mangers, most widely on the public health.. for which the best materials are to

“ In the oriental legislations the be found not in the pages of the connexion between laws and man. annalist, but in poems, novels, and ners is often indiffoluble : and the romances. Barren however as are laws become perpetual, by being the annals of the poor, their state grafted on the habits of that crea- may always be juftly estimated by ture of habit, mau. In Europe, on that of the actors, who vaunt the contrary, the laws and manners and vanish in the historic scene; are proverbially distinct. Jurisdic. and from the progress of nations, tion punishes crimes, but rewards as favage, barbarous, or civilized. not virtues: far less can it improve. The monkilla page presents but a

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small pulse, yet from it the health, Molto è el paese alpeftro c peregrino, or fickness, of the whole body may E ha la gente ruvida e selvatica. be gathered with considerable cer.

• Mountainous and ftrange is the coun. tainty.

try, “ In Scotland, at the period now. And the people rough and favage." under review, the people were Nowly advancing from barbarism " The long and severe ordinartowards civilization. A peace of ces of Robert II. against murderers, fome duration had taken place be- and their receivers and supporters, fore the acceffion of the house of afford a proof that this charge was Stuart ; and the confequent inter. not unfounded. And the orders to course with England, a country then the army, not to pillage their own rapidly progressive in the arts of countrymen, present another inlife, must have increased the na- stance of barbaric manners. The cional energy. Yet the feudal fet. Ketherani, Kernes, or marauding

ters continued to be firmly rivet- higblanders, by continual inroads • ted: every man was the soldier, or into the low countries greatly ob

the menial attendant of his chief; structed the progress of iodustry and and flocks, herds, agriculture afford- civilization, and this inteftine evil, ed only fubfervient occupations, more pernicious than foreign inva. While the single science of the sion, continued to a late period. great was war, their sole amuse Strangers to that industry which exment hunting, their chief magnifi- cites the Swiss peasant to cultivate cence a numerous train, it is no the precipice, and the Norwegian wonder that the poor were ferocious to derive that support from the sea and idle, secure during health of a which the land refuses, the highmaintenance from their lords,and in landers supplied their wants by ra. fickness of monaftic charity. Cou. pine: and the civil animosity was rage, honesty, frankness, attach- increased by the difference of oriment to their chiefs, constituted the gin, language and manners, so that chief virtues of the peasantry; tem- the difficulties with which the go.. perance, and fobriety, were the vire vernment had to struggle, and the tues of the soil : fpirituous liquors, obstacles against order, were perthat bane of the poor, were as yet haps greater in Scotland than in unknown in Europe, except among any other European kingdom. The the stores of the physician. Nor had example of Henry II. of England, religious fanaticism, that uninter. who planted a Flemish colony in mitting intoxication, yet poisoned Wales, escaped the observation, or the popular mind with habitual exceeded the power, of our mogloom : the poor chiefly knew the narchs : and the complete transpofichristian religion from its charity, tion of the population of a province, from the public exhortations of the though an expedient far from anpreaching friars, and from the gay koown to the Persians, Greeks, and exhibitions of the Roman catholic Romans, appears to surpass the fyftem.

wisdom, or the enterprize, of any * By more polished foreigners later government. Scotland continved to be regarded " Though the peasantry were in as a country completely barbarous. fact the Naves of their lords, by The author of the Dittamundi al- meniał or by feudal bondage, yet lows that it is rich in fill, flesh, and few instances occur of absolute vil. milk, but,

lanage ; and it is believed no exam.

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ple appears in our records, of an meanest articles of manufacture, eftate fold with the farmers, labour. horse-lhoes, harness, saddles, briers, and families attached to the dles, were all imported ready made foil. The appellation husband, give from Flanders. The houses of the en to the Scotish farmers, seems in common people were composed of deed to imply that they were confi. four or five posts to support the turf dered as bond llaves of their lord's walls, and a roof of boughs; three house, or as fixed to their own par days sunced to ere&t the humble ticular farm houses; yet what little manfion. A contemporary histo. evidence remains teaches us to con- rian adds, that the country was Gider them rather as flaces in cus. rather defert than inhabited, was tom, than in law. The busband lands, almost wholly mountainous, and or farms, were divided into tillage more abundant in savages than in and pasturage, were always small, cattle.' and the farmers of course poor. “The English education of James The cotter who rears his hovel of I. contributed to the civilization of turf and straw, under an old thorn, his kingdom. Yet even in his reign and cultivates three or four acres of the picture by Enea Silvio, after. the common, would in these ages wards pope Pius II. is far from flat. have been styled a farmer. Large tering. • Concerning Scotland he farms undoubtedly advance agri. found these things worthy of repeculture; and perhaps the numerous tition. It is an inand joined to la bourers employed are as useful England, stretching two hundred and valuable members of society, as miles to the north, and about fifty if each farmed a small portion of broad; a cold country, fertile of land.

few sorts of grain, and generally “With the accession of the house void of trees, but there is a ful. of Stuart, a stronger light begins to phureous stone dug up which is arise on the internal state of Scots used for firing. The towns are unland. Barber wrote his celebrated walled, the houses commonly built poem in 1375; and in parrating the without lime, and in villages roofed. actions of Robert I, he presents inawith turf, while a cow's hide sup, ny pictures of the times and man- plies the place of a door. The compers, the lapse of half a century be- monalty are poor and uneducated. ing imperceptible in the flow pro- have abundance of flesh and fish, gress of civilization. But the curi. but eat bread as a dainty. The ofity of Froissart a stranger has pre.. men are small in ftature, but bold; served the strongest features; and the women fair and comely, and bis visit to Scotland forms an epoch prone to the pleasures of love; kiffin the history of national manners. es being there esteemed of less conFrom his account it appears that the sequence than pressing the hand is French, themselves regarded by the in Italy. The wine is all imported; Italians as barbarians, fhuddered the horses are mostly small ambling at the penury and barbarity of Scot. nags, only a few being preserved land. Even in the Doulce Escoche entire for propagation, and neither or low lands, (for the highlanders of curry-combs nor reins are used. la Sauvage Escoche were considered The oysters are larger than in Eng, as we now do American savages,) land. From Scotland are imported a remarkable ignorance prevailed into Flanders nides, wool, salt fills, of the commoneft arts of life. The and pearls. Nothing gives the

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Scots more pleasure than to hear the whom the jurifdi&tion lay, either English difpraised. The country is did not attend, or voted with a divided into two parts, the cultivat- smile. And the frequent repetition ed low.lands, and the region where of the same laws, even so late as the agriculture is not used. The wild reigns of James IV. and V. con. Scots have a different language, and spires with the records of history to fonetimes eat the bark of trees. convince us, that the statutes rather There are no wolves. Crows are indicate the evils that did exift, than new inhabitants, and therefore the the remedy of these evils. The tree in which they build becomes roots of national habits are too royal property. At the winter solo deep to be affected by the thunder of stice, when the author was there, laws, the flow devullion of educa. the day did not exceed four hours.' tion can alone explode them, In another place, Silvio observes “Among the statutes of the first that the fabulous tale of the barva. James, the following are the most cles, the invention of dreaming pertinent to the prefent discussion. monks, had passed from Scotland That no private wars be allowed; to the Orkneys: and that coals that none travel with more atten. were given to the poor at the dants than they maintain ; that no church doors by way of alms, the fornars shall force their refidence country being denuded of wood. upon the clergy or farmers; that in

« The vigorous administration birghs, and on high ways, inns of James I. imparted tranquillity be ereded; and that no beggars and happiness to the people; and be permitted, except distinguished was often regretted by them during by a badge importing the leave of the distractions of the subsequent the magitrates : and the hospitals reigns. Till this period the fta. for the poor and fick are ordered to tutes were concealed from the na- be reformed. A remarkable law tion in the darkness of the Latin ordains, that all idle persons, withlanguage; the good sense of this out means of livelihood, shall be immonarch ordered them to be issued prisoned, till they give security, and in the Scotish tongue, while in Eng- shall within forty days betake themland the laws were to be dictated in felves to fome service or craft. The Latin and French till the reign of trial of the causes of the poor is de Richard II. Thus religion, and clared to be gratuitous. law, the sole rules of popular con “The institution of inns, repeat. duet, were veiled from the people; edly enforced, was perhaps calcu. but there is no absurdity which may lated to save the monafteries from has not reduced to pra&tice. The the frequent intrusion of numerous Atatutes of James are wisely ordain. guests; but the necefsity of such ed to advance civilization, and the Jaws indicates a radical defe&t in ci. fanguine theorist may exult in their vilization. The first object of the effects; but they rather proclaim Romans, after the conquest of a the intelligence of the monarch, barbaric country, was to open high and of his ecclefiaftic ministers, ways through it; for on mutual and than the national advancement. easy intercourse all civilization de Ordinances prepared in the cabinet pends. Yet this first and indispenby wife and good onen, were passed sable step is unknown in our statutes. by the lords of the articles; while Some regulations appear concern. the peers and landholders, with ing ferries; but till within these

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fifty years the roads in Scotland them, except to prevent imposition. were hardly passable. And while They would have charged for holithe Swiss cuts his way through the days, and undertaken more work Alps, our mole-hills in the high- than they could accomplish, while lands present insuperable barriers. one craftsman would refuse the work

The civilization of a country is als neglected by another. The sole in. ways. in exact proportion to the tention of these acts seems to have number, and condition, of its high been to break the monopoly, ways. The omission of this one " James I. has himself delineated law was radical, and obstructed all the manners of the common peo the others.

ple, in his poem called Pebles co the "In the burghs a greater de- Play. This play was probably ani gree of civilization must have pre- annual festival, in honour of the vailed than in the country; but the faint to whom the church was deinhabitants of the burghs were few, dicated, or on some other occasion; compared with the general popula- and such wakes are yet known in tion. Froissart estimates the houses the north of England. The humour in Edinburgh, then the capital, at and jollity of the meeting end in tufour thousand; they were small mult and uproar, but display a very wooden cottages, covered with different character to the gloomy faItraw; for modern Edinburgh, with nacicism of the two succeeding cenits houses of ten or twelve stories, turies. From this fingular poem, acannot date higher than Mary's mong other articles of manners, we reign, when all the French customs learn that the women wore kerof Scotland really commenced. By chiefs and hoods, and tippets; the a common calculation the inhabi. music arose from the bagpipe; the tants of the capital, in the reign of men sometimes wore hats of birchRobert II. hardly exceeded fixteen twigs interwoven, the hat being any thousand.

high covering of the head, while the ." For some unknown cause, bonnet was flat. A tavern, with James L. prohibited the election of fair table linen, and a regular score deacons of crafts; perhaps they ab- on the wall, are introduced: the used their power in exciting sedi- reckoning, twopence halfpenny a. tion; perhaps the genuine fpirit piece, is collected in a wooden of a corporation began to operate in trencher. The cadger, or packman monopoly, and oppression. But a who carries fith, &c. through the warden and council are ordered to country, on his little horse; the sal. regulate prices, the warden to be mon dance, consisting in exertions chosen by the council of the burgh, ' of high leaping; and other anec. and not, as the deacons, by the dotes of popular manners, diversify craftsmen themselves. Masons, car- the piece. penters, smiths, taylors, weavers, are “The dress of the common peothe only trades mentioned in the sta- ple consisted chiefy of a doublet tute. The institution of corpora- and cloke, and a kind of short tions by patent seems unknown in trowse; the head was covered with Scotland, till the reign of James IV. a hat of basket-work, or felt, or the crafts embodied and regulated with a woollen bonnet; while the themselves; and the attention of go- legs and feet remained bare, Shirts verrument was hardly diverted to were hardly known even to the

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