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Troy, becaufe no veftiges were discoverable when Alexander founded the fecond city, whilft they admit the latter fact equally unauthorifed by prefcnr appearances.
"From this fpot we had a mod interefting profpett independent of it* local hiftory; the magic of which, and its effects on the mind, arc beautifully defcribed by l.ucan. The left fkreen is a low ridge of hills; the middle diftance is the great area, upon which the Greeks were encamped; beyond was the fceue of many of the great events of the war; and the <>fl>kip and (kilting line were compofed of the promontory of Tenedos, Befhiktepc, Sigetim, the village of Koum-kalch, down to tbe water edge, and a broad winding reach of the Hellel'ponr, into which the oppofite headland and caftle were brought forward with confiderable effect. The fea then fpreads very widely, and the view is clofed by the blue mountains of Imbros. The length and extent of this ifland have been extremely miftaken, as fcarcely a map is extant which defcribes it above half its real rize. We rode about half an hour over heathy ground, much elevated, to Halyleli, near the viltege of Thimbrik-keuy, and at the tnftant of our palling a Turkifli wedding was celebrating among the villagers; the bufinefs is fummary. The parents of both parties, or the bridegroom for himfelf, fettle the contract, which implies what dower he mail give the bride. This arrangement made, the * bridegroom afiembles his friends; they mount horfes, and are accompanied by mufic, fuch as a very rude hautboy, or pipe, and a drum, can make. The bride is demanded, and has likewife a cavalcade of her female relatives, when they return home animated with the fame mu
fic. They feaft feparately on pilar, and retire at an early hour, when the ceremony is concluded.
•• The fucceffion of five tumuli, under the diftant horizon, tends more than any other proof to afcertain the Trojan war. About M hour and a half from Bourna-baflii, on an eafy eminence facing the weft, we difcovered vefligesof an ancient city. On the right are ftanding feven granite pillars fcveral feet high, but it rather appears that they are not placed in their original order. On the other fiide, we faw a fmall block of marble with an infeription, a few inches above the ground, which being dug up, we found to be of the date of the Roman emperors, and too much mutilated to be decyphered fntisfactorily.
"From the detail of topographical notices given by Homer, and from a companion of the circumfiances he mentions, the ftrongelt aflurances will follow not only of the exigence, but the locality of Troy. To infift that the poem fliould be hiftorically exact, would be to make no allowance for the liberty of a poet. That it is topographically fo, an examination of the prefentface of the country will amply prove, and it 16 equally an object of claffical curiofity, whether Troy exifted or not, fince the fable, if fuch it muff be, is invariably accommodated to the fceneof action. "With refpectful deference to a name fo long efteemed in the republic of letters as that of Mr. Bryant, I humbly but totally diiTenttroin his fcepticifm on this fubjefl. For it is not to the taftelefs fyftemof Le Boflu in his Effay on the Epic, who has preceded Mr. Bryant in a fimilar hypothefis, that the opinioa of many ages, and the fetisfactiooof ocular' inflection, can be readily conceded. To eitablifli a conv'uHwB on the mind, that the tale of Troy divine, is a mere invention, may require yet more than the moil laborious learning can leiid to conjecture, and could it avail, we mi^ht lofe""iu the pleafures of the imagination, as much as we could gain by truth, could his arguments eftablilh it, and lament with the enthufiaft in Horace,
• —demptus per vim mentis gratiffimus error.'
*• As the fetting fun was more brilliant than for many days paft, the village of Bounar-balhi opened upon us very pleafantly from the ford of the Simoeis, which we paired within a furlong of the chiftlik of Hadji Mehmct Aghi, the prefent proprietor of a domain producing near cooal. fterling per annum, and including little lefs fpace, and the identical ground of the kingdom of old Priam. His houle is mean, but many columns were difperfed about it, which had been collected from the fites of adjacent cities.
"From the village the Irill rifes rapidly, and foon becomes an iniulated mountain. In the trout of the houfe, at a fmall diftance, is the firft: fource of the Scamander, which is faid, by M. Chevalitr, to be the hot fpring, tipo > which he grounds the ftrongeft proof of his hypotheCs refpefting the locality of the city of Troy. It is at leaft tepid ; and the agha told us that in the winter months, efpecially during froft, it was hot, and fuioked. Homer muft be allowed the privilege of a hot fpring, and a river full to the brink, if they happen once within the year. The lofty wall of Troy and the Scaean gate interfe&ed the modern village of Bourna-baflii. * «• Afcending the hill, thickly ftrewn with loofe flones for the
fpace of a mile, the firft object on the brow is a ftony hi i lock, which Chevalitr, with no apparent reaion, calls the tomb of Hector. It has been opened and examined, but we could not learn the refult.
"There are others covered with grafs, appropriated likewifetoTiojan heroes. Upon this area and the intermediate ground from the village there is undoubtedly fpace enough for fnch a city as Troy is deienbed to have been. The level falls abruptly on the fouth, with a precipitate cliff, into a very deep ravine, forming a mural rock as compact and regular as the remaining walls of Constantinople, now almolt covered at its bafe by the dream and' fands of the Simoeis, for the length of forty or fifty yards, and completing a fortification, rendered impregnable by nature, which will account for a ten years' fiege,and the fuperlative epithet of walls conftructed by the gods themfelves. Mr. Wood dilcovered no place, amongft Ida correfpondent to that defenption; and Mr. Bryant would feek for it (did he purpofe an aftual inspection) only in his favourite F.gypt. Thif divifion of rifted rock from the groupe of foreft mountains, of which Ida is compofed on the cut and north fides, does not exceed a hun* dred and fifty yards, and is fcarcoly farther afunder at the top, finking as perpendicularly as an artificial channel. The face of the ground exhibits nothing worthy remark; bullies and huge unhewn (tones only are to be feen. The whole view of the plain of Troy, from the height faid to have been the citadel, is of uninterruptedextent, with the winding Simoeis, and the grand horizontal line marked by JejekTepee and the Sigean promontory, and turning to the left, by the two in the itland ofTenedos. We then returned to the chiftlik, and bade adieu to the if 3 iiofpi.
hofpitableaghi, who poflefled, in a great tfegfce, that trait of a true mufulman, urbanity to Grangers.
'• Forfcveral hours we traced with the utmoft attention the courfe of the Scamanderfrom the cold or fecond fourcc, which is a collection of fmali fprings, through the morafs, where for feme miles it is pofitively hid, till we reached the new canal, and law plainly the ancient bed. The banks of this river, where expofed, are verdant and beautiful, and watered to the brink. M. Chevalier's topography and general idea, after a fair investigation, we acknowledged to be ingenious and plaulible.
"We then fixed ourfelves at Giawr-keuy, or cape Janiflary, a poor village confiding entirely of Greeks, the fire of the Tar-famed Sigacum, which has likewife the name of Yeiu-cheyr. It is fingular that Greeks Aiould ftill occupy that ancient nation.
"From this eminence we looked over the plain, the wftole fcope of which we commanded ; its broadeft diameter may be five or fix, and its longeft twelve miles, to Atchc-kcuy. It is naturally verdant and fertile, and now very generally cultivated, excepting near the niarfti, which occupies a fifth part. Homer gives frequent evidence of his having perfonally vifited and examined this celebrated fpot, of which he fometimes enters into minute defcriptions. The rivers are particularly chara&erifed. Simoeis has broad fands, with a fudden and rapid current ; Scamander is tranfparent, and regularly full,within a narrow channel, and fo they continue to be till their junction, before they reach the fea. Whatever change the former may have qccafioned in the prefent appearance of the plain, the analogy taken from thofeof Ephcfus and
Miletus, upon which Mr.Wood ha refted his opinion that Troy was fttuated fo much higher amongftthe hills of Ida, teems to be ill founded; for the Simoeis has, at no feaion, either the fizc or dcclenfion from its fource that the Cayfter and Meander are known to have. The foil exhibits no marks of volcanic fire, nor can it be reasonably prefumed, from any prefentappearance, that the face of the country could have beea changed by an earthquake, upon which circumftar.ee as prefuppofed another hypotliefis is built. Of all the proofs adduced by M.Chevalier, the tumuli, fo connected with the Rha:tean and Sigean promontories, and die outpous of the Grecian camp, are the moll fatisfacJory. The lite is likewife confirmed by four others, which, to whatever heroes they may be conjecTurally attributed, with no additional weight to the argument, give a certain degree of internal evidence, and afcertain the fecne of.great military tranfao tions, or vicinity to a large city. la thofe rude and primaeval age*, heroes had no other monuments, nor could any more lafting have been devifed.
'Aggeritur tumulo tellus."
Virg. JF,a. 1. iii. v. 62, S3.
"We found the bas relief, and the celebrated Sigean infeription, written with the letters invented by Cadmus, and the lines written alternately backward and forward, a mode of the highell antiquity, and ufed likewife for theXiws of Solon, according to Suidas. M. Choifeul's attempt to remove it fancYioned by firhmans, and the inlereft of Haisin Pafha, could not prevail againrtthe ancient prejudices of the villagers. Itis accurately defcri bed by Cbifliulj Shuckford, and Chandler, and i»
■ow placed at the door of a low
4 that towards the centre of the
• monument two large ftones were
• found leaning at an angle one a
• gainft the other, and forming a
• kind of tent, under which was pre1 fently difcovered a fmall flatue of
• Minerva feated in a chariot with 'four horfes, and an urn of metal 'filled with allies, charcoal, and hu
• man bones. This urn, now in the
• pofleffion of le compte Choifeul, is 'encircled in fctrlpture with a vine 'branch, from which are fufpended
• bunches of grapes, done with ex
• qui lite art.' Two pages of learned commentary fucceed this aflertion, which introduces a curious hypothefis refpeeting early Grecian fculpture-.
"From information gained from the only perfon prefent at the open* ing of the barrow, whofe fimple detail the favour of a friend enables me to fubjoin *, it is probable that nothing was found which could
* EXTRACT OF A LETTER FROM THE DARDANELLES.
'I had a very interefting converfation with the fon of the late French conful, Sig. '. Solomon Ghormczano, relative to the opening of the tomb of Achilles, near the Sigeuo 'promontory. He faid that he had been employed by count Choifeul Gouffier to exa'mine the tumulus and to fearch for remains, and that he worked at it by night, deceiv
* ing the agha and people with the hopes of difcoveiing a fpring of water, fo neceffary
* to the inhabitants of Yeni-cheyr. Two months elapfed ia this work, as no other 'perfon fuperintended. He frequently wifhed to decline it in defpair, but was directed
* to perfevere. At length he difcovered the place where the reliques were depofited. 'He immediately collected the whole, and communicated his fuccefs to his employer,
* filling a'-large ojteftwith what he had found. Mr. Choifeul enjoined him to bring
* them to him, and nol to tiuft them out of his fight; but he repaid his trouble with
■ thanks only. He was induced to referve feveral fmall fpecimeus, which he obfig'ingly fhewed and explained to us, as Mr. Choifeul was no longer formidable.
'I fubjpin a lift of them.
* J. Pieces of bumed bones. 1. Pieces of a metal vafe. I inquired particularly ',Concerning the vafe, and in what ftate it was oiiginally found. He replied, that it 'was broken, and had had a fmall ornament only, round the rim; but that enough
* remained to determine the fhape, and that it was of confiderable lizc. What 1 faw was
* fo entirelydeftroyed with ruft, that no poflible conjecture could be formed from it. j.
* Charcoal, made of vine branches. 4. A piece of mortar and (tone, which appeared 'to have paffed through fire. 5. A piece of metal of a triangular fhape. 6. I'ieccs of 'very fine pottery, well painted, with wreaths of flowers of a dark olive colour. II*
* obferved that fome of the pieces of pottery feemed to have compofed large vafes, be« fide wnich were feveral fmall cups, fome of which were entire, and refembled Eirut'can ware. It might have been a funeral ceremony to have emptied thefe to the me
■ mory of the deccafed, and then to have placed them in the tomb,
* He delivered likewise to Mr. Choifeul a fragment of Lrafs about * foot and a half
juftify fuch an account. Extreme 'horfes' feem to prove that the age, and the prcffiireof the ground, Troad continues to be the land of had crumbled into atoms of ruft all invention. If I'ococke's opinion be the metallic fubftances. The urn, juft, that Befllic tepee, ou the Sior vafe, M. Fauval, an ingenious ar- gean ridge, on account of being tiff now ufiding at Athens, rtceiv- more conipicuous at fea, was the ed from M. Choifeul in its decayed true fepulchre of Achilles and Pairate, and made a model from it, troclus, and the two on the: thore which has been exhibited to feveral thofe of Antilochus and another beconnoifl'eurs, as much to their fur- ro,Chev..lier's account is deftripuon prife as fatisfaction; and * the god- inftead of truth." * defs with her chariot and four
State of the People and of Civilization in Scotland, at the latter End of the 14th, and at the Beginning of the 15th Ckntor Y.
[From the Firft Volume of PmicEKToN's History of Scotlasd, under the House of Stuast.]
"TTTTHETHER education, cli- rafter, is an important problem,
VV mate, or government, pro- difcuffed by many able writers, but
duce mod effect on national cha- hitherto not fufficiently refolved. It
* long, and in th% middle, being the thickeft part, about the circumference of 1 quart
* bottle, and weighing feven or eight pounds. It was, at firft, called the hilt of 1 'fword, but afterward Mr. Choifeul declared it to be the flame of a man with a boa 'under each foot.
'7. A fmall piece of a tranfparent fubftance, belonging, as he faid, to a kind of tub* 'worked and clofed at one end. It may not be eafy to conjecture for what ufc this was « intended. From his defeription of it, I collect., that it was about a foot long and
* two inches in diameter, ornamented with branches in eluded or emboflcd work, aodof « fo tranfparent a nature, that objects might be clearly feen through it. It had receiv
* ed but (light injury, having only a fmall fiaflure at the upper end.
'He then acquainted us with the different ft rata of earth he had dug through in 'opening the tomb. On the oulf.de was a kind of fea (and, the fame as that near it; «then yellowifh foil, folid but light; coloured earths, black and yellow,each Rranrm « being two feet deep, with large ftoncs. On the foundation of the barrow appaready
* was a large flab, extending, as he fuppofed, over the whole, as whetever he dug be
* flill found it. In the middle was a hole twelve feet fquare, around which was ra. :c! 1
< wall three feet high, which was the fepulchre containing the reliques. Bv the weieat
< of the earth all was prefTed together, which accounts for the confufi ii and broken iUte
< in which the things were difcoveied. On the outfide of this ftone was ftrcwed a quan« tityof lime, and then of charcoal, fuppofed to be the afhes of the funcra! p;'.c.
< When the barrows were clofed up, count Choifeul placed a fheet of lead on the bot'torn inferibed "Ouvragefait par leCompte de Choifeul Gouftier Tan 1787"!!! Mr. « Chevalier's ignorance of modern Greek led him into a curious miftake. The two coa'tiguous barrows are called ' dtheo tepe,' the two tombs. Mr. Chevalier hearing tha
* name from the villagers, immediately conjectures away with his 'Atat rem,' ani «puzzles himfelf with mythology.